Grand Central Terminal art
Grand Central Terminal, one of the main railroad stations in New York City, features public art by a variety of artists. Through its status as a transportation and architectural icon, the terminal has also been depicted in many works of art.
Grand Central features permanent works of art, including the celestial ceiling in the Main Concourse, the Glory of Commerce work and the statue of Cornelius Vanderbilt in front of the building's south facade, and the two cast-iron eagle statues adorning the terminal's facades. As well, Vanderbilt Hall is regularly used for temporary art exhibitions and events. The Dining Concourse has a series of lightboxes also used to display temporary art exhibits. The terminal is also known for its performance and installation art, including flash mobs and other spontaneous events.
- 1 Artwork on display or part of the terminal
- 2 Exhibitions and performances
- 3 Art featuring Grand Central
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Works cited
- 7 External links
Artwork on display or part of the terminal
Glory of Commerce
The Glory of Commerce sculptural group rests atop the terminal's facade, directly above a broken pediment featuring a large clock. The work is also known as Progress with Mental and Physical Force or Transportation. It is about 48 feet (15 m) tall, 66 feet (20 m) wide, and weighs about 1,500 pounds (680 kg). At its unveiling in 1914, the work was considered the largest sculptural group in the world.
The work includes representations of Minerva, Hercules, and Mercury. The sculptures were designed by French sculptor Jules-Félix Coutan and carved by the John Donnelly Company. Coutan created the model in his Paris studio and shipped it to New York City later.
Mercury is standing at the top center of the work, depicted traditionally with a caduceus and wearing a winged helmet, with loose drapery concealing otherwise complete nudity. He is standing in a contrapposto pose in front of an eagle, wings outstretched, peering around his right leg. Two other gods are depicted to Mercury's left and right: the male figure to his left is typically and officially deemed Hercules, though he lacks the god's characteristic club and lion skin. Instead, the god is depicted among an anchor, cogwheel, anvil and hammer, a beehive, grapes, wheat ears and a sickle. Many of these are symbols of Vulcan, who is depicted with Minerva and Mercury in other works. He is also nearly naked, staring at Mercury above him. The female figure, Minerva, is resting her head on her left arm, looking down at a roll of parchment on her lap. She is depicted among a globe, a measuring compass, volumes of books and thick wreaths of laurel.
The work is seen as attempting to fulfill several goals: portraying the terminal itself as a new technology, representing the Vanderbilt family, and serving as an artistic piece to parallel European art and architecture of the time.
There is a 13-foot-wide (4.0 m) clock on top of the south facade. It contains the world's largest example of Tiffany glass. The clock was designed by the Self Winding Clock Company, along with several other clocks in the terminal. The digit "VI", on the bottom of the clock, hides a flap that is used for maintenance.
A statue of Cornelius Vanderbilt, longtime owner of New York Central, is located at the center of the terminal's south facade, directly below the Tiffany clock and facing the Park Avenue Viaduct. The work was sculpted by Ernst Plassmann, and is of bronze, 8.5 feet (2.6 m) tall and weighing 4 tons, with a 9-foot-tall granite pedestal. It depicts Vanderbilt bareheaded and in his commonly-seen winter clothes, including a heavy double-breasted and fur-trimmed overcoat. He is posed in a noble way, described as Jeffersonian, with one hand on his chest and another outstretched. It was the largest bronze statue cast in the United States at the time.
The statue was created as part of a bronze bas-relief on the facade of the Hudson River Railroad depot at St. John's Park in the present-day neighborhood of Tribeca. The bas-relief was 150-foot (46 m) long and depicted various components of Vanderbilt's life, including his steamships and trains. The relief and statue were generally designed by Albert De Greoot, a steamship captain under Vanderbilt, though they were sculpted by Plassmann. The works were unveiled and dedicated in November 1869. In 1929, Plassmann's statue was moved to Grand Central Terminal. Newspapers and other writers were highly critical of the bas-relief and Plassmann's statue, both at its dedication in 1869 at the depot and as installed in front of the terminal. Vanderbilt cut short plans for another statue of him at Grand Central Depot, which was built in 1871. De Groot had designed a statue of Vanderbilt with a sailor at one side and Native American at the other, though the criticism of Plassmann's statue may have convinced Vanderbilt to abandon the new statue planned.
