Grand Central Palace

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Coordinates: 40°45′16″N 73°58′27″W / 40.75444°N 73.97425°W / 40.75444; -73.97425

Postcard of the 1911 Grand Central Palace

The Grand Central Palace was an exhibition hall in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The name refers to two structures, both located on Lexington Avenue near Grand Central Terminal.

The original structure was a six-story structure built in 1893 between 43rd and 44th Streets. It was demolished during the construction of Grand Central Terminal, and a new 13-story structure was constructed between 46th and 47th Streets. The second Grand Central Palace was designed by Grand Central Terminal architects Warren and Wetmore and Reed and Stem in the Beaux-Arts architectural style, and had almost twice as much room as the original structure. The Palace served as New York's main exposition hall from 1911 until 1953, when the exhibition space was replaced by office space for the Internal Revenue Service. The building was demolished starting in 1964. Throughout its history, the Grand Central Palace hosted auto, boat, flower and trade shows, though parts of the Palace were used as office space. The first Palace was also used as a temporary railroad terminal during the construction of Grand Central Terminal in the 1900s.

History[edit]

Original structure[edit]

The original Grand Central Palace was constructed in 1893 on the block bounded by Lexington Avenue, Depew Place, and 43rd and 44th Streets.[1][2] At the time, Depew Place was an alley located west of Lexington Avenue, which formed the eastern boundary of Grand Central Depot to the west.[3][4]:98 The original Palace, a six-story structure made of brick, contained 310,000 square feet (29,000 m2) of floor space.[2]

The land under the original Grand Central Palace was originally owned by the estate of the entrepreneur Robert Goelet,[5] who died in 1899.[6] His will prohibited the sale of the land on which the Palace was located. In 1902, in preparation for Grand Central Terminal's construction, the trustees of the Goelet estate offered the land to the New York Central Railroad, operator of Grand Central Depot, for use as the site of a proposed new post office. However, the land would have to be acquired through condemnation of the site.[7] New York Central bought two blocks of land east of the future terminal, bounded by Lexington Avenue, Depew Place, and 43rd and 45th Streets, in December 1904. This land acquisition included the Grand Central Palace.[5][8][9][4]:60 After the land acquisition, New York Central continued to receive bookings for events at Grand Central Palace.[10]

As Grand Central Terminal was being completed and the New York Central's steam-railway lines into Grand Central were electrified, the railroad's commuter rail lines moved their operations to a temporary station under Grand Central Palace.[11]:106–107 The temporary station had fourteen tracks, ten of which were electrified with third rail.[12] The Hudson Line was the first to be electrified, on September 30, 1906.[11]:97 The temporary station was not ready until November of that year.[12] By that time, trains on the Harlem Line were electrified, and its operations moved to the basement of Grand Central Palace.[13] New Haven Line electric trains started running to Grand Central Palace in October 1907.[14] The Palace was used as the terminal for all three lines while the old Grand Central Station was being demolished in sections,[11]:106–107 a process that started in 1910.[15]

The original Palace was demolished by 1913 to make way for Grand Central Terminal.[1]

New structure[edit]

A new 13-story building was opened on May 19, 1911.[16][17] The 13-story building, with twice as much floor space as the previous structure, was located on the west side of Lexington Avenue between 46th and 47th Streets, occupying the air rights over the railroad tracks leading into Grand Central Terminal.[18] The Palace was designed by Warren and Wetmore and Reed and Stem, who had also designed Grand Central Terminal.[4]:111 It was the first structure designed as part of Terminal City, a series of commercial developments that were built after Grand Central's formerly open-air rail yards were covered over.[4]:106[17] The Palace was New York's main exposition hall until it closed in 1953. Its location and the proximity of Grand Central Terminal spurred the construction of a hotel district in the area.[16]

