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For other uses, see Graduation (disambiguation).
Graduation procession of King's College London, showcasing the academic dresses created by globally-renowned fashion designer Vivienne Westwood during the Summer 2008 graduation.
Academic procession during the University of Canterbury graduation ceremony
Convocation dress of University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Graduation is the action of receiving or conferring an academic degree or the ceremony that is sometimes associated, where students become graduates. Before the graduation, candidates are referred to as graduands. The date of graduation is often called graduation day. The graduation ceremony itself is also called commencement, convocation or invocation. In the United States and Canada, the term is additionally increasingly being used to refer to the advancement from a primary or secondary school level. When ceremonies are associated, they usually include a procession of the academic staff and candidates and a valediction. At the college and university level the faculty will usually wear academic dress at the formal ceremonies, as will the trustees and degree candidates.

"Graduation" at the college and university level occurs when the presiding officer confers degrees upon candidates, either individually or en masse, even if graduates physically receive their diploma later at a smaller college or departmental ceremony. After degree completion, graduates can be referred to by their graduating year.

In some places, graduation parties to celebrate graduation from school, college or university are popular. In a recent 2014 nationwide survey in the United States, $985 was the average amount spent on graduation parties[1]

Academic graduation by country[edit]

Further information: Academic graduation by country
Line of young people at a commencement ceremony

The procedures and traditions surrounding academic graduation ceremonies differ around the world. Whereas in most countries a graduation usually only occurs at university level, in the United States graduations often occur at high schools where no higher education qualifications are conferred upon the graduates. In a graduation ceremony the students dress up in special graduation caps and clothing that are made just for this purpose.

Graduation traditions are varied across universities observing different cultures. Most universities across Sweden are research-oriented and may present its students with bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees covering all academic streams. Universities across the country are based through the Higher Education Ordinance. A large number of candidates continue their education onto secondary and upper secondary education. Most of the national programs provide Swedish, English, Math and Science among majors.

Origin/Tradition for caps[edit]

The tradition of wearing graduation hats in Sweden has been in place since the mid 18th century. The cap is typically a white sailor hat with a black or dark blue band around it, a crown motif and a black peak at the front.

The graduation hat tradition was initially brought into practice by students at Uppsala University. The headgear then became popular across several other European nations as well.[2]

Graduation Day celebrations[edit]

In Sweden, the graduation day by the end of high school is celebrated traditionally. The official recognition is handed over to the students who are now eligible to take pride. The attire includes sailor-white clothes and a graduation hat. The hat holds the age old tradition of the country. The celebrations are a sight. Groups often gather around with parents and loved ones. There are rallies on the road following the ceremony. There are all kinds of gifts hung around and chants of 'hurrah' echo all day long. Students hire floats for the day. They are then decked with decor before setting out on a mesmerizing tour. It's seldom possible that the passer-by remains oblivious of the endless stream of party music. Students celebrate the day with knocking back champagne all over. The ceremony takes place only by the end of April. The hats symbolize the reward for the knowledge gained by the hard work and the students are crowned with it by the end of the graduation. They are then worn with pride until that joyous day when school's out for summer and, indeed, forever.[3]

See also[edit]


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