Grand Central Terminal has two cast-iron eagle statues on display. The eagles weigh about 4,000 pounds (1,800 kg) each, and have a wingspan of about 13 feet (4.0 m).
Eleven or twelve eagles were originally ornaments atop the terminal's predecessor, Grand Central Station. In 1910, when the station was demolished to build Grand Central, many of the eagles were dispersed throughout the city and New York state. The terminal's two eagles were donated to the MTA, including one which stood in a backyard in Bronxville, New York, placed atop the Lexington Avenue entrance to Grand Central Market in 1999. The other was at a monastery in Garrison, New York (the present-day Garrison Institute), and is now at the terminal's southwest entrance by Vanderbilt Avenue and 42nd Street, installed in 2004. Eight other identical eagle statues are located in various locations, including one at a private home in Kings Point, New York, one at the Space Farms Zoo and Museum in Beemerville, New Jersey, two at the Vanderbilt Museum in Long Island, one known as the "Shandaken Eagle" in Phoenicia, New York, two at Saint Basil Academy in Garrison, and one at the Philipse Manor station in Sleepy Hollow, New York. One or two of Grand Central Station's eagles remain lost.
The Main Concourse's ceiling is an elliptical barrel vault. Original plans called for the ceiling to contain a skylight, but this was not practical, so instead, the ceiling contains an elaborately decorated celestial mural. The mural contains over 2,500 stars and several bands in gold, set against a turquoise backdrop. It is painted on a false ceiling of square boards installed over the original celestial ceiling. The mural was conceived in 1912 by architect Warren and painter Paul César Helleu, and executed by James Monroe Hewlett and Charles Basing of Hewlett-Basing Studio, with Helleu consulting. Helleu had come to the United States to create portraits of eight women for a Parisian magazine, and during his three-month stay, he sketched a conceptual design for Warren. Helleu worked from a chart given by Columbia astronomy professor Harold Jacoby, who had derived it from the Uranometria, a star atlas published in 1603.
Corps of astronomers and painting assistants worked with Hewlett and Basing, and over fifty people helped paint the mural. Around sixty-three electric bulbs were installed to amplify the visual impact of the stars. The depicted constellations include those of the winter zodiac viewable from October to March, from Aquarius to Cancer. Also depicted are Pegasus, Triangulum, Musca, and Orion, as well as two broad gold bands spanning the ceiling, representing the ecliptic and the equator.
The original mural was painted directly on the ceiling. However, by the 1940s, the roof began to leak, causing severe water damage and mold growth on the mural. Therefore in 1944, New York Central covered the original ceiling with boards and painted an imitation mural over these boards; the outline of the boards is plainly visible today. By the 1980s, the new ceiling was obscured by decades of what was thought to be coal and diesel smoke. Spectroscopic examination revealed that it was mostly tar and nicotine from tobacco smoke. Historians and preservationists wanted the boards removed and the ceiling restored, but the architecture firm renovating Grand Central in the 1980s, Beyer Blinder Belle, deemed the original ceiling mural to be irreversibly damaged, and found that the boards contain asbestos, and thus their removal would be hazardous. Beyer Blinder Belle officials initially assumed that false ceiling panels could be attached to the original ceiling via suspension wires, but later found that the ceiling was too weak to support these panels. Starting in September 1996, the ceiling boards were cleaned and repainted. Additionally, lights were installed into the ceiling boards to imitate the stars, restoring a feature previously only seen from 1913 to 1944. A single dark patch above the former Michael Jordan Steakhouse and next to the crab constellation (representing Cancer) was left untouched by renovators to remind visitors of the grime that once covered the ceiling.
There is a small dark circle amid the stars above the image of Pisces. In a 1957 attempt to improve public morale after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, an American Redstone missile was set up in the Main Concourse. With no other way to erect the missile, a hole was cut into the mural boards installed in 1944 to allow a cable to be lowered to lift the rocket into place. Historical preservation dictated that this hole remain as a reminder of the many uses of the Terminal over the years.
