|Native name: |
Western and central Grand Bahama seen from space, looking southwest
|Area||1,373 km2 (530 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||40 ft (12 m)|
|Pop. density||37.70 /km2 (97.64 /sq mi)|
Grand Bahama is the northernmost of the islands of The Bahamas, lying 84 kilometres (52 mi) off Palm Beach, Florida. It is the fourth largest island in the Bahamas island chain of approximately 700 islands and 2,400 cays. The island is roughly 530 square miles (1,400 km2) in area and approximately 153 kilometres (95 mi) long west to east and 24 kilometres (15 mi) at its widest point north to south. Administratively, the island consists of the Freeport Bonded Area and the districts of East Grand Bahama and West Grand Bahama.
Grand Bahama Island has a tropical savanna climate, with a hot and wet season from May through October, and warm and dry season from November through April.
Temperatures in the summer usually range from 80 to 90 degrees, but hardly ever get above 90. During the winter, the temperatures fall between 70 to 75 degrees. By nightfall, the temperature can drop anywhere between 5 and 7 degrees depending on the season. The rainy season in the Bahamas is from May to October. The hurricane season runs from June through November, with the greatest risk in the months of August, September, and October.
Early Spanish contact
The Spanish gave the island the name Gran Bajar,ma meaning "Great Shallows", and what the eventual name of the Bahamas islands as a whole is derived from. However, the Lucayan (pre-Columbian) name for the island was Bahama. Grand Bahama's existence for almost two centuries was largely governed by the nature of these "great shallows" - the coral reefs surrounding the island were treacherous, and repelled its Spanish claimants (who largely left it alone apart from infrequent en route stops by ships for provisions) while attracting pirates, who would lure ships onto the reefs where they would run aground and be plundered. The Spaniards took little interest in the island after enslaving the native Lucayan inhabitants.
Grand Bahama remained relatively quiet until the mid-19th century, with only around 200-400 regular inhabitants in the capital, West End. In 1834, the towns of Pinder’s Point, Russell Town and Williams Town were established by former Bahamian slaves after slavery was abolished in the British empire. The island remained under-developed until a brief boom of economic activity during the American Civil War, when it was a center for blockade runners smuggling goods (mostly weaponry, sugar and cotton) to the Confederacy. A second brief smuggling boom occurred during the years of prohibition in the US.
Hawksbill Creek Agreement era
By the mid-20th century, Grand Bahama's population numbered around 500 and the island was one of the least developed of the Bahamas' islands. However it finally gained a stable source of income when in 1955 a Virginian financier named Wallace Groves began redevelopment with the Bahamian government to build the city of Freeport under the Hawksbill Creek Agreement and create the Grand Bahama Port Authority. Soon after, the ambitious Edward St. George, with the financial help of Sir Jack Hayward, took the company to new frontiers. Seeing the success of Cuba as a tourist destination for wealthy Americans, St. George was eager to develop Grand Bahama in a similar vein. The city grew rapidly, with St. George adding a harbour, an airport soon after the city was founded, and the tourist center of Port Lucaya in 1962. Grand Bahama became the second most populous island in the Bahamas (over 50,000 in 2004).
One aspect that contributes to the economy of the Bahamas is what they directly export and import. The Bahamas ranks as the 137th largest exporter and 117th largest importer in the world. Some of the major trading partners include the United States, France, and Finland. Top exports include; passenger cargo ships, special purpose ships, and refined petroleum. Freeport, a city in Grand Bahama has some industries that also contribute to the economy. These major industries are pharmaceutical plants, Fragrance of The Bahamas perfume factory, an oil transshipment company, and an immunology research center. Despite the Bahamas being big exporters and importers, their agriculture and fisheries also help with the economy. They produce agriculture ranging from crops, poultry, livestock, to dairy. On commercial farms in Grand Bahama, vegetable and citrus production are produced and exported to other countries. For their fisheries, Crayfish and conch are their top exports. Even though the economy is based heavily on what the Bahamas produces and sells, tourism is the mainstay of the island's economy. The resort area at Port Lucaya and visits by cruise ships provide the bulk of this activity. Grand Bahama's tourism sector is complemented by the BORCO oil bunkering facility owned by Buckeye, the South Riding Point oil storage and transhipment terminal owned by Statoil, and a transshipment/container port partly owned by Hong Kong conglomerate Hutchison Whampoa and the Grand Bahama Port Authority. There are also quarrying operations on the island and a large shipyard.
There are two airports on the island: Grand Bahama International Airport in Freeport, and West End Airport in West End. Grand Bahama International Airport is the larger of the two, and West End Airport is open sporadically for private aircraft only.
Grand Bahama is divided into three districts and seven town areas for administrative purposes. Each district is run by a Chief Councilor, and each town area or township is run by a Chairperson. As of 1996 Grand Bahama has three districts.
