||It has been suggested that Film career of Grace Kelly be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since November 2015.|
Studio promotional photo, c. 1954
|Princess consort of Monaco|
|Tenure||April 18, 1956 – September 14, 1982|
November 12, 1929|
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Died||September 14, 1982
|Burial||St. Nicholas Cathedral|
|Spouse||Rainier III, Prince of Monaco
(m. 1956–82; her death)
|Issue||Caroline, Princess of Hanover
Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Princess Stéphanie, Countess of Polignac
|House||Grimaldi (by marriage)|
|Father||John B. Kelly|
|Mother||Margaret Katherine Majer|
After embarking on an acting career in 1950, at the age of 20, Kelly appeared in New York City theatrical productions and more than 40 episodes of live drama productions broadcast during the early 1950s Golden Age of Television. In October 1953, she gained stardom from her performance in the film Mogambo. It won her a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award nomination in 1954. She had leading roles in five films, including The Country Girl, for which her deglamorized performance earned her an Academy Award for Best Actress. Other films include High Noon (1952) with Gary Cooper, Dial M for Murder (1954) with Ray Milland, Rear Window (1954) with James Stewart, To Catch a Thief (1955) with Cary Grant, and High Society (1956) with Frank Sinatra and Bing Crosby.
Kelly retired from acting at the age of 26 to marry Rainier and began her duties as Princess of Monaco. They had three children: Caroline, Albert, and Stéphanie. She retained her American roots, maintaining dual U.S. and Monégasque citizenship. She died on September 14, 1982, a day after suffering a stroke while driving, causing her to crash.
- 1 Background and early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Legacy
- 5 References in popular culture
- 6 Works
- 7 Honours
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Background and early life
Kelly was born on November 12, 1929, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to an affluent and influential family. Her father, Irish-American John B. Kelly, Sr. (1889–1960), had won three Olympic gold medals for sculling and owned a successful brickwork contracting company that was well-known on the East Coast. A registered Democrat, he was nominated to be mayor of Philadelphia for the 1935 election, but lost by the closest margin in the city's history. In later years, he served on the Fairmount Park Commission and, during the Second World War was appointed by President Roosevelt as National Director of Physical Fitness. Two of his brothers were also notable: Walter C. Kelly (1873–1939) was a vaudeville star who also made films for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Paramount Pictures, and George Kelly (1887–1974) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning dramatist, screenwriter and director. Kelly's mother was German-born Margaret Katherine Majer (1898–1990), who had taught physical education at the University of Pennsylvania, where she had been the first female to coach women's athletics at the institution. She was noted for her beauty and modeled for a time in her youth. After marrying John B. Kelly in 1924, Margaret focused on being a housewife until all her children were of school age, following which she began actively participating in various civic organizations.
While attending Ravenhill Academy, a prestigious Catholic girls' school, Kelly modeled fashions at local social events with her mother and sisters. In 1942, at the age of twelve, she played the lead in Don't Feed the Animals, a play produced by the East Falls Old Academy Players. Before graduating in May 1947 from Stevens School, a socially prominent private institution on Walnut Lane in the Northwest Philadelphia neighborhood of Germantown, she acted and danced. Her graduation yearbook listed her favorite actress as Ingrid Bergman and her favorite actor as Joseph Cotten. Written in the "Stevens' Prophecy" section was: "Miss Grace P. Kelly – a famous star of stage and screen." Owing to her low mathematics scores, Kelly was rejected by Bennington College in July 1947.
Despite her parents' disapproval, Kelly decided to pursue her dreams of being an actress. John was particularly displeased with her decision; he viewed acting as "a slim cut above streetwalker." To start her career, she auditioned for the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York, using a scene from her uncle George Kelly's The Torch-Bearers (1923). Although the school had already met its semester quota, she obtained an interview with the admission officer, Emile Diestel, and was admitted through the influence of George.. She began her first term the following October. While at school, she lived in Manhattan's Barbizon Hotel for Women, a prestigious establishment which barred men from entering after 10 pm, and she worked as a model to support her studies.
Kelly worked diligently and practiced her speech by using a tape recorder. Her early acting pursuits led her to the stage, most notably a Broadway debut in Strindberg's The Father alongside Raymond Massey. At 19, her graduation performance was as Tracy Lord in The Philadelphia Story.
