Graham cracker

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"Graham crackers" redirects here. For the 1997 Graham Chapman book, see Graham Crackers.
Graham cracker
Modern graham crackers
Alternative names Graham wafer
Type cracker
Main ingredients Graham flour
Cookbook: Graham cracker  Media: Graham cracker

The graham cracker (/ˈɡræm/; also graham wafer) is a type of cracker confectionery.

The Graham Cracker was inspired by the preaching of Sylvester Graham, who was a part of and strongly influenced by the 19th century temperance movement; Graham believed that a vegetarian diet anchored by home-made whole grain bread, made from wheat coarsely ground at home, as part of a lifestyle that involved minimizing pleasure and stimulation of all kinds, was how God intended people to live and that following this natural law would keep people healthy; his preaching was taken up widely in the US in the midst of the 1829–51 cholera pandemic.[1]:15–27[2]:29–35 [3][4] His followers, Grahamites, formed one of the first vegetarian movements in the US, and graham flour, graham crackers, and graham bread were created for them and marketed to them; Graham did not invent these products nor profit from them.[1]:29[3]

A near equivalent in the United Kingdom is the digestive biscuit.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Iacobbo, Karen; Iacobbo, Michael (2004). Vegetarian America : a history. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. ISBN 978-0275975197. 
  2. ^ Smith, Andrew F. (2009). Eating history : 30 turning points in the making of American cuisine. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231140928. 
  3. ^ a b Tompkins, K. W. (2009). "Sylvester Graham's Imperial Dietetics". Gastronomica. 9: 50–60. doi:10.1525/gfc.2009.9.1.50. JSTOR 10.1525/gfc.2009.9.1.50. 
  4. ^ Money, J. (1982). "Sex, Diet, and Debility in Jacksonian America: Sylvester Graham and Health Reform". The Journal of Sex Research. 18 (2): 181–182. doi:10.2307/3812085. 
  5. ^ Panati, Charles (1989). Panati's extraordinary origins of everyday things. San Francisco: Perennial Library. p. 413. ISBN 0-06-096419-7. Retrieved 2011-04-08. The graham cracker originated as a health food, and in Britain it is still known as a "digestive biscuit."