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Diagram illustrating the structural relationship between grabens and horsts
Infrared-enhanced satellite image of a graben in the Afar Depression

In geology, a graben (/ˈɡrɑːbən/) is a depressed block of the crust of a planet or moon, bordered by parallel normal faults.


Graben is a loan word from German, meaning 'ditch' or 'trench'. The first known usage of the word in the geologic context was by Eduard Suess in 1883.[1] The plural form is either graben[2] or grabens.[3]


A graben is a valley with a distinct escarpment on each side caused by the displacement of a block of land downward. Graben often occur side by side with horsts. Horst and graben structures indicate tensional forces and crustal stretching.

Graben are produced from parallel normal faults, where the displacement of the hanging wall is downward, while that of the footwall is upward. The faults typically dip toward the center of the graben from both sides. Horsts are parallel blocks that remain between graben; the bounding faults of a horst typically dip away from the center line of the horst. Single or multiple graben can produce a rift valley.


The Newark Basin, an early Mesozoic half-graben

In many rifts, the graben are asymmetric, with a major fault along only one of the boundaries, and these are known as half-graben. The polarity (throw direction) of the main bounding faults typically alternates along the length of the rift. The asymmetry of a half-graben strongly affects syntectonic deposition. Comparatively little sediment enters the half-graben across the main bounding fault because of footwall uplift on the drainage systems. The exception is at any major offset in the bounding fault, where a relay ramp may provide an important sediment input point. Most of the sediment will enter the half-graben down the unfaulted hanging wall side (e.g., Lake Baikal).[4]

Rima Ariadaeus on the Moon is thought to be a graben. The lack of erosion on the Moon makes its structure with two parallel faults and the sunken block in between particularly obvious.






North America[edit]



United States[edit]



South America[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "graben". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. ^ Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary
  3. ^ horst and graben. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  4. ^ Hans Nelson, C.; Karabanov, Evgeny B.; Colman, Steven M.; Escutia, Carlota (1999). "Tectonic and sediment supply control of deep rift lake turbidite systems: Lake Baikal, Russia". Geology. 27 (2): 163–166. Bibcode:1999Geo....27..163N. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0163:TASSCO>2.3.CO;2.
  5. ^ CAREY, JONATHAN (2011). The Progressive Development and Post-failure Behaviour of Deep-seated Landslide Complexes (Doctoral thesis). Durham University.
  6. ^ Carey, Jonathan (November 2014). "Patterns of movement in the Ventnor landslide complex, Isle of Wight, southern England". Landslides. 12 (6): 1107. Bibcode:2015Lands..12.1107C. doi:10.1007/s10346-014-0538-1.
  7. ^ Hochstein, M.P.; Nixon, I.M. (1979). "Geophysical study of the Hauraki Depression, North Island, New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics. 22 (1): 1–19. Bibcode:1979NZJGG..22....1H. doi:10.1080/00288306.1979.10422550.
  8. ^ Manville, V.; Hodgson, K. A.; Nairn, I. A. (2007). "A review of break-out floods from volcanogenic lakes in New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics. 50 (2): 131–150. Bibcode:2007NZJGG..50..131M. doi:10.1080/00288300709509826. S2CID 129792354.
  9. ^ Sprigg, R.C. (1961). "The Oil and Gas Prospects of the St. Vincents Gulf Graben". The APPEA Journal. 1 (1): 71–88. doi:10.1071/AJ60011.
  10. ^ Stacey, A. R., and Berry, R. F., (2004). "The Structural history of Tasmania: a review for petroleum explorers", PESA Eastern Australasian Basins Symposium II