The starry ceiling contains several astronomical inaccuracies. While the stars within some constellations appear correctly as they would from earth, other constellations are reversed left-to-right, as is the overall arrangement of the constellations on the ceiling. For example, Orion is correctly rendered, but the adjacent constellations Taurus and Gemini are reversed both internally and in their relation to Orion, with Taurus near Orion's raised arm where Gemini should be. There are various explanations that are often given for this error. One possible explanation is that the overall ceiling design might have been based on the medieval custom of depicting the sky as it would appear to God looking in at the celestial sphere from outside, but that would have reversed Orion as well. A more likely explanation is partially mistaken transcription of the sketch supplied by Harold Jacoby. Though the astronomical inconsistencies were noticed promptly by a commuter in 1913, they have not been corrected in any of the subsequent renovations of the ceiling.
Graybar Passage mural
The Graybar Passage extends from the northeast corner of the Main Concourse, underneath the Graybar Building, directly east to Lexington Avenue. The ceiling is composed of seven groin vaults, each of which has an ornamental bronze chandelier. One of the vaults features a mural depicting American transportation. The work was painted in 1927 by muralist Edward Trumbull. The first two vaults viewed from leaving Grand Central featured cumulus clouds, while the third remains, featuring technologies that had significantly affected the world. These include a train pulled by an electric locomotive, a bridge resembling the original design of the city's High Bridge, the construction of a skyscraper, the manufacturing of steel, and several airplanes (including the Spirit of St. Louis) along with a searchlight and radio tower. The mural has a caramel color; the once-bright colors present have faded over time.
Sirshasana, installed in the ceiling of Grand Central Market, was created by Donald Lipski in 1998. It is an aluminum and polyester resin sculpture with crystals. The chandelier has the shape of an olive tree, with branches spanning 25 feet and featuring 5,000 crystal pendants. The base of the tree is finished in gold and crystals, in place of olives. The sculpture is named after a headstand posture in yoga – the inverted tree. The work alludes to Grand Central's decorative chandeliers, and is a "comment on the allure of the exotic and tempting wares sold in the marketplace". The sculpture hangs just beyond the market's 43rd Street entrance.
As Above, So Below
As Above, So Below was made by Ellen Driscoll, a Brooklyn-based artist, in 1998. The work is of glass, bronze, and mosaic, and is located in a passageway in Grand Central North. The mosaic has five different scenes, each stemming from different continents, representing myths and legends about the heavens that reflect life on earth. The work reminds passengers of humanity's spiritual and worldly past while they move through the terminal. This work is similar to the terminal's astronomical ceiling, both symbolizing our connection to the wider world and heavens.
A Field of Wild Flowers
A Field of Wild Flowers was made by Roberto Juarez in 1997. The work utilizes many materials, with layers of gesso, under-painting, urethane, and varnish, along with rice paper and a dusting of peat moss, to give texture, strength, and beauty. It depicts a bountiful garden landscape, made to appear as seen though windows of a slow-moving train. It also repeats some of Grand Central's architectural details, including fruit, acorns, and garlands. The mural is on the walls of the Station Master's Office, and acts to bring serenity to a busy terminal.
One of the retail areas of the Graybar Passage, currently the alcohol vendor Central Cellars, was the Grand Central Theatre or Terminal Newsreel Theatre. The movie theater lobby had walls covered with large world maps and an astronomical mural painted by Tony Sarg. The theater opened in 1937 and operated for about 30 years before being gutted for retail space. A renovation in the early 2000s removed a false ceiling, revealing the theater's astronomical mural (similar in colors and style to the Main Concourse ceiling) and projection window.
The Dining Concourse has 16 lightboxes that form a quadriptych. MTA Arts & Design maintains a rotating art exhibition in the space. The first non-photographic exhibit in the space was On Paper/ Grand Central at 100, which was created for the terminal's centennial and was displayed from September 2013 to September 2014. It featured four works by contemporary and international paper cut artists: Thomas Witte's Cutting Shadows, Xin Song's Time · Light · Gate · Clock, Laura Cooperman's Overhead, and Rob Ryans' There Is Only Time. The works use themes from Grand Central's architecture and grandeur, and family memories. 