Greece, a 1920 exhibition at the Palace

Alfred I. du Pont and a group of associates took over the Grand Central Palace's lease in May 1918.[19][20] Subsequently, in August 1918, the building was rented to the U.S. government,[21] which used the structure as a hospital during World War I.[22] The government relinquished the Palace to du Pont's syndicate in April 1919.[23] The following year, du Pont and his associates announced that no new exhibitions would be held in the Grand Central Palace after April 1921, effectively leaving the city without a major exhibition space.[24] The syndicate later clarified that only the International Exposition of Industries would continue to be held in the Palace.[25]

In 1920, the structure's lease was transferred to Robert M. Catts.[26] The following year, Catts proposed $500,000 worth of improvements to the Palace as part of the construction of a $3 million, 18-story office building on an adjacent empty plot. The plan entailed converting the Grand Central Palace into an office building and attaching it to the adjacent structure via an arcade. The main entrance to the remodeled structure would be relocated to Park Avenue to the west, while the floor below, which faced Lexington Avenue, would be converted into retail. The Grand Central Palace would have been renamed the Central Square Building because at the time, there was a "central square" to the west, which abutted the north end of Grand Central Terminal.[27] He formally filed plans for the construction of the annex the next year,[28] and the new 20-story office building was completed by 1923.[29] However, in 1925, Catts dispelled rumors that the Grand Central Palace would be transformed into an office building.[30] Catts's enterprises became insolvent and went into receivership in 1927, though Grand Central Palace continued to host events.[31]

August Heckscher secured control of the Palace's lease in 1923. In the same transaction, he bought other real estate on the same block.[29] A syndicate purchased the Palace in January 1927 with plans to demolish the building and build a Spanish trade center in its place.[32] Though the Count of Peracamps, a Philippine businessman, visited the Palace in March of that year in an effort to promote the proposed trade center,[33] the deal did not go through.[19] Control of the Palace as well as the adjacent Park-Lexington Building was transferred to the publisher Condé Nast in 1928. As part of Conde Nast's purchase of the Palace, the eight upper floors would be turned into sales offices, while the three lower floors would continue to be used as exhibition space.[19]

By 1932, the mortgage covering the Palace and the Park-Lexington Building was being foreclosed upon.[34] In 1933, Heckscher offered to sell the Grand Central Palace to the federal government for $6 million, so it could be replaced with a post office facility. At the time, the Palace was located atop part of the Grand Central Terminal's storage yards, and there was a mail chute from the building to the tracks underneath. Because the New York Central Railroad still owned the land underneath the Palace, if the transaction were successful, only the air rights above the tracks would have been sold.[35]

The onset of World War II in the 1940s caused the suspension of several exhibitions. For instance, in 1941, the National Motor Boat Show was suspended for the first time since 1904.[36] The next year, the International Flower Show was also suspended until the end of the war.[37] In October 1942, the Grand Central Palace was turned into an induction center for the U.S. Army, replacing a center on Governors Island.[38][39] After more than a half million soldiers had been inducted at the Palace, the last fourteen inductions occurred in September 1945.[40] The induction center was closed soon afterward.[41]

After the war, it was announced that the New York Coliseum, a new exhibition hall being built across town in Columbus Circle, would replace Grand Central Palace as the city's main exhibition hall. By then, the dilapidated facilities at the Grand Central Palace were repelling potential exhibitors.[42] In 1952, the federal government signed a letter of intent to lease the lowest four floors, at the time being used as exhibition space, and converted them into office space for the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).[43] After objections from several exhibition hosts, the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau asked that exhibitions be allowed at the Grand Central Palace until the Coliseum opened in 1956.[44] The federal government initially dropped plans for a lease in February 1953.[45] However, the next month, the federal government signed a lease agreement to convert the four lower floors into 171,000 square feet (15,900 m2) of office space.[46] As part of the agreement, shows would continue to be held at the Palace until November 1953, at which point renovations would begin.[47] In the meantime, until the Coliseum opened, exhibitions would be held at the Kingsbridge Armory in the Bronx as well as other armories in Manhattan.[46]

