Grace Moore (December 5, 1898 – January 26, 1947) was an American operatic soprano and actress in musical theatre and film. She was nicknamed the "Tennessee Nightingale." Her films helped to popularize opera by bringing it to a larger audience.
Moore was born Mary Willie Grace Moore to Richard Lawson Moore and Tessa Jane (née Stokely) Moore in the community of Slabtown (now considered part of Del Rio) in Cocke County, Tennessee. By the time she was two years old, her family had relocated to Knoxville, a move Moore later described as traumatic, as she found urban life distasteful at the time. After several years in Knoxville, the family again relocated to Jellico, Tennessee, where Moore spent her adolescence. After high school in Jellico, she studied briefly at Ward-Belmont College in Nashville before moving to Washington, D.C. and New York City to continue her musical training and begin her career. Her first paying job as a singer was at the Black Cat Cafe in Greenwich Village.
Grace Moore's first Broadway appearance was in 1920 in the musical Hitchy-Koo, by Jerome Kern. In 1922 and 1923 she appeared in the second and third of Irving Berlin's series of four Music Box Revues. In the 1923 edition she and John Steel introduced Berlin's song "What'll I Do". When Moore sang "An Orange Grove in California", orange blossom perfume was wafted through the theater.
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After training in France, Moore made her operatic debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City on February 7, 1928, singing the role of Mimì in Giacomo Puccini's La bohème. She debuted at the Opéra-Comique in Paris on September 29, 1928 in the same role, which she also performed in a Royal Command Performance at Covent Garden in London on June 6, 1935. During her sixteen seasons with the Metropolitan Opera, she sang in several Italian and French operas as well as the title roles in Tosca, Manon, and Louise. Louise was her favorite opera and is widely considered to have been her greatest role.
In the 1930s and 1940s she gave concert performances throughout the United States and Europe, performing a repertoire of operatic selections and other songs in German, French, Italian, Spanish, and English. During World War II she was active in the USO, entertaining American troops abroad. In 1945 she portrayed Mimi to Nino Martini's Rodolfo in Puccini's La bohème for the inaugural performance of the San Antonio Grand Opera Festival.
Attracted to Hollywood in the early years of talking pictures, Moore had her first screen role as Jenny Lind in the 1930 film A Lady's Morals, produced for MGM by Irving Thalberg and directed by Sidney Franklin. Later that same year she starred with the Metropolitan Opera singer Lawrence Tibbett in New Moon, also produced by MGM, the first screen version of Sigmund Romberg's operetta The New Moon.
After a hiatus of several years, Moore returned to Hollywood under contract to Columbia Pictures, for whom she made six films. In the 1934 film One Night of Love, her first film for Columbia, she portrayed a small-town girl who aspires to sing opera. For that role she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress in 1935.
By this time, she was so popular that MGM was able to insist on equal billing for Moore in a projected film with Maurice Chevalier, who had always enjoyed solo star billing up till then. Chevalier felt so deeply about this blow to his status that he quit Hollywood and the film was never made.
A memorable highlight of When You're in Love (1937) was a comic scene in which Moore donned flannel shirt and trousers and joined a 5-man band for a flamboyant rendition of Cab Calloway's "Minnie the Moocher", complete with gestures and "hi-de-ho's", but with the lyrics slightly altered to conform with Hollywood sensibilities. Also, she performed the popular Madama Butterfly duet "Vogliatemi bene" with American tenor Frank Forest in the 1937 film I'll Take Romance.
The last film that Moore made was Louise (1939), an abridged version of Gustave Charpentier's opera of the same name, with spoken dialog in place of some of the original opera's music. The composer participated in the production, authorizing the cuts and changes to the libretto, coaching Moore, and advising director Abel Gance. This production also featured two renowned French singers: dramatic tenor Georges Thill and basse cantante André Pernet.
She was widely criticized in December 1938 when she curtsied to the Duchess of Windsor, in Cannes. Upon her return to the United States after six months and ten days in Europe ("to save money in income tax"), Moore defended her curtsey, saying:
She would have been a royal duchess long ago if she had not been an American. After all, she gave happiness and the courage of his convictions to one man, which is more than most women can do. She deserves a curtsy for that alone.
