Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg

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Jean
Grand Duke Jean 29.09.2006.jpg
Jean at the wedding of his grandson
Prince Louis of Luxembourg in 2006
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Reign 12 November 1964 – 7 October 2000
Predecessor Charlotte
Successor Henri
Born (1921-01-05) 5 January 1921 (age 95)
Berg Castle, Luxembourg
Consort Princess Joséphine Charlotte of Belgium (m. 1953)
Issue Archduchess Marie Astrid of Austria
Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Prince Jean
Princess Margaretha of Liechtenstein
Prince Guillaume
Full name
Jean Benoît Guillaume Robert Antoine Louis Marie Adolphe Marc d'Aviano
House Nassau-Weilburg
Father Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma
Mother Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
Religion Catholicism
Signature
Styles of
Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg
CoA Grand Duke of Luxembourg 1898-2000.svg
Reference style His Royal Highness
Spoken style Your Royal Highness
Alternative style Monseigneur ("My Lord", only by Luxembourg nationals)

Jean (given names: Jean Benoît Guillaume Robert Antoine Louis Marie Adolphe Marc d'Aviano; born 5 January 1921) reigned as Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1964 until his abdication in 2000. He is the father of the current ruler, Grand Duke Henri, and the son of Grand Duchess Charlotte and Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma. Among his godparents was Pope Benedict XV, who gave him his second name.[citation needed]

Early life[edit]

Jean was born on 5 January 1921, at Berg Castle, in central Luxembourg, the son of Grand Duchess Charlotte and of Prince Félix of Bourbon-Parma. He attended primary school in Luxembourg, where he continued the initial stage of secondary education. He completed secondary school at Ampleforth College, a Roman Catholic boarding school in the United Kingdom. Upon reaching maturity, on 5 January 1938, he was styled 'Hereditary Grand Duke', recognising his status as heir apparent.

Second World War[edit]

On 10 May 1940, Germany invaded Luxembourg, beginning a four-year occupation. Having been warned of an imminent invasion, the Grand Ducal Family escaped the previous night. At first, they sought refuge in Paris, before fleeing France only weeks later. The Grand Ducal Family sought refuge in the United States, renting an estate in Brookville, New York. Jean studied Law and Political Science at Université Laval, Quebec City.[1]

He joined the British Army as a volunteer in the Irish Guards in November 1942.[1] After receiving officer training at the Royal Military College at Sandhurst, Jean was commissioned as a Lieutenant in July 1943,[1] before being promoted to captain in 1944. He landed in Normandy on 11 June 1944, and took part in the Battle for Caen and the liberation of Brussels.[1] On 10 September 1944, he took part in the liberation of Luxembourg before moving on to Arnhem and the invasion of Germany.[1] After the war, from 1984 until his abdication, he served as Colonel of the Regiment of the Irish Guards,[1] often riding in uniform behind Queen Elizabeth II during the Sovereign's Birthday Parade.

Reign[edit]

He was named Lieutenant-Representative of the Grand Duchess on 28 April 1961.[1]

He became Grand Duke when his mother, the Grand Duchess Charlotte, abdicated on 12 November 1964.[2] The same day, he was made a General of the Luxembourg Army.[1]

Grand Duke Jean abdicated on 7 October 2000, and was succeeded on the throne by his son Henri. Grand Duke Jean now lives at Fischbach Castle.[3]

The Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art (Mudam) bears his name.

Issue[edit]

He was married in Luxembourg on 9 April 1953 to Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium (1927–2005),[1] daughter of Léopold III, King of the Belgians. They had three sons and two daughters, twenty-two grandchildren and eight great-grandchildren:

Titles, styles, and honours[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]

  • 5 January 1921 – 12 November 1964: His Royal Highness The Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Hereditary Prince of Nassau, Prince of Bourbon-Parma
  • 12 November 1964 – 7 October 2000: His Royal Highness The Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau
  • 7 October 2000 – present: His Royal Highness Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau

His full title is "by the Grace of God, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Count of Sayn, Königstein, Katzenelnbogen and Diez, Burgrave of Hammerstein, Lord of Mahlberg, Wiesbaden, Idstein, Merenberg, Limburg and Eppstein." Many of the titles are held without regard to the strict rules of salic inheritance.

Change of dynastic titles[edit]

Jean renounced the titles of the House of Bourbon-Parma for himself and his family in 1986[5] when his eldest son, then-Hereditary Grand Duke Henri married Maria-Theresa Mestre. The reason for this was that the Duke of Parma, Carlos Hugo, ruled the marriage unequal in 1981, as well as the marriage of Prince Jean to Hélène Suzanna Vestur in 1987, for which he had renounced his rights to Luxembourg in 1986. It is not known if the marriage of Prince Guillaume was seen by Carlos Hugo as equal.

The Arrêté Grand-Ducal (Grand Ducal decree) of 21 September 1995 established that the title of Prince/Princesse de Luxembourg is reserved for the children of the sovereign and the heir to the throne. It also stated that the descendants in male lineage of the sovereign should be styled as Royal Highnesses and titled Prince/Princess of Nassau and that the descendants of unapproved marriages should be styled as Count/Countess of Nassau.[6]

Luxembourgish honours and awards[edit]

See also List of honours of the Luxembourgish Grand-Ducal Family by country

Foreign honours and awards[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

Patrilineal descent[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Born: 5 January 1921
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charlotte
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
1964–2000
Succeeded by
Henri
Military offices
Preceded by
Basil Eugster
Colonel of the Irish Guards
1984–2000
Succeeded by
The Duke of Abercorn