List of rulers of Tuscany

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Grand Duke of Tuscany
Great coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.svg
Leopold II of Tuscany.jpg
Details
Style His/her Imperial and Royal Highness
First monarch Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Last monarch Leopold II (de jure)
Ferdinand IV (de facto/titular)
Formation 27 August 1569
Abolition 16 August 1859
Pretender(s) Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany

The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.

Margraves of Tuscany, 812–1197[edit]

House of Boniface[edit]

These were originally counts of Lucca who extended their power over the neighbouring counties.

House of Boso[edit]

These were the (mostly illegitimate) relatives of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, whom he appointed to their post after removing the dynasty of Boniface

House of Boniface (restored)[edit]

Nondynastic[edit]

House of Canossa[edit]

These were the descendants of the Counts of Canossa.

Nondynastic[edit]

In 1197 Philip was elected King of Germany and the majority of the Tuscan nobility, cities and bishops formed the Tuscan League with Papal backing.

After this, Tuscany was splintered between the competing republics of Florence, Pisa, Siena, Arezzo, Pistoia and Lucca. Since the 14th century, Florence gained dominance over Pistoia (1306, officially annexed 1530), Arezzo (1384), Pisa (1406), and Siena (1559). Lucca was an independent republic until the Napoleonic period in the 19th century.

Rulers of Florence, 1382–1569[edit]

De facto rulers of the Albizzi family, 1382–1434[edit]

De facto rulers of the House of Medici, 1434–1494[edit]

Portrait Name From To Note
Cosimo di Medici (Bronzino).jpg Cosimo de' Medici 1434 1464 First de facto Lord of Florence
Piero di Cosimo de' Medici.jpg Piero the Gouty 1464 1469 Son of Cosimo
Lorenzo de Medici.jpg Lorenzo the Magnificent 1469 1492 Son of Piero
Giuliano de' Medici by Sandro Botticelli.jpeg Giuliano de' Medici 1469 1478 Brother of Lorenzo and also Co-Ruler, was assassinated.
Agnolo Bronzino - Piero il Fatuo.jpg Piero the Unfortunate 1492 1494 Son of Lorenzo, was deposed and exiled

Republic of Florence (1494-1512)[edit]

Portrait Name From To Note
Girolamo Savonarola.jpg Girolamo Savonarola 1494 1498 Inspired reform around Florence, was condemned a heretic and hanged.
Piero Soderini (1450-1522), by Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio.jpg Piero Soderini 1502 1512 was declared Standard Bearer for life, fled Florence after the Spanish Invasion.

Rulers of the House of Medici (1512-1532)[edit]

Portrait Name From To Note
Raffael 040 (crop).jpg Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici 1512 1513 Son of Lorenzo, later became Pope Leo X
Raffaello, giuliano de' medici.jpg Giuliano, Duke of Nemours 1513 1516 Son of Lorenzo
Portrait of Lorenzo di Medici.jpg Lorenzo II de Medici 1516 1519 Son of Piero the Unfortunate
Sebastiano del Piombo (Italian) - Pope Clement VII - Google Art Project.jpg Cardinal Giulio de' Medici 1519 1523 son of Giuliano de Medici, later became Pope Clement VII
Titian - Portrait of Ippolito dei Medici - WGA22945.jpg Ippolito de' Medici 1523 1527 Son of Giuliano de Medici
Jacopo Pontormo 056.jpg Alessandro de' Medici 1527 1530 son of Lorenzo II de Medici, ruled in exile, returned and became Duke of Florence, was Assassinated.

After the Sack of Rome, Florence overthrew the Medicis once More and became a Republic, until Pope Clement VII, signed a peace treaty with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor who then invaded Florence and restored the Medicis.

Portrait Name From To Note
Jacopo Pontormo 056.jpg Alessandro de' Medici 1531 1532 son of Lorenzo II de Medici, ruled in exile, returned and became Duke of Florence, was Assassinated.

Medici Dukes of Florence, 1531–1569[edit]

Portrait Name From To Note
Jacopo Pontormo 056.jpg Alessandro de' Medici 1532 1537 son of Lorenzo II de Medici, ruled in exile, returned and became Duke of Florence, was Assassinated.
Agnolo Bronzino - Cosimo I de' Medici in armour - Google Art Project.jpg Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1537 1569 son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, later became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1569–1737[edit]

Portrait Name From To Note
Agnolo Bronzino - Cosimo I de' Medici in armour - Google Art Project.jpg Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1569 1574 son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, later became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Francesco I de Medici.jpg Francesco I de' Medici 1574 1587 son of Cosimo I de' Medici.
Ferdinando i de' medici 12.JPG Ferdinando I de' Medici 1587 1609 son of Cosimo
Cristofano Allori - Cosimo II (1608-1618).jpg Cosimo II de' Medici 1609 1621 Son of Ferdinando I
Portrait Ferdinando II de Medici.jpg Ferdinando II de' Medici 1621 1670 son of Cosimo II
Grand Duke CosimoIII of Tuscany by van Douven.jpg Cosimo III de' Medici 1670 1723 son of Ferdinando II
Giangastone de' Medici.jpg Gian Gastone de' Medici 1723 1737 son of Cosimo III, was the last Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Habsburg-Lorraine Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1737–1801[edit]

Portrait Name From To Note
Workshop of Martin van Meytens Kaiser Franz Stephan 02.jpg Francesco II Stefano 1737 1765 a great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I, later became Holy Roman Emperor.
Mengs, Anton Raphael - Pietro Leopoldo d'Asburgo Lorena, granduca di Toscana - 1770 - Prado.jpg Pietro Leopoldo I 1765 1790 second son of Francis I, also became Holy Roman Emperor.
Joseph Dorffmeister 002.jpg Ferdinando III 1790 1801 second son of Leopold I

Bourbon-Parma Kings of Etruria, 1801–1807[edit]

Name Portrait Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
Lodovico I
Luis de Etruria.jpg
3 Aug 1801 27 May 1803 Grandson of Francisco II Stefano
Lodovico II
Carlo II di Parma.jpg
27 May 1803 10 Dec 1807 son of Lodovico I

Tuscany was annexed by France, 1807–1814. Napoleon's sister Elisa Bonaparte was given the honorary title of Grand Duchess of Tuscany, but did not actually rule over the region.

Habsburg-Lorraine Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1814–1860[edit]

Portrait Name From To Note
Joseph Dorffmeister 002.jpg Ferdinando III 1814 1824 Restored
Leopold II of Tuscany.jpg Leopoldo II 1824 1859 son of Ferdinando III
FerdinandTuscany.jpg Ferdinando IV 1859 1860 son of Leopoldo II

Leopoldo II was driven from Tuscany by revolution from 21 February to 12 April 1849, and again on 27 April 1859. He abdicated in favor of his son, Ferdinando IV, on 21 July 1859, but Ferdinando IV was never recognized in Tuscany, and was deposed by the provisional government on 16 August. Tuscany was annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia, on 22 March 1860.

Titular Habsburg-Lorraine claimants, 1860–present[edit]

See also[edit]