In 1935 Moore received the gold medal award of the Society of Arts and Sciences for "conspicuous achievement in raising the standard of cinema entertainment." In 1936 King Christian X of Denmark awarded her his country's medal of 'Ingenito et Arti.' In 1937, she was commissioned as a colonel (an honorary position) on the staff of the governor of Tennessee, and was also made a life member of the Tennessee State Society of Washington, D.C. She was decorated as a chevalier of the French Légion d'honneur in 1939. Moore was also a member of the Peabody Awards Board of Jurors from 1940 to 1942.
Moore published an autobiography, You're Only Human Once, in 1944.
Grace Moore died in a plane crash near Copenhagen's airport on January 26, 1947, at the age of 48. Among the other plane crash victims was Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden, who was at the time second in line to the Swedish throne and who was the father of the present King of Sweden, King Carl XVI Gustaf. Moore is buried in Forest Hills Cemetery in Chattanooga.
Moore's life story was made into a movie, So This Is Love (1953), starring North Carolina-born singer Kathryn Grayson. A collection of Moore's papers is housed at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville.
- A Lady's Morals (1930; later released under the title Jenny Lind in the United Kingdom and in a French-language version)
- New Moon (1930)
- One Night of Love (1934)
- Love Me Forever (1935)
- The King Steps Out (1936)
- When You're in Love (1937)
- I'll Take Romance (1937)
- Louise (1939)
- John Shearer, The Fabulous Grace Moore Collection In Knoxville. The Chattanoogan, 22 July 2006. Retrieved: 28 July 2010. While Moore's year of birth is often given as 1901, census records and other records confirm she was born in 1898.
- Obituary Variety, January 29, 1947, page 48.
- Jack Neely, "Grace Under Pressure." From the Shadow Side (Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Tellico Books, 2003), pp. 167–174.
- Zepp, George. Opera star trained at Ward-Belmont The Tennessean, April 26, 2006.
- New World Records, Follies, Scandals & Other Diversions: From Ziegfeld to the Shuberts, New World NW 215, liner notes.
- Frank H. McClung Museum, Grace Moore Concert Gown at the Wayback Machine (archived February 11, 2007). University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
- Laurie E. Jasinski (2012). Handbook of Texas Music. Texas A&M University Press.
- New York Times, "A Lady's Morals a.k.a Jenny Lind" and Mordant Hall, "The Swedish Nightingale", New York Times, November 8, 1930.
- With Love, the Autobiography of Maurice Chevalier (Cassell, 1960), P214.
- Frank S. Nugent, "'When You're in Love' Opens at the Music Hall", New York Times, February 19, 1937.
- See Bel Canto Society, Louise (DVD & VHS) for a collection of anecdotes, reviews, and other information about the film version of Louise.
- "People." Time. January 16, 1939.
- Laurie, Joe, Jr. (1953). Vaudeville: From The Honky Tonks To The Palace. Henry Holt and Company. p. 202.
- "Prince and opera star killed in plane crash". Ottawa Citizen. Associated Press. 14 March 1954. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- Binnicker, Charles M. "Grace Moore" entry in Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture
- Kenrick, John. Who's Who in Musicals
- New World Records, Follies, Scandals & Other Diversions: From Ziegfeld to the Shuberts, New World NW 215, liner notes
- New World Records, The Vintage Irving Berlin, New World NW 238, liner notes
- Siler, James Hayden. The History of Jellico. Unpublished manuscript, 1938.
- Farrar, Rowena Rutherford. Grace Moore and Her Many Worlds. New York: Cornwall Books, 1982. ISBN 0-8453-4723-3
- James, Janet Wilson. "Moore, Grace." In: Notable American Women. Vol. III. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1971.
- Moore, Grace. You're Only Human Once. 1977 (c. 1944). ISBN 0-405-09698-4
- Rasponi, Lanfranco. The Last Prima Donnas. Alfred A Knopf, 1982. ISBN 0-394-52153-6
- Parish, James Robert, and Michael R. Pitts. Hollywood Songsters. New York: Garland Publishing, 1991. ISBN 0-415-94334-5
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Grace Moore.|
- Grace Moore at the Internet Movie Database
- Grace Moore at the Internet Broadway Database
- Grace Moore Concert Gown Biography and image of a concert gown that belonged to Moore, from Frank H. McClung Museum collection.
- The Grace Moore Papers Describes the collection of her papers at the University of Tennessee Libraries.
- The Grace Moore Glove Gallery A collection of images of Moore, including movie stills and advertisements.
- Grace Moore at Find a Grave
- Grace Moore at Virtual History