Tenth grade (called Grade 10 in some regions) is the tenth year of school post-kindergarten in many parts of the world. The students are 15 or 16 years of age, depending on when their birthday occurs. The variants of 10th grade in various nations is described below.
Year 10, for most Australian states, is the fourth year of a student's high school education. However, in the Northern Territory, it is the first year of senior school, after high school and in most South Australian public schools it is the third year. For more information on Australia's education system, see: Education in Australia.
In Belgium, the 10th grade is called 4ème secondaire in French (Walloon), or 4de middelbaar in Dutch (Flemish).
In Canada, Grade 10 is the 10th year of mandatory schooling. Depending on province, it may be the first (grades 10-12 high school), second (grades 9-12 high school), third (grades 8-12 high school), or fourth year of high school (grades 7-11 high school) .
In Denmark the 10th grade may refer to an extra year of primary school. Earlier, 10th grade was mostly for people who had a hard time in primary school and needed an extra year to prepare for high school (or another secondary education of some sort), but nowadays, it is widely popular amongst challenged and gifted students alike and usual attended at a special kind of boarding school called an "Efterskole". 10th can also be attended at a regular school, though. This year is usually taken as a way to get a break from the school system and relax and try something different before moving on to high school. But, more commonly, people attend the "gymnasium" (can be compared to high school) where you go from 10th-12th grade (as such, some people attend 10th grade twice). People don't usually call the steps of the Danish gymnasium for 10th, 11th og 12th grade, but usually refer to them as 1st G, 2nd G, and 3rd G. Here, G is simple the letter "G", and it refers to the three different steps of the education.
In Finland tenth grade is usually known as the first year of High School ("Lukio" in Finnish and "Gymnasiet" in Swedish). The tenth grade may also refer to an extra year of primary school ("kymppiluokka" in Finnish which literally translates to "tenth grade"). This extra year of primary school is for those without a post-primary school study position or who need some more time to decide on their future. 
The tenth grade (the tenth school year after kindergarten) is very important in India. After the completion of the tenth grade, the student is required to sit for national board exams or state board exams, wherein question papers are prepared and answer sheets are checked by a central institution to which the school is affiliated. The percentage scored in Class X decides what a student can opt for in Class XI (Science/ Commerce/ Arts). The Grade gains even more importance as in many parts of India the number of seats for Class XI is generally lower than the number of students who pass out Standard X.
The new system called CCE(Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation) was introduced by the Central Board of Secondary Education in India for students of sixth to tenth grades. The main aim of CCE is to evaluate every aspect of the child during their presence at the school.
In Ireland, it is the 4th year of Secondary School or Transition Year or Idirbhliain in Gaelscoils. It is optional in most secondary schools. Students continue normal classes but also have the opportunity to try new things such as work experience, participation in school stage productions or do other activities or courses such as ECDL or different sports. Students do not sit tests within this year.
In Israel, the tenth grade is the first year of high school (pronounced in Hebrew as Tichon) in most formal places, which lasts three years. As mentioned, in some cities (such as Ramat Gan and Giv'atayim), elementary school ends at 8th grade and high School starts at 9th grade.
In Italy, the tenth grade is the second year of the high school (which is called Scuola media superiore or Scuola secondaria di secondo grado). High school in Italy lasts five years.
In Mexico, the tenth grade is the beginning of the high school, which lasts only three years. Similar to Israel's education system. Tenth graders are normally aged 15–16.
In New Zealand, Year 11 is the equivalent of tenth grade, with students aged 15–16. It is the third year of secondary school (High School) and the eleventh year of compulsory education. It is also the first year of "The National Certificate of Educational Achievement" (NCEA), the main national qualification for secondary school students in New Zealand.
Grade ten is the final year of high school in Pakistan; it is an important year level as it here that matriculation examinations occur after which students can qualify for grades eleven and twelve in college. Successful completion of college allows eligibility for entrance into universities and higher education.
In the Philippines, Grade 10 is formerly called 4th year High School since 2015-2016.
In Russia, in the end of ninth grade students have a choice: to progress to the tenth grade in school or go to college. The tenth grade is the beginning of the high school, and it is a pre-exam year, when training to USE is being. Learning is similar with Ninth grade, but priority is given to repeat the material learned in high school (Fifth to Ninth years).
In Scotland, tenth grade is called S4 (or fourth year). At the end of S4, students normally sit examinations in eight National 5 subjects which they have studied over the past two years. National 5s and are sat during the months of May and June.
It is followed by an optional fifth year (S5) at school or pupils may choose to leave at the end of S4 provided they have reached the age of 16 by 30 September that year. Those who wish to leave but will not meet the September deadline, may do so provided that they have either secured an apprenticeship or a placement in a college designed for Christmas Leavers.
In Singapore, 10th grade is equivalent of Secondary 4 level.