The Grand Central Palace's demise started in 1955, when the entire area around the terminal was opened for development in an attempt to net more money for the struggling New York Central Railroad.[48] By 1957, the du Pont estate proposed constructing five office buildings on a three-block site near Grand Central Terminal that included the Palace.[49] In 1963, it was announced that the Grand Central Palace would be demolished to make way for a 47-story office building being designed by Uris Buildings Corporation, which had acquired the leasehold for both the Palace and a nearby building.[50] Demolition started in June 1964.[51] The site of the Palace is now occupied by 245 Park Avenue.[52]

Design[edit]

Location in Manhattan

The original Grand Central Palace was a six-story brick structure. Its footprint measured 200 by 275 feet (61 by 84 m) and it contained 310,000 square feet (29,000 m2) of floor space. The first floor, at ground level, had cafes that flanked the entrance to Lexington Avenue on the east, as well as a large exhibition area. There was a grand staircase to the second floor, which had a three-story-high glass-domed hall with 12,000 square feet (1,100 m2) of floor space; the entire level contained a total of 55,000 square feet (5,100 m2). The third and fourth floors were devoted to galleries flanking either side of the second-floor hall, while the fifth and sixth floors formed a "hollow square"-shaped balcony above the glass dome. The interior was lit by more than 4,000 incandescent light bulbs, including seven chandeliers that collectively contained 700 bulbs. More than 50,000 people could be accommodated in the original building simultaneously. The structure had a 50,000-square-foot (4,600 m2) roof with a seasonal roof garden and a stage. A bridge connected the Palace to the Grand Central Depot, across Depew Place to the west.[2]

The second Grand Central Palace followed the precedent set by the Beaux-Arts architecture of Grand Central Terminal. It contained over 600,000 square feet (56,000 m2) of floor area.[18] The Lexington Avenue facade featured a portico supported by four classical columns. The lower three stories were occupied by exhibition spaces with the main exhibition hall on the second and third stories, and the ten upper floors were used for offices.[16]

Events and tenants[edit]

The Grand Central Palace hosted auto, boat, flower and trade shows.[16] The Palace was the main exhibition center for New York City during the first half of the 20th century.[16] By 1927, it hosted two million guests annually.[53] Office tenants in the Palace included the Selective Service and the Internal Revenue Service.[16]

The first exhibitions at the Grand Central Palace were trade shows held in 1893, before the structure was even completed.[2] Upon the Palace's opening in May 1893, the first exhibition held there was the gathering of the New York Press Club.[54] Other early tenants included the flower show,[55] amateur boxing,[56] and exhibits from Catholic school students.[57] However, the structure stood empty for the rest of the year, when it held some exhibits from the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.[58] One of the larger events hosted in the first Palace was a Democratic Party political rally in 1900, which was described at the time as "one of the largest ever held in the Grand Central Palace".[59]

The first auto show held in Grand Central Palace occurred in 1907 and was hosted by the Automobile Club of America. At the time, a separate auto show for foreign cars was hosted at the Madison Square Garden.[60] In 1911, the First Industrial Aeroplane Show (now the Industrial Airplane Show), was held in conjunction with the North American International Auto Show at Grand Central Palace.[61] The event ran from December 31, 1910 through mid-January 1911. It was a major event at the time, as many of the public had never seen an airplane.[62] The two auto shows were combined starting in 1913, though the combined auto shows were still split between Madison Square Garden and the new Grand Central Palace.[63]

The Palace was also the site of the Women's Industrial Expositions from 1912 to 1915.[64] The Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show was held at the Grand Central Palace, as well as the Exposition of Architecture and Allied Arts in the late 1920s and early 1930s. The 1927 exposition featured the installation of a Welte-Mignon theater organ in the hall.[52]