Television producer Delbert Mann cast Kelly as Bethel Merriday, in an adaptation of the Sinclair Lewis novel of the same name; this was her first of nearly sixty live television programs. Success on television eventually brought her a role in a major motion picture. She made her film debut in a small role in the 1951 film Fourteen Hours. She was noticed during a visit to the set by Gary Cooper, who subsequently starred with her in High Noon (1951). He was charmed by her and said that she was "different from all these actresses we've been seeing so much of." However, Kelly's performance in Fourteen Hours was not noticed by critics and did not lead to her receiving other film acting roles. She continued her work in the theater and on television, although she lacked "vocal horsepower" and would likely not have had a lengthy stage career. She had various roles on television shows produced by NBC and CBS. She was performing in Denver's Elitch Gardens when she received a telegram from Hollywood producer Stanley Kramer offering her a co-starring role opposite Gary Cooper in High Noon (1951).
Acting career for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Director John Ford had first noticed Kelly in a 1950 screen test. The studio flew her to Los Angeles to audition in September 1952, and he said that she showed "breeding, quality and class." She was hired for the role and was offered a seven-year contract with a salary of $850 a week. She signed the deal under two conditions: That every two years she could get time off to do theater performances, and that she could live in New York City at the now-landmarked Manhattan House (200 E. 66th Street). Two months after signing her contract, Kelly and the cast arrived in Nairobi to begin production of the film Mogambo. Gene Tierney was initially cast in the role, but she had to drop out at the last minute because of personal issues. Upon getting the role, she told Hollywood columnist Hedda Hopper, "Mogambo had three things that interested me. John Ford, Clark Gable, and a trip to Africa with expenses paid. If Mogambo had been made in Arizona, I wouldn't have done it." A break in the filming schedule afforded her and Mogambo costar Ava Gardner a visit to Rome. Her role as Linda Nordley in MGM's production of Mogambo garnered her a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress and her first Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress.
After the success of Mogambo, Kelly starred in a TV play The Way of an Eagle with Jean-Pierre Aumont, before being cast in the film adaptation of Frederick Knott's Broadway hit Dial M for Murder. Director Alfred Hitchcock also saw the 1950 screen test and took full advantage of her beauty on-camera. He was one of her last mentors in the film industry.
Kelly began filming scenes for her next film The Bridges at Toko-Ri in January 1954 with William Holden. She played Nancy, the wife of naval officer Harry (Holden), who was a minor but pivotal character in the story. A film review that was released 12 months later, the The New Yorker remarked on the apparent on-screen chemistry between them, and took note of her delivery of her performance "with quiet confidence."
Kelly unhesitatingly turned down the opportunity to star alongside Marlon Brando in On the Waterfront. Eva Marie Saint, who replaced her, won an Academy Award for that role. Kelly committed to the role of Lisa Fremont in Rear Window instead. Said Kelly, "All through the making of Dial M for Murder, he (Hitchcock) sat and talked to me about Rear Window all the time, even before we had discussed my being in it." During the shooting of Dial M for Murder, they shared a close bond of humor and admiration, although minor strife sometimes emerged on set.
Kelly's new costar, James Stewart, was highly enthusiastic about working with her. The role of Lisa Fremont, a wealthy Manhattan socialite and model, was unlike any of the previous women she had played. For the very first time, she portrayed an independent, career-driven woman. He played a speculative photographer with a broken leg, bound to a wheelchair, and so reduced to curiously observing the happenings outside his window. Just as he had done earlier, Hitchcock provided the camera with a slow-sequenced silhouette of her, along with a close-up of the two stars kissing, and finally lingering closely on her profile. With the film's opening in October 1954, she was praised again. Variety's film critic remarked on the casting, commenting on the "earthy quality to the relationship between Stewart and Miss Kelly. Both do a fine job of the picture's acting demands."
Kelly won the role of Bing Crosby's long-suffering wife, Georgie Elgin, in The Country Girl, after a pregnant Jennifer Jones bowed out. Already familiar with the play, she was highly interested in the part. To do so, MGM would have to lend her out to Paramount. She was adamant, and threatened the studio that if they did not allow her to do it she would pack her bags and leave for New York for good. They relented, and the part was hers. The film also paired her again with William Holden. The wife of a washed-up alcoholic singer, played by Crosby, her character is emotionally torn between two lovers.