Exhibitions and performances
Grand Central Terminal has held a number of special exhibits, including:
- In June 1948, a fashion show by Filene's and the New Haven Railroad was hosted on the balcony of the Main Concourse, and a thousand square feet of sand was imported for the event. The show also used space at Track 61, in a storage yard north of Grand Central.
- In 1993, a portion of Ruckus Manhattan, an exhibit by Red Grooms, was displayed in the Vanderbilt Hall.
- In 1995, Lost: New York Projects by Christian Boltanski involved a display, titled Lost Property, of about 5,000 personal belongings from the terminal's lost-and-found, on display on metal shelves in the Biltmore Room.
- In 1997, Chrysanne Stathacos created the Wish Machine, an interactive installation where passers-by could buy a scent from a vending-machine-style installation which would in turn aid them in manifesting a desire. The work was commissioned by Creative Time as part of their Day With(out) Art initiative.
- In 2004, Rudolf Stingel debuted his first work of public art at Grand Central, in Vanderbilt Hall, titled "Plan B".
- In 2009, the hall hosted four of the BMW Art Cars, cars which were painted by Andy Warhol, Frank Stella, Roy Lichtenstein, and Robert Rauschenberg.
The Main Concourse and Vanderbilt Hall frequently host special exhibits and events. These include:
- Every year, the terminal has had concerts with Christmas carols and organ recitals. In the 1930s, a woman named Mary Lee Read would often give organ concerts from one of the terminal's balconies.
- In 1935, the Works Progress Administration-backed Manhattan Concert Band performed
- In 1943, an Easter performance was given by the Princeton Theological Seminary choir.
- In 1987, the performing arts organization Dancing in the Streets presented Grand Central Dances. The production involved the dance companies of Merce Cunningham, Lucinda Childs, Paul Thompson and Stephan Koplowitz, as well as the high-wire artist Philippe Petit and juggler Michael Moschen. The event included "Terminal Triptych", an hour-long dance in the Biltmore Room, "Fenestrations", a 13-minute dance on four levels of the Main Concourse's window catwalks, and a tight-rope walk across the concourse by Petit.
- In 1988, a Double Dutch jump-roping competition was held in the Main Concourse as part of a city-sponsored "Summer Games".
- In 2011, a flash mob show by Moncler Grenoble took place in the Main Concourse.
- In 2013, Nick Cave and dancers from the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater organized the performance Heard NY. The performance took place in Vanderbilt Hall, the Main Concourse, and on the catwalks between the terminal's arched windows. The MTA had approached Cave for this project for the terminal's centennial, and the performance piece ran for one week.
The terminal hosts numerous performances. It is also a host site for Music Under New York, where musicians can perform within various transit hubs controlled by the MTA. In Grand Central, artists can perform in the Graybar Passage as well as in the Dining Concourse, opposite Tracks 105 and 106. Auditions for the program take place each spring in the terminal's Vanderbilt Hall.
Beginning during the Christmas season of 1928 and continuing on certain holidays until 1958, an organist performed in Grand Central's North Gallery. The organist was Mary Lee Read, who initially performed on a borrowed Hammond organ. Grand Central management eventually bought an organ and a set of chimes for the station and began paying Read an annual retainer. In addition to the weeks before Christmas, Read played during the weeks before Thanksgiving and Easter and on Mother's Day. On one Easter, a choir composed of Works Progress Administration employees performed with her. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, she attempted to lift spirits by playing "The Star-Spangled Banner", which brought the main concourse to a standstill. The stationmaster subsequently asked her to avoid selections that would cause passengers to miss their trains, and Read became known as the only organist in New York who was forbidden to play the United States' national anthem. In 2018, Paul McCartney gave a private concert in the terminal on the premiere date of his new album Egypt Station, with guests including Jon Bon Jovi, Meryl Streep, Amy Schumer, Kate Moss and Steve Buscemi.