The Palace has also been used by the federal government during world wars. In September 1918, during World War I, the Grand Central Palace was leased as "Disembarkation Hospital no. 5" for American Expeditionary Forces returning from Europe.[22] The Palace was used in this way until April 1919.[23] Starting in October 1942, the Grand Central Palace was turned into an induction center for the U.S. Army,[38][39] being used as such until September 1945.[41]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "History at Grand Central" (PDF). History Channel. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d "A GREAT NEW BUILDING; II WILL BECOME FAMOUS AS THE GRAND CENTRAL PALACE. LEXINGTON AVENUE, DEPEW PLACE, FORTY-THIRD AND FORTY-FOURTH STREETS BOUND IT -- TO BE USED FOR PUBLIC AFFAIRS -- TOTAL FLOOR SURFACE OF 310,000 SQUARE FEET". The New York Times. October 1, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  3. ^ National Reporter System; New York (State). Court of Appeals; West Publishing Company; New York (State). Supreme Court (1907). The New York Supplement. 2 years transportation progress. West Publishing Company. p. 747. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d Robins, A.W.; New York Transit Museum (2013). Grand Central Terminal: 100 Years of a New York Landmark. ABRAMS. ISBN 978-1-61312-387-4. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Buys Two More Blocks". New-York Tribune. December 17, 1904. p. 6. Retrieved December 28, 2018 – via newspapers.com open access.
  6. ^ "DEATH OF ROBERT GOELET.; Body to be Brought to the United States on Board the Steam Yacht Nahma". The New York Times. April 29, 1899. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  7. ^ "GRAND CENTRAL PALACE OFFERED FOR POST OFFICE; Trustees of Goelet Estate Willing to Part with Site. Condemnation Proceedings Would Be Necessary, However, as Will Forbids the Sale of the Property". The New York Times. August 7, 1902. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  8. ^ "NEW YORK CENTRAL ADDS TWO BLOCKS TO TERMINAL". The New York Times. December 17, 1904. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  9. ^ "Big Land Deal; New York Central Bought Two More Blocks in New York City". Buffalo Commercial. December 17, 1904. p. 17. Retrieved December 10, 2018 – via newspapers.com open access.
  10. ^ "NOT TO RAZE BUILDING.; Grand Central Palace Will Continue to Receive Bookings". The New York Times. December 21, 1904. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  11. ^ a b c Schlichting, Kurt C. (2001). Grand Central Terminal: Railroads, Architecture and Engineering in New York. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6510-7.
  12. ^ a b "COMMUTER'S STATION IS NEARLY READY; Will Be Under Grand Central Palace for Three Years. TEST WITH DUMMY TRAINS Fourteen Tracks in the New Station, of Which Ten Have Third Rail Equipment". The New York Times. November 24, 1906. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  13. ^ "Electric Trains Soon". New-York Tribune. November 24, 1906. p. 12. Retrieved December 13, 2018 – via newspapers.com open access.
  14. ^ "ELECTRICAL SERVICE READY TO STAMFORD". The New York Times. October 5, 1907. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  15. ^ "LAST TRAIN LEAVES OLD CENTRAL STATION; Way Now Clear for the Beginning of the Great Terminal in Forty-second Street". The New York Times. June 5, 1910. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Dunlap, David W. (December 18, 2012). "When Trade Shows Were Both Central and Grand". New York Times. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  17. ^ a b "NEW GRAND CENTRAL PALACE.; First Big Building in New York Central Improvement Opens". The New York Times. May 20, 1911. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  18. ^ a b "New Grand Central Palace to Be Ready in May". Washington Post. Washington, DC. February 12, 1913. p. 39. Retrieved December 22, 2018 – via newspapers.com open access.
  19. ^ a b c "Grand Central Palace Remains Unchanged; Owner Denies Report Building Is to Be Converted Into Office Space". The New York Times. September 6, 1925. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  20. ^ "Central Palace for World's Mart; Alfred I. du Pont and Associates Buy Leasehold ofa". The New York Times. May 21, 1918. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  21. ^ "Will Rent Palace at Cost.; Du Pont Expects Government to Take Over Building Oct. 1". The New York Times. August 23, 1918. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  22. ^ a b War Department Annual Reports (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1920), vol. 1, part 3: Report of the Surgeon General (continued), p. 2989.