For her performance in The Country Girl, Kelly won the Academy Award for Best Actress. Her main competitor for the prize was Judy Garland, in her much heralded comeback performance in A Star Is Born, playing not only the part of an up-and-coming actress-singer, but also, ironically, the wife of an alcoholic movie star. Although she won the New York Film Critics Circle Award for best actress for her performances in her three big movie roles of 1954, Rear Window, Dial M For Murder, and The Country Girl, she and Garland both received Golden Globe Awards for their respective performances.
By the following March, the race between Kelly and Garland for the Oscar was very close. On March 30, 1955, the night of the Academy Awards telecast, Garland was unable to attend because she was in the hospital having just given birth to her son, Joey Luft. However, she was rumored to be the odds-on favorite, and NBC Television cameras were set up in her hospital room so that if she was announced as the winner, she could make her acceptance speech live from her hospital bed. However, when William Holden announced Kelly as the winner, the technicians immediately dismantled the cameras without saying one word to Garland.
In April 1954, Kelly flew to Colombia for a ten-day shoot on her next project, Green Fire, with Stewart Granger. She played Catherine Knowland, a coffee plantation owner. In Granger's autobiography he writes of his distaste for the film's script, while she later confided to Hedda Hopper, "It wasn't pleasant. We worked at a pathetic village – miserable huts and dirty. Part of the crew got shipwrecked … It was awful." Green Fire was a critical and box-office failure but made a small profit of $840,000.
After the consecutive filming of Rear Window, Toko-Ri, Country Girl, and Green Fire, Kelly flew to France, along with department store heir Bernard "Barney" Strauss, to begin work on her third and last film for Alfred Hitchcock, To Catch a Thief. She and her costar, Cary Grant, developed a mutual admiration. They cherished their time together for the rest of their lives. Years later, when asked to name his all-time favorite actress, he replied without hesitation, "Well, with all due respect to dear Ingrid Bergman, I much preferred Grace. She had serenity."
Relationship with Prince Rainier
Kelly headed the U.S. delegation at the Cannes Film Festival in April 1955. While there, she was invited to participate in a photo session at the Palace of Monaco with Prince Rainier III, the sovereign of the principality. After a series of delays and complications, she met him in Monaco. At the time of her initial meeting with him, she was dating the French actor Jean-Pierre Aumont.
Upon returning to America, Kelly began work on The Swan, in which she coincidentally portrayed a princess, and she meanwhile began a private correspondence with Rainier.
In December 1955, Rainier went to America on a trip officially designated as a tour, although it was speculated that he was seeking a wife. A treaty with France in 1918 had stated that if he did not produce an heir Monaco would revert to France. The treaty was as a result of the Monaco Succession Crisis of 1918. At a press conference in the U.S. he was asked if he was pursuing a wife, to which he answered, "No." Then a second question was posed: "If you were pursuing a wife, what kind would you like?" Rainier smiled and answered, "I don't know – the best."
That same year MGM released Kelly's last film, the musical comedy High Society, which was based on the studio's 1940 comedy The Philadelphia Story. She wore her own engagement ring in the film and sang a duet with Bing Crosby, "True Love," a song with words and music by Cole Porter.
Wedding and marriage
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Rainier met Kelly and her family, and after three days, he proposed. She accepted and the families began preparations for what the press at that time dubbed "The Wedding of the Century." She and her family had to provide a dowry of $2 million in order for the marriage to go forward.
The religious wedding was set for April 19, 1956. News of the engagement was a sensation, even though it meant a probable end to Kelly's film career. Alfred Hitchcock quipped that he was "very happy that Grace has found herself such a good part." Preparations were elaborate. The Palace of Monaco was painted and redecorated throughout. On April 4, 1956, Grace, with her family, bridesmaids, poodle, and over eighty pieces of luggage boarded the ocean liner SS Constitution for the French Riviera. Some 400 reporters applied to sail, although most were turned away. Thousands of fans sent the party off for the eight-day voyage. More than 20,000 people lined the streets of Monaco to greet the future princess consort.