In Spain, the tenth grade is the fourth year of ESO (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria - Obligatory Secondary Education), which has been in force since the promulgation of LOGSE in the middle of the 1990s. Fourth ESO is also the last year of Obligatory Education.
In Sweden, the tenth to twelfth grades are taken at a certain type of school called 'Gymnasiet'. After ninth grade, Swedish children end their compulsory schooling, and therefore these schools are significantly divided in terms of abilities and career aims. There are two overall types of programmes (program) that students can chose at their schools, which are taught at different schools. Job-oriented programmes (yrkesförberedande program) and programmes that prepare for university college (högskoleförberedande program). There are then several programmes of the two types; for example the natural science programme (naturvetenskapsprogrammet), which prepares for university college and focuses on subjects like physics, chemistry, biology and math or the construction programme (bygg och anläggningsprogrammet), which is a programme specialized for jobs in that sector. Other options among college preparatory progammes are for instance the social science proramme, specializing in social studies and subjects like civics, sociology, psychology, language and history. For these higher schools there are then a few options, so as to where you want to go:
- Choose a school that is specialized for the job you wish to take (yrkesförberedande gymnasium). At these schools only classes relevant to the classification of the school are taught, along with language, math and some civics skills. Some schools are very hard to get accepted into, but it depends on which classification you are seeking.
- The schools can have very specific aims. There are widely oriented schools such as General Arts, but also very specific schools, such as Equestrian.
- If you fail your exams at the end of ninth grade, or pass with low results, you can choose (or are recommended) to enter a school that aims only to get your skills to a proficient level for everyday life. As some of these students gain knowledge, they may be offered to move into a general class (see below).
- Students that do not yet have any specific career aspirations, or wish to go to a school specialized for a profession that requires a gymnasial degree, can choose to move into a general school, which has programmes preparing for college university (högskoleförberedande program). The system there is very similar to the system from seventh grade to ninth grade except that the student has chosen a programme which allows the student to focus on an (albeit in a somewhat general way) area of interest. For instance; the economics programme (ekonomiprogrammet) includes courses in business economics, entrepreneurship and other such courses along with general courses that all students going to schools which prepare for university college must take, such as math, language, civics, physical education etc.
England & Wales
For education in England and Wales, this is known as Year 11. For education in Northern Ireland, this is called Year 12. General education certificates will be awarded if the pupils sit the end of examinations, called GCSEs. In Year 11, students take their GCSEs. With grades ranging from A* to U (ungraded), these exams show proficiency in a range of subjects. Results of at least five C grades is considered a pass and many employers require their staff to have at least Cs in GCSE English and Maths. GCSEs are taken in May and June. Pupils may then go on to sit 'A' Levels. A new English Baccalaureate has been introduced; this is awarded to students who achieve an A* to C in five subjects including English, Maths, science, a humanities subject (history or geography) and a modern language.
The tenth grade is the tenth school year after Grade 9. Grade 10 is a part of high school, and in most parts of the USA it is the second year of high school, with 11th then 12th following. People who do not complete the grade for the required coursework may be re-entered into 10th grade during the next school year, although summer school is often taken to complete the prior courses. This is usually when children would leave compulsory education.
The term high school is often used to mean senior high school and distinguished from junior high school. Starting in ninth grade and ending in twelfth grade, grades are used in determining a student's GPA (in the U.S.), and become part of a student's official transcript. Therefore, students obtain much more control of their education and often may even choose their core classes.
In the U.S. curriculum for mathematics, tenth graders are usually taught Algebra II or Geometry. Occasionally, Trigonometry, Precalculus, or higher classes, are offered for students who wish to take Advanced Placement math classes in later years of high school.
In the U.S. curriculum for literature, students have already begun to familiarize themselves with notable authors such as Shakespeare, while some Advanced Placement programs emphasize the work of author J.D. Salinger, for example, and his Catcher in the Rye, putting a major emphasis on literary terms and getting to know themes such as alienation. Generally, students at this grade will be taught World Literature. Like other classes, Honors and Advanced Placement versions of this course are available.
In the U.S. curriculum for social studies, tenth grade students are taught recent World History. In some districts, Advanced Placement coursework, such as geography, European history, World Studies, or United States History is first made available to students in this grade.
This grade is normally followed by eleventh grade, although some U.S. colleges will accept excelling students out of this grade as part of an early college entrance program. Alternatively, some students may choose to graduate early through standardized testing or advanced credits.
In the U.S., tenth grade is also known as sophomore. 
In South Africa, ninth grade marks the end of a student's General Education and Training-phase. Children in South Africa, are required to attend school up to the age of fifteen, or completion of the General Education and Training-phase, whichever comes first. Students have the option of continuing secondary school up to twelfth grade, under Further Education and Training. Upon successful completion of the twelfth grade, students are granted the National Senior Certificate.
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