  23. ^ a b "Will Relinquish Hospital.; Government to Restore Grand Central Palace to the Lessees". The New York Times. April 11, 1919. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  24. ^ "Palace Expositions to End April 1, 1921; Grand Central Building, Controlled by A.I. du Pont Interests, to be Remodeled. Seeks Business Tenants Move Leaves City Without a Structure in Which to HoldBig Displays". The New York Times. May 12, 1920. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  25. ^ "Palace Plans Explained.; S.H. MacSherry Says Only International Shows Will Continue". The New York Times. May 13, 1920. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  26. ^ "Proposed Addition to Grand Central Palace". The New York Times. November 21, 1920. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  27. ^ "New Office Building for Park Avenue; Robert M. Catts to Erect 18Story Structure on Site Leased From Railroad Companies, To Cost About $3,000,000 Will Occupy Plot Adjoining Grand Central Palace, Which Will Be Remodeled at Cost of $500,000". The New York Times. January 6, 1921. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  28. ^ "$2,000,000 Annex Planned". The New York Times. June 27, 1922. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  29. ^ a b "Buys Entire Block at Grand Central; August Heckscher Gets Control of Palace and Adjoining Office Building". The New York Times. August 1, 1923. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  30. ^ "Grand Central Palace Remains Unchanged; Owner Denies Report Building Is to Be Converted Into Office Space". The New York Times. September 6, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  31. ^ "Catts Enterprises in Receivers' Hands; Realty Operator's Liabilities Put at $1,000,000, Those of His Exchange at $11,000,000. Both Solvent, He Says Assets $10,005,000, Say Creditors -- Grand Central Palace and Other Sales to Go On". The New York Times. February 2, 1927. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  32. ^ "Spanish Peoples Get Centre Here; Millions Involved in Purchase of Grand Central Palace and Park Lexington Building. Alfonso Said to Back Plan Linking of World Activities Is Aim of Project -- South and Central America Included. SPANISH PEOPLES GET CENTRE HERE". The New York Times. January 10, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  33. ^ "Spanish Count Here to Aid Centre Plan; Philippine Business Man, the Principal in Grand Central Project, Views Palace. Confident of Success Says He Has Put Large Part of His Fortune In Cultural Scheme -- Expects to Live in New York". The New York Times. March 6, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  34. ^ "Exposition Centre in Foreclosure Suit; Park-Lexington Building Also Is Included in Action Against Grand Central Palace. $4,768,500 Bonds Called Court Asked to Sell Properties Following Default on Interest and Sinking Fund". The New York Times. May 4, 1932. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  35. ^ "Postoffice Site Set at $7,000,000; I.C.C. Fixes This as Maximum Valuation for Grand Central Office Building. Heckscher Makes Offer Proffers Grand Central Palace for $6,000,000 -- Choice Believed to Lie Between the Two". The New York Times. January 4, 1933. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  36. ^ Lovejoy, Clarence E. (September 28, 1941). "Exhibition Held Annually in Grand Central Palace Off for First Time Since 1904 -- Priorities on Materials Blamed". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  37. ^ "Flower Show Off Till War Is Ended; But Exposition Promises to 'Make Up for It With a Bang-Up Peace Show' Difficulties Are Recited After Army Took Over Grand Central Palace, Move to the Garden Was Considered". The New York Times. October 6, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  38. ^ a b "First Drafted Men Go to New Center; Grand Central Palace, Taken Over by the Army Recently, Handles 3,000 in Day". The New York Times. October 13, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  39. ^ a b "Army opens biggest induction center in U.S.," Life, 13 (20) : 51, 52, 54, 56, and 58 (November 16, 1942).