The Napoleonic Code of Monaco and the laws of the Roman Catholic Church necessitated two ceremonies – both a civil ceremony and a religious wedding. The 16-minute civil ceremony took place in the Palace Throne Room of Monaco on April 18, 1956, and a reception later in the day was attended by 3,000 Monaco citizens. To cap the ceremony, the 142 official titles that she acquired in the union (counterparts of his) were formally recited. The following day the church ceremony took place at Monaco's Saint Nicholas Cathedral, before Monaco's Bishop Gilles Barthe. The wedding was estimated to have been watched by over 30 million viewers on live television, and was described by biographer Robert Lacey as "the first modern event to generate media overkill." Her wedding dress, designed by MGM's Academy Award–winning Helen Rose, was worked on for six weeks by three dozen seamstresses. The bridesmaids' gowns were designed by Joe Allen Hong at Neiman Marcus. The 700 guests included several famous people, including Aristotle Onassis, Cary Grant, David Niven and his wife Hjördis, Gloria Swanson, Ava Gardner, the crowned head Aga Khan III, Gloria Guinness, Enid, Lady Kenmare, Daisy Fellowes, Etti Plesch, Lady Diana Cooper, Louise de Vilmorin, Loelia Lindsay, and Conrad Hilton. Frank Sinatra initially was invited, but did not attend. She and Rainier left that night for their seven-week Mediterranean honeymoon cruise on his yacht, Deo Juvante II.
They had three children:
- Caroline Louise Marguerite, born January 23, 1957
- Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre, born March 14, 1958, current Prince of Monaco
- Stéphanie Marie Elisabeth, born February 1, 1965
During her marriage, Kelly was unable to continue her acting career. Instead, she performed her daily duties as princess and became involved in philanthropic work.
Hitchcock offered Kelly the lead in his film Marnie in 1962. She was eager, but public outcry in Monaco against her involvement in a film that portrayed her as a kleptomaniac made her reconsider and ultimately reject the project. Director Herbert Ross attempted to lure her into accepting a part in his 1977 film The Turning Point, but Rainier quashed the idea. Later that year, she returned to the arts in a series of poetry readings on stage and narration of the documentary The Children of Theater Street. She also narrated ABC's made-for-television film The Poppy Is Also a Flower (1966). She and Rainier worked together in a 33-minute independent film called Rearranged in 1979, which received interest from ABC TV executives in 1982 after premiering in Monaco, on the condition that it be extended to an hour. Before more scenes could be shot, Kelly died and the film was never released or shown publicly again.
On September 13, 1982, Kelly was driving back to Monaco from her country home in Roc Agel when she had a stroke. As a result, she lost control of her 1971 Rover P6 3500 and drove off the steep, winding road and down the 120 ft mountainside. Her daughter, Stéphanie, who was in the passenger seat, tried to regain control of the car, but failed. When paramedics arrived at the accident site ( ), Kelly was alive but unconscious. She and Stephanie were transported to the Monaco Hospital (later named The Princess Grace Hospital Centre). Doctors tried to stop her internal bleeding during surgery and performed CAT scans to diagnose her brain damage. Despite their efforts, her head injuries, in addition to her fractured ribs, collarbone, and thigh, were irreparable. Doctors believed that she had suffered a minor stroke before the accident, which made her more susceptible to another. The following night, at 10:55 p.m., she died at the age of 52 after Rainier decided to take her off life support.
Stephanie's original diagnosis was mild, with only minor bruising and a light concussion. However, after receiving X-ray results, she was found to have suffered a hairline fracture on the seventh cervical vertebra. She was unable to attend her mother's funeral because of her injuries.
Kelly's funeral was held at the Saint Nicholas Cathedral, Monaco on September 18, 1982. After a Requiem Mass, she was buried in the Grimaldi family vault. Over 400 guests attended, including Cary Grant, Nancy Reagan, and Diana, Princess of Wales. At a later memorial service in Beverly Hills, James Stewart delivered the following eulogy:
You know, I just love Grace Kelly. Not because she was a princess, not because she was an actress, not because she was my friend, but because she was just about the nicest lady I ever met. Grace brought into my life as she brought into yours, a soft, warm light every time I saw her, and every time I saw her was a holiday of its own. No question, I'll miss her, we'll all miss her, God bless you, Princess Grace.