Elections are held every 5 years in the Bahamas. The two principal parties are the Progressive Liberal Party and the Free National Movement.. Grand Bahama also is a part of the islands outside of New Providence and operate under Local Government; this allows for a greater allowance for people to have a more direct rule. The intention of Local government is to not have direct connections to any political party.
- Freeport is the main city of Grand Bahama, it holds the commercial ship harbour and the main airport.
- Lucaya is a tourist destination on the island, with beaches and hotels.
- West End is the capital of Grand Bahama. It first achieved notoriety as a rum-running port during the Prohibition.
- In the 1950s it became home to the Jack Tar marina and club. However, over the years the marina fell into disrepair, and the whole city of West End was of little economic import to Grand Bahama. In 2001, the resort was reopened as Old Bahama Bay Resort & Yacht Harbour.
- Eight Mile Rock is the largest settlement in Grand Bahama and all of The Bahamas. It stretches out 8 miles of rocky shore, hence its name. It is home to many of recent NBA and WNBA players such as Buddy Hield and Jonquel Jones
- McLeans Town is the easternmost settlement and a 30-minute ferry ride from the northernmost settlement of the neighbor island of Abaco.
Flora and fauna
Grand Bahama island is populated with a variety of plants, birds, and fish.
The Bahamas is home to many different species of bats, including the buffy flower bat, whose hair is white and brown. As the name suggests, it has a flowery nose that helps pollinate flowers and is usually found in dark caves or abandoned homes.
The Bahama woodstar is found on Grand Bahama. It is a non-migratory hummingbird found in brushy habitats, including forest and undergrowth, areas of low-growing, and scrubby vegetation. The Bahama swallow is a medium-sized bird native to the Bahama islands. This endangered bird species breeds on Grand Bahama islands pine woodland, but is threatened due to human development. This endangered bird has a green head and back, blue wings with a black tail, and a white belly and chin.
The tiger shark is a species of shark that is found on Grand Bahama Island, that gets its name from the vertical stripes that lines its body. They are often found near canals, harbors and shallow reefs. 
The casuarina is an invasive species to the Bahamas. It is a flowering plant also knows as a "cedar" due to it having very fine leaves. The yellow elder is a shrub native to the Bahamas. It is densely branched with bright green leaves and yellow flowers that usually attract butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.
- "PRELIMINARY POPULATION AND HOUSING COUNT BY ISLAND AND SUPERVISORY DISTRICT, ALL BAHAMAS: CENSUS 2010" (PDF). Bahamas Department of Statistics.
- "Grand Bahama Island | island and district, The Bahamas". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
- Ellicott, Karen (2002). Cities of the World. Detroit, Michigan. ISBN 978-0-7876-3912-9.
- "Best Times to Visit Bahamas". U.S News and Daily Report.
- Julius Granberry and Gary S. Vescelius. (2004) Languages of the Pre-Columbian Antilles. The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-5123-X p. 83
- The earliest settlers, the Siboney Indians http://www.grandbahamavacations.com/ about-the-island/history-of-grand-bahama-island/ It is believed they had an advanced political and social structure, and lived in well-organized cities.
- Great Britain claimed The Islands of The Bahamas in 1670, after British colonists left Bermuda for the island of Eleuthera http://www.grandbahamavacations.com/about-the-island/history-of-grand-bahama-island/ when history finally caught up with it again.
- In 1955, the second most populated city of The Bahamas was little more than a pine forest http://www.grandbahamavacations.com/about-the-island/history-of-grand-bahama-island/ Over 30 years later, the result is a community completely tailored to the getaway tourist, a premeditated paradise offering almost every kind of vacation activity imaginable.
- "- Bahamas (BHS) Exports, Imports, and Trade Partners". atlas.media.mit.edu. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
- Ellicott, Karen (2002). Cities of the World 6th ed. Detroit, Michigan. ISBN 978-0-7876-3912-9.
- Hill, Melissa Sue (2017). Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. ISBN 978-1-4103-3898-3.
- Buckeye Partners, L.P. "BORCO". Retrieved 2013-02-21.
- Statoil ASA. "Bahamas - South Riding Point". Retrieved 2013-02-21.
- Hotel Online Report
- "Common Bats of the Bahamas" (PDF).
- "Bahama Woodstars | Beauty of Birds". www.beautyofbirds.com. Retrieved 2018-10-22.
- "Bahama Swallow". neotropical.birds.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2018-10-24.
- "Tiger Sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier". MarineBio.org. Retrieved 2018-10-22.
- "Invasive Species of the Bahamas – Casuarina | CIASNET.ORG". www.ciasnet.org. Retrieved 2018-10-24.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Grand Bahama.|
- Official Tourism Site of The Islands of the Bahamas
- Official Site of the Grand Bahama Island Tourism Board