Graft-versus-tumor effect

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Graft-versus-tumor effect (GvT) appears after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The graft contains donor T cells (T lymphocytes) that can be beneficial for the recipient by eliminating residual malignant cells.[1] GvT might develop after recognizing tumor-specific or recipient-specific alloantigens.[99] It could lead to remission or immune control of hematologic malignancies.[2] This effect applies in myeloma and lymphoid leukemias, lymphoma, multiple myeloma and possibly breast cancer.[3] It is closely linked with graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), as the underlying principle of alloimmunity is the same. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) can be used to suppress GvHD without loss of beneficial GvT effect.[4] The biology of GvT response still isn’t fully understood but it is probable that the reaction with polymorphic minor histocompatibility antigens expressed either specifically on hematopoietic cells or more widely on a number of tissue cells or tumor-associated antigens is involved.[5][6] This response is mediated largely by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) but it can be employed by natural killers (NK cells) as separate effectors, particularly in T-cell-depleted HLA-haploidentical HSCT.[6]

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  1. ^ Thompson LF, Tsukamoto H, Chernogorova P, Zeiser R (2013). "A delicate balance: CD73-generated adenosine limits the severity of graft vs. host disease but also constrains the allogeneic graft vs. tumor effect". Oncoimmunology. 2 (1): e22107. PMC 3583907Freely accessible. PMID 23482243. doi:10.4161/onci.22107. 
  2. ^ Kolb HJ (2008). "Graft-versus-leukemia effects of transplantation and donor lymphocytes". Blood. 112 (12): 4371–83. PMID 19029455. doi:10.1182/blood-2008-03-077974. 
  3. ^ Childs RW, Clave E, Tisdale J, Plante M, Hensel N, Barrett J (1999). "Successful treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma with a nonmyeloablative allogeneic peripheral-blood progenitor-cell transplant: evidence for a graft-versus-tumor effect". J Clin Oncol. 17 (7): 2044–9. PMID 10561256. doi:10.1200/jco.1999.17.7.2044. 
  4. ^ Vagianos C, Polydorou A, Karatzas T, Vagenas C, Stavropoulos M, Androulakis J (1992). "Successful treatment of postoperative external biliary fistula by selective nasobiliary drainage". HPB Surg. 6 (2): 115–20; discussion 120–4. PMC 2443016Freely accessible. PMID 1292584. doi:10.1155/1992/58436. 
  5. ^ Baron F, Maris MB, Sandmaier BM, Storer BE, Sorror M, Diaconescu R, et al. (2005). "Graft-versus-tumor effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning". J Clin Oncol. 23 (9): 1993–2003. PMID 15774790. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.08.136. 
  6. ^ a b Rezvani AR, Storb RF (2008). "Separation of graft-vs.-tumor effects from graft-vs.-host disease in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation". J Autoimmun. 30 (3): 172–9. PMC 2329571Freely accessible. PMID 18242060. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2007.12.002.