Rainier, who never remarried, was buried alongside her following his death in 2005.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
After her marriage to Prince Rainier, Kelly became involved with philanthropic work since she was no longer allowed to act.
Kelly founded AMADE Mondiale, a Monaco-based non-profit organization that was eventually recognized by the UN as a Non-Governmental organization. According to UNESCO's website, AMADE promotes and protects the "moral and physical integrity" and "spiritual well-being of children throughout the world, without distinction of race, nationality or religion and in a spirit of complete political independence." Her daughter, Princess Caroline, carries the torch for AMADE today in her role as President.
Kelly was also active in improving the arts institutions of Monaco, forming the Princess Grace Foundation in 1964 to support local artisans. In 1983, following her death, Princess Caroline assumed the duties of President of the Board of Trustees of the Foundation. Prince Albert is Vice-President.
The Princess Grace Foundation-USA (PGF-USA) was established following the death of Kelly to continue the work that she had done, anonymously, during her lifetime, assisting emerging theater, dance and film artists in America. Incorporated in 1982, PGF-USA is headquartered in New York and is a tax-exempt, not-for-profit, publicly supported organization. The Princess Grace Awards, a program of the Princess Grace Foundation-USA, has awarded nearly 500 artists at more than 100 institutions in the U.S. with more than $7 million to date. The foundation also says it "holds the exclusive rights and facilitates the licensing of her name and likeness throughout the world."
In addition, Kelly was one of the first celebrities to support and speak on behalf of La Leche League, an organization that advocates breastfeeding. She also planned a yearly Christmas party for local orphans and dedicated a Garden Club.
While pregnant with her daughter Caroline in 1956, Kelly was frequently photographed clutching a distinctive leather hand-bag manufactured by Hermès. The purse, or Sac à dépêches, was likely a shield to prevent her pregnant abdomen from being exposed to the prying eyes of the paparazzi. The photographs, however, popularized the purse and became so closely associated with the fashion icon that it would thereafter be known as the Kelly Bag.
Numerous exhibitions have been held of Kelly's life and clothing. The Philadelphia Museum of Art presented her wedding dress in a 2006 exhibition to mark the 50th anniversary of her marriage, and a retrospective of her wardrobe was held at London's Victoria and Albert Museum in 2010. The V&A exhibition continued in Australia at the Bendigo Art Gallery in 2012. This famous dress, seen around the world, took thirty five tailors six weeks to complete. An exhibition of her life as Princess of Monaco was held at the Ekaterina Cultural Foundation in Moscow in 2008 in conjunction with Monaco's Grimaldi Forum. In 2009, a plaque was placed on the "Rodeo Drive Walk of Style" in recognition of her contributions to style and fashion.
After her death, Kelly's legacy as a fashion icon lived on. Modern designers, such as Tommy Hilfiger and Zac Posen, have cited her as a fashion inspiration. During her lifetime, she was known for introducing the "fresh faced" look, one that involved bright skin and natural beauty with little makeup. Her fashion legacy was even commemorated at the Victoria and Albert Museum of London, where an exhibit titled, "Grace Kelly: Style Icon" paid tribute to her impact on the world of fashion. The exhibit included 50 of her legendary ensembles. She is remembered for her "college-girl" everyday fashion, defined by her pulled-together yet simple look.
In 1955, Kelly was photographed by Howell Conant in Jamaica. He photographed her without makeup in a naturalistic setting, a departure from the traditional portrayal of actresses. The resulting photographs were published in Collier's magazine, with a celebrated photo of her rising from the water with wet hair making the cover. Following her marriage, Conant was the unofficial photographer to the House of Grimaldi and extensively photographed her, Rainier, and their three children. In 1992, Conant published Grace, a book of photographs that he took during her 26-year tenure as Princess of Monaco.
Kelly has been depicted by many pop artists including James Gill and Andy Warhol. Warhol made a portrait of her for the Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia as a limited edition silkscreen in 1984.
A rose garden in Monaco's Fontvieille district is dedicated to the memory of Kelly. It was opened in 1984 by Rainier. She is commemorated in a statue by Kees Verkade in the garden, which features 4,000 roses.
In 2003, the Henley Royal Regatta renamed the Women's Quadruple Sculls the "Princess Grace Challenge Cup." Kelly was invited to present the prizes at the Henley Royal Regatta in 1981, as a peace offering by the Henley Stewards to put a conflict between her family and Stewards to rest. Prince Albert presented the prizes at the Henley Royal Regatta in 2004.