  40. ^ "Inductions Ended at Grand Central; Last Inductees at Grand Central Palace". The New York Times. September 29, 1945. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  41. ^ a b "Army Will Close Rented Facilities; To Give Up 17 Places in This Area, Including Grand Central Palace Induction Center". The New York Times. September 18, 1945. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  42. ^ "Convention Loss to City Deplored; Ryan Report Puts Total at Five to Ten Millions Due to Lack of Suitable Buildings". The New York Times. September 21, 1947. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  43. ^ "CITY GROUPS SCORE U. S. PALACE PLAN; Big Loss Is Seen if Exhibition Unit in Midtown Is Leased for Revenue Bureau". The New York Times. December 30, 1952. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  44. ^ "Convention Bureau Urges U. S. Palace Pact To Allow Shows Until City Coliseum Arises". The New York Times. December 31, 1952. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  45. ^ "U. S. Ends Its Plan for Palace Lease; Revenue Agency Changes Mind, Now Calls Lexington Avenue Space 'Not Desirable' Letter Sent to Coudert Government Wanted to Take Hall Next October, Despite Protest of Civic Groups". The New York Times. February 25, 1953. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  46. ^ a b "Tax Unit Leases Exhibit Building; Grand Central Palace to Rent for $513,000 Annually as Office to Handle Returns Five-Year Pact is Signed Trade Shows Will Be Shifted to Bronx – Manhattan Armories Until Coliseum Is Built". The New York Times. March 21, 1953. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  47. ^ "Shows Will Go On at Grand Central; Palace Building to Continue to House Exhibitions to Nov. 1, When Alterations Begin". The New York Times. March 31, 1953. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  48. ^ Porter, Russell (March 2, 1955). "Grand Central Area Open for Rebuilding; Central's Area Opened For Sale". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  49. ^ Bedingfield, Robert E. (January 18, 1957). "$100,000,000 Park Ave. Center Considered by New Haven Road; Expects to Talk to Central Would Erect 5 Buildings". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  50. ^ Ennis, Thomas W. (April 4, 1963). "Grand Central Palace to Be Razed; East Side to Get New Skyscraper Grand Central Palace Giving Way to 47-Story Building". The New York Times. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  51. ^ "Work Begun on Razing Grand Central Palace". The New York Times. June 5, 1964. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  52. ^ a b "Exposition of Architecture and Allied Arts". NYC AGO. Archived from the original on August 26, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  53. ^ "ANNUAL EXPOSITIONS PLAY IMPORTANT PART IN INDUSTRY; Grand Central Palace, in New York, Shows Wares of Nation to 2,000,000 Persons a Year". The New York Times. October 9, 1927. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  54. ^ "CLOSE OF THE PRESS CLUB FAIR.; A Great Attendance Last Evening -- The Financial Results Unknown". The New York Times. October 1, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  55. ^ "THE FLOWERS WILL ALL BE QUEENS; Chrysanthemums Reign This Week in the Grand Central Palace". The New York Times. November 4, 1894. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  56. ^ "AMATEUR BOXING BOUTS.; More Indifferent than Good Contests at Grand Central Palace Hall". The New York Times. February 11, 1894. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  57. ^ "EXHIBIT OF THE CATHOLIC SCHOOLS.; Elaborate Programme for an Instructive Exposition at Grand Central Palace". The New York Times. May 7, 1894. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  58. ^ "New York Will Have a Fair". Buffalo Evening News. Buffalo, NY. October 2, 1893. p. 19. Retrieved December 22, 2018 – via newspapers.com open access.
  59. ^ "Cochran's Scheme Fails". New-York Tribune. January 30, 1900. pp. 1, 7 – via newspapers.com open access.
  60. ^ "FIRST AUTO SHOW OPENS THIS WEEK; Army of Motorists Coming to New York for Grand Central Palace Exhibit. GREAT VARIETY OF CARS Prices Range from $500 to $7,000 -- 250 Machines to be Displayed, Besides Accessories and Balloons. WHY TWO SHOWS ARE HELD. Independents Do Not Recognize Selden Patent -- What Association Does". The New York Times. October 20, 1907. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  61. ^ "AEROPLANES AT PALACE EXHIBIT; Air Machines to be Feature of International Automobile Show". The New York Times. December 18, 1910. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  62. ^ "Grand Central Palace Automobile Show has Auspicious Opening". The New York Times. January 1, 1911. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  63. ^ "ONE AUTO SHOW IN NEW YORK NEXT YEAR; Two Divisions, One at New Grand Central Palace and One at Madison Square Garden". The New York Times. May 22, 1912. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  64. ^ "A Corner of an Exhibit at the Women's Industrial Exposition New York City, 1915" The School Arts Magazine, Vol. 15 No. 9 (May 1916), 678.

External links[edit]