Art featuring Grand Central
Grand Central is one of the most-photographed places in New York City and the United States. One of the most famous photographs of the terminal shows light streaming from Main Concourse windows down to the floor. The work is reproduced online through hundreds of different images, with variations in angles, cropping, flipping, filters, and watermarks, as well as the author and date attributed to the works. Photographer Penelope Umbrico collected a sample of such images in Four Photographs of Rays of Sunlight in Grand Central, on display in the terminal's Dining Concourse.
Paintings depicting Grand Central include:
- John French Sloan, Grand Central Station, 1924
- Max Weber, Grand Central Terminal, 1915
- Jim Campbell, Grand Central Station #2, 2009
- Ernest Lawson, Old Grand Central
- Howard Thain, Grand Central Station, N.Y.C., 1927
- Howard Thain, Park Avenue at 42nd Street, N.Y.C., 1927
- Johann Berthelsen, Grand Central Station in Snow
- Colin Campbell Cooper, Grand Central Station, 1909
- Schröder, Asta Freifrau von (June 2, 2014). "Images and Messages in the Embellishment of Metropolitan Railway Stations (1850 – 1950)" (PDF). Technische Universität Berlin. doi:10.14279/depositonce-3901. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Wheeler, Edward J., ed. (1914). "The Greatest Group of Sculptures in America". Current Opinion. 57: 133. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Roberts 2013, p. 89; Bilotto & DiLorenzo 2017, p. 2
- Morrone, Francis (Summer 1999). "Statues and Civic Memory". City Journal. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- Erikson, Chris (February 3, 2013). "Grand Central Terminal: My landmark New York". New York Post. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- Schlichting 2001, p. 124
- Robins & New York Transit Museum 2013, p. 76
- Langmead 2009, p. 176
- Swidler, Kim Stuart (August 29, 2012). "Secrets of NYC's Grand Central Terminal: Outdoor Tiffany Clock Up Close". Times Union. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
- Barron, James (March 25, 2011). "A Clock Moves in Grand Central, and Memories Stir". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
- Robins & New York Transit Museum 2013, p. 122
- "Inaccessible New York: Behind The Scenes At Grand Central Terminal". CBS New York. March 30, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- Durante, Dianne L. (2007). Outdoor Monuments of Manhattan: A Historical Guide. NYU Press. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- Gray, Christopher (March 19, 2006). "The Curious Travels of the Commodore". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
- "Grand Central Terminal to Have Vanderbilt Statue". The New York Times. February 24, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
- Robins & New York Transit Museum 2013, p. 6
- Renehan, Jr., Edward J. (2007). Commodore: The Life of Cornelius Vanderbilt. Basic Books. pp. x–xi, 271–275. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- Ortiz, Brennan (February 24, 2014). "Where Are the Cast-Iron Eagles of the Original Grand Central Terminal?". Untapped Cities. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- Ferguson, Colleen (August 8, 2018). "Secrets of Grand Central Terminal: missing decorations, hidden staircases and a tiny acorn". The Journal News. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- "Concourse Roof, Grand Central Terminal, New York City". Engineering Record. 67 (8): 210. February 22, 1913. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- Belle & Leighton 2000, p. 57
- Robins & New York Transit Museum 2013, p. 90
- "CENTRAL TERMINAL OPENING ON SUNDAY; Men Working Day and Night to Finish Main Section of the Great Station". The New York Times. January 29, 1913. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
- Railway and Locomotive Engineering: A Practical Journal of Railway Motive Power and Rolling Stock. 1913. p. 85. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
- "Central Terminal Opening on Sunday". The New York Times. January 29, 1913. p. 13. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- "F.Y.I." The New York Times. July 29, 2001. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
- "What Is That Spot on the Ceiling of Grand Central Terminal?". The New York Times. June 7, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- Lueck, Thomas J. (September 20, 1996). "Work Starts 100 Feet Above Grand Central Commuters". The New York Times. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
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- Robins & New York Transit Museum 2013, p. 90
- Robins & New York Transit Museum 2013, p. 90
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- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1980
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- "Atomic Missile On Display Here; Army's Supersonic Redstone, 63 Feet Tall, Begins 3-Week Show at Grand Central". The New York Times. July 7, 1957. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- "Constellations Reversed: New Grand Central Ceiling Has the Heavens Turned Around", The New York Times, March 23, 1913, p.10.