References in popular culture
- In 1983, an American television film called Grace Kelly focused on Kelly's early life was presented featuring Cheryl Ladd as her and Ian McShane as Rainier.
- Madonna's number-one hit "Vogue" mentions Kelly in the lyrics alongside Hollywood's golden era of actors such as Greta Garbo, Fred Astaire, Marlene Dietrich and James Dean. The song was released in 1990.
- In 1993, Kelly appeared on a U.S. postage stamp, released in conjunction with a Monaco postage stamp featuring her on the same day.
- To commemorate the 25th anniversary of Kelly's death, €2 commemorative coins were issued on July 1, 2007 with the "national" side bearing the image of her, and in Monaco at the Grimaldi Forum and in the United States at Sotheby's, a large Princess Grace exhibition, "Grace, Princess of Monaco: A Tribute to the Life and Legacy of Grace Kelly", coordinated by the Princely Family, celebrated her life and her contribution to the arts through her Foundation.
- Mika, a Lebanese-British songwriter, wrote a song called "Grace Kelly". It was released by Universal Music and topped the 2007 UK Singles Chart.
- Kelly was also referenced in the following songs: "Grace Kelly" by Die Ärzte, "Grace Kelly Blues" by Eels (Mark Everett), and "Grace Kelly with Wings" by Piebald.
- In 2014, Nicole Kidman portrayed Kelly in Grace of Monaco, directed by Olivier Dahan. Reaction to the film was largely negative; many people, including the royal family of Monaco, felt it was overly dramatic, had historical errors, and had little depth.
- Many references to Grace Kelly were made in the television teen drama Gossip Girl by character Blair Waldorf (played by Leighton Meester). In Season 2 Episode 10 Blair states "I am Grace Kelly, Grace Kelly is me." and later in the same episode "Screw Grace Kelly. I need a scheme". In Season 6 Episode 6, Blair says she would like to "be more like Grace Kelly, less like Grace Jones".
- CGI was used to replicate the image of Grace Kelly, along with Marilyn Monroe, and Marlene Dietrich, in a commercial for J'adore Dior starring Charlize Theron. It first aired in the fall of 2011.
- Billy Joel references Grace Kelly in We Didn't Start the Fire in the events describing 1956.
- "True Love", a duet with Bing Crosby from High Society (1956)
- L'Oiseau du Nord et L'Oiseau du Soleil, in French and in English (1978)
- Birds, Beasts & Flowers: A Programme of Poetry, Prose and Music (1980)
- Austria: Recipient of the Red Cross Medal
- Egyptian Royal Family: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Virtues, Supreme Class
- France: Recipient of the Red Cross Medal
- Greek Royal Family: Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Beneficence
- Iranian Imperial Family: Recipient of the Commemorative Medal of the 2,500 year Celebration of the Persian Empire
- Italy: Grand Officer of the Order of the Star of Italy
- Holy See: Dame of the Order of Pope Pius IX
- Vatican: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Merit, Special Class
- A Prayer for Monaco. Catholic Online. Published: February 3, 2009.
- "1954 Academy Awards: Winners and History". AMC Filmsite.
- Buchwald, Art (April 17, 1956). "Grace Kelly Can Retain American Citizenship: Status of Pat Poodle Oliver Not So Clear; His Marriage Could Start Monaco Squabble". Los Angeles Times.
- Leigh 2007
- "Margaret Majer Kelly (1899 -1990)". University of Pennsylvania.
- Kaplan, Tracey (January 8, 1990). "Margaret Kelly, 91; Princess Grace's Mother, Head of Influential Family". Los Angeles Times.
- Spoto, Donald; Forshaw, Barry (May 28, 2009). "Grace Kelly and Hollywood by Donald Spoto". The Times (UK). Retrieved May 20, 2010.
Born in 1929 and raised by stiff-necked Catholic parents in Philadelphia … Philadelphia convent girl (always remaining Roman Catholic) ...
- Jacobs, Laura (May 2010). "Grace Kelly's Forever Look". Vanity Fair. Retrieved December 30, 2010.
