Governorate of Chiloé

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Gobernación de Chiloé
1600s–1784
1789–1826
Flag of Chiloé
Status Spanish colony
Capital Castro (until 1768)
Ancud (from 1768)
Common languages Spanish, Mapudungun
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Monarchy
King  
• 1598–1621
Philip III
• 1813–1826
Ferdinand VII
Royal Governor  
• 1600s–?
Tomás de Olavarría
• 1820–1826
Antonio de Quintanilla
Historical era Spanish Empire
• Established
1600s
1826
Currency Peso
Real de alerce
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Corregimiento of Chiloé
Conservative Republic

The Governorate of Chiloé was political and military subdivision of the Spanish Empire that existed, with a 1784–1789 interregnum, from the 1600s to 1826. The Governorate of Chiloé depended on the Captaincy General of Chile until the late 18th century when it was made depend directly on the Viceroyalty of Peru. The administrative change was done simultaneously as the capital of the archipelago was moved from Castro to Ancud in 1768. The last Royal Governor of Chiloé, Antonio de Quintanilla, depended directly on the central government in Madrid.[1]

Extent[edit]

The Governorate of Chiloé had its de jure northern limit a Bueno River in continental Chile. There the governorate limited with the territories of Valdivia. The area de facto controlled included the Chiloé Archipelago, the seashore forts and settlements north of Chacao Channel plus the Mission of Nahuel Huapi which was nevertheless financed from Valdivia.[1][2] Historian Gabriel Guarda do however disagree claiming the Mission of Nahuel Huapi was within the jurisdiction of Valdivia.[2] The so-called juncos of Osorno (Huilliches) attempted in the late 18th century to have their lands, that lied just south of Bueno River, to be removed from the Governorate of Chiloé and incorporated to Valdivia. The reason of this was their bad relation and history of warfare with the settlements of around Chacao Channel.[1]

Royal governors[edit]

All 17th century Royal Governors were named by the Royal Governor of Chile. In the 18th century this system changed and while still named by the Royal Governor of Chile the position were to be ratified by the King of Spain. Later in the 18th century the Viceroy of Peru took over the duties of naming governors but still with the need of ratification by the King of Spain.[1] Formally the office was granted based on merits during all of the 17th century. However, in the early 18th century "pecuniary service" begun also to be considered, which meant in practice that the office could be purchased. This practice was abolished in 1750.[1] The office of Governor of Chiloé was commonly used to booster a carrier and then access more desirable positions of power in Central Chile.[3]

The position of Royal Governor of Chiloé dates to the early 17th century. Before that a succession of corregidores existed including Alonso Benítez and Alonso de Góngora Marmolejo. Antonio Mejía who was sent by Alonso de Ribera to rule Chiloé died in a shipwreck in 1603 while approaching the archipelago.[1]

The "notables" of Chiloé, represented by the local cabildo had a conflictive relation with governor Martínez y La Espada. The cabildo made complaints to the authorities in Lima.[12] Between 1784 and 1789 the position of governor was abolished and replaced by an intendant. The sole intendant of this period was Francisco Hurtado del Pino.[1][13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Urbina Burgos, R. (2012). Notas para el estudio del oficio de Gobernador de Chiloé durante el periodo indiano. Revista Chilena de Historia del Derecho, (10), pp. 205-219.
  2. ^ a b Urbina, Ximena (2008). "The frustrated strategic mission of Nahuelhuapi, a point in Patagonia's inmensity". Magallania. 36 (1): 5–30. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d Urbina, Rodolfo (1990). "La rebelión indígena de 1712: los tributarios de Chiloé contra la encomienda" (pdf). Tiempo y espacio (in Spanish). Chillán: El Departamento (1): 73–86.
  4. ^ Olguín, pp. 21–24
  5. ^ a b Olguín, pp. 24–26
  6. ^ a b c d Olguín, pp. 28–29
  7. ^ Olguín, pp. 29–31
  8. ^ Olguín, pp. 31–34
  9. ^ Olguín, pp. 34–37
  10. ^ Olguín, pp. 37–38
  11. ^ Olguín, pp. 38–39
  12. ^ a b Olguín, pp. 39–41
  13. ^ Urbina Burgos, R. (1986). La Intendencia de Chiloé y los conflictos del gobernador-intendente Francisco Hurtado: 1784-1789. Revista de Historia y Geografía, 154.
  14. ^ a b c Olguín, pp. 46–47

Sources[edit]