- Robins & New York Transit Museum 2013, p. 90
- "Grand Central Directory" (PDF). Grand Central Terminal. April 2018. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- "Grand Central Subdistrict" (PDF). Department of City Planning, New York City. November 1991. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- Thurber, Dan (April 23, 2017). "The Story of Grand Central's Other Ceiling Mural". Bookworm History. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
- "Grand Central Terminal: Donald Lipski: Sirshasana, 1998". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
- "Grand Central Terminal: Ellen Driscoll: As Above, So Below, 19988". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
- Ames, Lynn (October 10, 1999). "The View From/Manhattan; A Shorter Commute". The New York Times. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
- "Grand Central Terminal: Roberto Juarez: A Field of Wild Flowers, 1997". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
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- "MTA | news | MTA Arts for Transit Unveils New Papercut Exhibition at Grand Central". Mta.info. September 27, 2013. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- Song, Xin. "Thomas Witte is Cutting Shadows in Grand Central Station". Installationmag.com. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- Opie, Catherine. "Xin Song's Paper Architecture at Grand Central Station". Installationmag.com. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- "ON PAPER – Grand Central Exhibition". strictlypaper. 2013-10-01. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- Mondrus, Nicole (July 23, 2019). "Grand Central photography exhibit shows iconic landmarks on empty NYC streets". Retrieved July 24, 2019.
- Pope, Virginia (1948-06-11). "TOUCH OF CAPE COD AT GRAND CENTRAL; Models Disport on Balcony in Beach Togs in Show by Filene and Railroad". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
- Robins & New York Transit Museum 2013, p. 200
- "Lost: New York Projects". Public Art Fund. 1992-11-30. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
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- Stakenas, Carol (2003). "Crossing the Threshold". In Malloy, Judy (ed.). Women, Art and Technology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. p. 498. ISBN 9780262134248.
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- Robins & New York Transit Museum 2013, pp. 205–206
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- Yarrow, Andrew L. (October 9, 1987). "Adventurous Performers In Unexpected Places". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- "Playground Virtuosos in Concert". The New York Times. August 23, 1988. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
- Trebay, Guy (February 14, 2011). "Moncler Grenoble Show Takes Over Grand Central". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- "Watch Out for the Horses on Your Way to the Train". The New York Times. March 24, 2013. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- Binlot, Ann (March 27, 2013). "Nick Cave's Heard Dances Through Grand Central Station". Interview Magazine. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- "MTA – Arts for Transit | MUNY Locations". Web.mta.info. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- "MTA – Arts for Transit | Music Audition Information". Web.mta.info. March 21, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- Pollak, Michael (October 10, 2014). "Did Grand Central Terminal Have a Live Organist?". The New York Times. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
- "Paul McCartney gives "secret concert" at NYC's Grand Central". CBS News. September 8, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
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- "Blount Gallery: Gallery Two". MMFA Docent Volunteers. Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- "Max Weber: Grand Central Terminal". Thyssen-Bornemisza National Museum. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- "Grand Central Station #2 | Smithsonian American Art Museum". Americanart.si.edu. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
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- "Grand Central Station". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- Belle, John; Leighton, Maxinne Rhea (2000). Grand Central: Gateway to a Million Lives. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04765-3.
- Bilotto, Gregory; DiLorenzo, Frank (2017). Building Grand Central Terminal. Arcadia Publishing Incorporated. ISBN 978-1-4396-6051-5.
- Langmead, Donald (2009). Icons of American Architecture: From the Alamo to the World Trade Center. Greenwood Icons. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-34207-3.
- Roberts, Sam (January 22, 2013). Grand Central: How a Train Station Transformed America. Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4555-2595-9.
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- Schlichting, Kurt C. (2001). Grand Central Terminal: Railroads, Architecture and Engineering in New York. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6510-7.