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Starr 041211-1350 Grammitis hookeri.jpg
Grammitis hookeri
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Polypodiales
Suborder: Polypodiineae
Family: Polypodiaceae
Subfamily: Grammitidoideae
Parris & Sundue

See text

Grammitidoideae is a subfamily of the fern family Polypodiaceae, whose members are informally known as grammitids. It comprises a clade of about 750 species.[1] They are distributed over higher elevations in both the Old and New World.[2] This group was previously treated as a separate family, Grammitidaceae until molecular phylogenies showed it to be nested within the Polypodiaceae. It has since been treated as an unranked clade within subfamily Polypodioideae (renamed tribe Polypodieae in one classification), and, most recently, as a separate subfamily (reducing Polypodioideae to an evolutionary grade).


In 2011, Christenhusz et al.[3] placed the grammitid ferns in the subfamily Polypodioideae, within the Polypodiaceae, as an informal group without rank. In 2014, Christenhusz and Chase expanded the circumscription of both family and subfamily, placing the Polypodioideae as previously delimited, including grammitids, in tribe Polypodieae. The PPG I classification of 2016 largely reverted to the 2011 circumscriptions of these groups, but placed the grammitids in a new subfamily.

The following phylogram shows a likely relationship between grammitid ferns and the Polypodiaceae subfamilies, based on Schuettpelz & Pryer, 2008,[4] with PPG I subfamilies shown.[5]






"non-grammitid", Polypodioideae sensu PPG I

"grammitid" ferns, Grammitidoideae


The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I) recognizes the following genera:[5]


  1. ^ "Systematics of grammitid ferns: Lellingeria, Melpomene, and Terpsichore". Botanical Society of America. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  2. ^ Labiak et al. 2010a Paulo H. Labiak, Michael Sundue, & Germinal Rouhan: "Molecular Phylogeny, Character Evolution, and Biogeography of the Grammitid Fern Genus Lellingeria (Polypodiaceae)." American Journal of Botany 97(8): 1354–1364 (2010)
  3. ^ Maarten J. M. Christenhusz, Xian-Chun Zhang & Harald Schneider (2011). "A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns" (PDF). Phytotaxa. 19: 7–54. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.19.1.2.
  4. ^ Eric Schuettpelz & Kathleen M. Pryer (2008). "Chapter 15: Fern phylogeny" (PDF). In Tom A. Ranker & Christopher H. Haufler (ed.). Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes. Cambridge University Press. pp. 395–416.[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ a b PPG I (2016). "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (6): 563–603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229.
  6. ^ Ranker et al. 2003 Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine T.A. Ranker, J.M.O. Geiger, S.C. Kennedy, A.R. Smith, C.H. Haufler, and B.S. Parris: "Molecular phylogenetics and evolution of the endemic Hawaiian genus Adenophorus (Grammitidaceae)." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 26 (2003) 337-47.
  7. ^ Kessler et al. 2011 Michael Kessler, Ana Laura Moguel Velázquez, Michael Sundue, Paulo H. Labiak: "Alansmia, a new genus of grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae) segregated from Terpsichore." Brittonia 63(2): 233–244 (June 2011)
  8. ^ Barbara S. Parris: "Archigrammitis, a new genus of grammitid fern (Polypodiaceae) from Malesia and Polynesia." Fern Gazette 19(4): 135–138 (2013)
  9. ^ Sundue, 2010 Michael A. Sundue: "A monograph of Ascogrammitis, a new genus of grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae)." Brittonia 62(4): 357–399 (December 2010)
  10. ^ Sundue et al. 2012 Michael A. Sundue, Paulo H. Labiak, Julián Mostacero, Alan R. Smith: "Galactodenia, a new genus of grammitid ferns segregated from Terpsichore (Polypodiaceae)." Systematic Botany 37(2): 339–346 (April–June 2012)
  11. ^ Labiak et al. 2010b Paulo H. Labiak, Germinal Rouhan & Michael Sundue: "Phylogeny and taxonomy of Leucotrichum (Polypodiaceae): A new genus of grammitid ferns from the Neotropics." Taxon 59(3): 911–921 (June 2010)
  12. ^ Hirai et al. 2011 Regina Y. Hirai, Germinal Rouhan, Paulo H. Labiak, Tom A. Ranker & Jefferson Prado: "Moranopteris: A new Neotropical genus of grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae) segregated from Asian Micropolypodium." Taxon 60(4): 1123–1137 (August 2011)
  13. ^ Sundue, 2012 Michael A. Sundue: "Mycopteris: a new neotropical genus of grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae)." Brittonia 66(2): 174–185 (June 2014)
  14. ^ Perrie & Parris 2012 Leon M. Perrie & Barbara S. Parris: "Chloroplast DNA sequences indicate the grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae) in New Zealand belong to a single clade, Notogrammitis gen. nov." New Zealand Journal of Botany 50(4): 457–475 (December 2012)
  15. ^ a b Christenhusz & Schneider, 2011 Maarten J. M. Christenhusz & Herald Schneider: "Corrections to Phytotaxa 19: Linear sequence of lycophytes and ferns," Phytotaxa (14 September 2011)
  16. ^ Labiak 2011 Paulo H. Labiak: "Stenogrammitis, a new genus of grammitid ferns segregated from Lellingeria (Polypodiaceae)." Brittonia 63(1): 141–145 (March 2011)