- Spoto, Donald (2009). High Society: The Life of Grace Kelly. Harmony. p. 22. ISBN 0-307-39561-8.
- Leigh 2007, p. 26
- Barbanel, Josh (October 28, 2007). "The Kelly Connection". The New York Times (New York City). Retrieved June 19, 2011.
- "The Private Life and Times of Gene Tierney". Glamourgirlsofthesilverscreen.com. Retrieved March 13, 2010.
- Tierney, Gene; Herskowitz, Mickey (1978). Self-Portrait. Wyden Books. pp. 150–151. OCLC 5016010.
- Hedda Hopper Collection. Maraget Herrick Library, Los Angeles.
- Kaplan, James (2010). Frank: The Voice. Doubleday. p. 586. ISBN 0-385-51804-8.
- Spoto, Donald (1983). The Dark Side of Genius: The Life of Alfred Hitchcock. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-306-80932-X.
- Eyles, Allen (September 1987). James Stewart. Stein & Day. ISBN 0-8128-8298-9.
- Brogdon, William (July 14, 1954). "Rear Window". Variety. Retrieved June 17, 2009.
- Nelson, Nancy (December 2002). Evenings With Cary Grant. Citadel. ISBN 0-8065-2412-X.
- Haugland, H. Kristina (2006). Grace Kelly: Icon of Style to Royal Bride. Yale University Press. pp. 966–. ISBN 978-0-300-11644-1. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- "Grace's Riviera Romance". LIFE (Time Inc): 14–15. May 30, 1955. ISSN 0024-3019. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- Taraborrelli 2003, p. 96
- The Big Week in Monaco: Movies' Pretty Princess Assumes a Real Life Title. Life 40 (Time Inc). 30 April 1956. p. 37. ISSN 0024-3019.
'I'm halfway married,' she exclaimed after the first wedding, a 16-minute civil ceremony in his crimson-damasked throne …
- Hintz, Martin (2004). Monaco. Children's Press. ISBN 978-0-516-24251-4.
- Choron, Sandra; Choron, Harry (2010). Planet Wedding: A Nuptial-pedia. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-618-74658-3.
- Bulwa, Demian (2004-03-29). "Memorial scheduled for designer Joe Allen Hong". SFGate (Hearst Communications).
- Vickers, Hugo (2007). Horses & Husbands – The Memoirs of Etti Plesch. p. 170. ISBN 978-1-904349-54-9.
- Quine, Judith Balaban (1990). The Bridesmaids: Grace Kelly and Six Intimate Friends. Pocket Books. ISBN 978-0-671-70770-5.
- Davies, Jennifer. Fatal Car Accidents of the Rich and Famous. RW Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-909284-04-3.
- Taraborrelli 2003, p. 149
- Roe, Dorothy. "Grace Kelly Finds Being a Princess Almost as Hard as Making Movies" (14 April 1957). Washington Post.
- Rearranged at IMDB
- Transcript of Larry King Live episode "Remembering Prince Rainer of Monaco", aired April 15, 2005 on CNN
- Grace: A Biography by Thilo Wydra, page 246.
- Establishing the age and marque of the car: "1982: Hollywood princess dead". BBC News. September 14, 1982.
After leaving the road her 10-year-old Rover tumbled 100 ft (30.5 m) down a ravine...
- Establishing the model: Parish, James Robert (2002). The Hollywood Book of Death: The Bizarre, Often Sordid, Passings of More than 125 American Movie and TV Idols (eBook ed.). McGraw Hill. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-07-178476-4. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
After loading her Rover 3500 with luggage and dresses to be altered, she informed her chauffeur that there was now no room for him in the car, and that she would drive instead.
- Establishing the platform: Gerard, Jasper (24 January 2011). "Classic Rover P6 review". The Telegraph (London, UK). Archived from the original on 26 December 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
It's always a little ominous when a car is best remembered for a tragic mishap, but such, alas, is the fate of the P6; this is what Grace Kelly was driving when she careered off the Corniche in Monaco.
- Establishing the age and marque of the car: "1982: Hollywood princess dead". BBC News. September 14, 1982.
- Werner, Jennifer (2014). Grace Kelly of Monaco: The Inspiring Story of How An American Film Star Became a Princess. BookCaps Study Guides. pp. 40–44. ISBN 9781629172484.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Vinocur, John (17 September 1982). "Princess Stricken Before Crash, Doctors Say". New York Times. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- Leigh, Wendy (2007). True Grace: The Life and Death of an American Princess. New York, NY: Thomas Dunne Books. p. 245. ISBN 978-0-312-34236-4.
- "BBC On This Day September 14th 1982". BBC News. September 14, 1985. Retrieved March 13, 2010.
- "Death of Princess Grace – history – central". British Council. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved March 13, 2010.
- "Monaco Cathedral". Service Informatique du Ministère d'Etat (Monaco Minister of State Information Service. July 28, 2008. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
- Princess Grace Foundation Archived May 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Licensing". Princess Grace Foundation-USA. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- "History of the Hermes Kelly Bag". pursuitist.com. August 13, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
- "The International Best-Dressed List Hall of Fame". Vanity Fair. June 7, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
- "Press Releases : 2006". Philadelphia Museum of Art. Retrieved March 13, 2010.
- Nikkhah, Roya (November 22, 2009). "Grace Kelly's wardrobe to go on display at V&A museum in London". The Daily Telegraph.
- "Grace Kelly: Style Icon". bendigoartgallery.com.au. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
- Ball, Sara. "No Wonder They Called Her Grace". proquest.com. Newsweek. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- "Catalogue of "The Grace Kelly Years, Princess of Monaco" exhibition". The Ekaterina Cultural Foundation. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "Princess Grace, Cartier to get the royal treatment on Rodeo's Walk of Style". Los Angeles Times. August 5, 2009. Retrieved March 13, 2010.
- Dahl, Arlene. "Grace Kelly is 1955 Beauty Ideal". www.proquest.com. Chicago Daily Tribune. Retrieved 2014-09-25.
- Spoto, Donald (June 1, 2010). High Society: Grace Kelly and Hollywood. Random House. pp. 151–. ISBN 978-0-09-951537-1. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
- Harvey, Evelyn (June 24, 1955). "The Key to Kelly". Collier's Weekly: 36–41. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
- Thurber, Jon (March 27, 1999). "Howell Conant". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
- Conant, Howell (1992). Grace: An Intimate Portrait by Her Friend and Favorite Photographer. Random House. ISBN 0-679-41803-2.
- "Andy Warhol – Grace Kelly". Retrieved November 27, 2014.
- "Fontvieille Park and the Princess Grace Rose Garden". Visit Monaco. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- Richard, Sale (June 1, 1999). Provence & Côte D'Azur. Landmark. p. 207. ISBN 978-1-901522-45-7. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
- "Recent Prizegivers". Henley Royal Regatta. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- "Grace Kelly". IMDb. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- Healey, Barth (March 21, 1993). "U.S. and Monaco Honor Grace Kelly". New York Times.
- Foundas, Scott (May 19, 2014). "No Saving 'Grace' in Contrived Melodrama". Variety 324 (2): 90–91.
- McFaron, Emma. "Historian at the Movies: Grace of Monaco reviewed". BBC History Extra. Retrieved 2014.
- Jack Jones, "Princess Grace" The Register-Guard, September 15, 1982.
- "Iran: Host to the World". Badraie. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
- Leigh, Wendy (2007). True Grace: The Life and Times of an American Princess. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 0-312-34236-5.
- Taraborrelli, J. Randy (2003). Once Upon a Time: Behind the Fairy Tale of Princess Grace and Prince Rainier. Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7595-2790-4.
- Wydra, Thilo (2014). Grace. A Biography. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1629145419.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Grace Kelly.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Grace Kelly|
- Grace Kelly at the Internet Movie Database
- Grace Kelly at the TCM Movie Database
- Grace Kelly at the Internet Broadway Database
- Ancestry Chart of Prince Albert
- A list of ancestors of Grace Kelly
- Princess Grace Foundation – USA
- Princely House of Monaco
- Grace Kelly Footage
- Footage of Grace Kelly's Royal Wedding
- Short film about Grace Kelly
- "High Society – The Life of Grace Kelly". The Washington Post. November 15, 2009.
- Princess Grace Of Monaco interview on BBC Radio 4 Desert Island Discs, April 24, 1981
Title last held byGhislaine Dommanget
|Princess consort of Monaco
Title next held byCharlene Wittstock