Grand Mufti of Jerusalem
יְרוּשָׁלַיִם · القُدس
The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem is the Sunni Muslim cleric in charge of Jerusalem's Islamic holy places, including the Al-Aqsa Mosque. The position was created by the British military government led by Ronald Storrs in 1918. Since 2006 it has been held by Muhammad Hussein.
While Palestine was under British Mandate, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was a position created by the British Mandate authorities. The creation of the new title was intended by the British to "enhance the status of the office".
When Kamil al-Husayni died in 1921, the British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel appointed Mohammad Amin al-Husayni to the position. Amin al-Husayni, a member of the al-Husayni clan of Jerusalem, was an Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in the British Mandate of Palestine. As Grand Mufti and leader in the Arab Higher Committee, especially during the war period 1938-45, al-Husayni played a key role in violent opposition to Zionism and closely allied himself with the Nazi regime. In 1948, after Jordan occupied Jerusalem, Abdullah I of Jordan officially removed al-Husayni from the post, banned him from entering Jerusalem, and appointed Hussam Al-din Jarallah as Grand Mufti. On the death of Jarallah in 1952, the Jordanian Waqf appointed Saad al-Alami as his replacement.
In 1993, following the death of al-Alami, and with the transfer of increased control of Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem from Israel to the Palestinians, Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasser Arafat appointed Sulaiman Ja'abari as Grand Mufti. When he died in 1994, Arafat appointed Ekrima Sa'id Sabri. Sabri was removed in 2006 by Palestinian National Authority president Mahmoud Abbas, who was concerned that Sabri was involved too heavily in political matters. Abbas appointed Muhammad Ahmad Hussein, who was perceived as a political moderate. However, shortly after his appointment, Hussein made comments which suggested that suicide bombing was an acceptable tactic for Palestinians to use against Israel.
- Kamil al-Husayni from the creation of the role in 1920 until his death in 1921
- Mohammad Amin al-Husayni from 1921 to 1948, exiled by the British in 1937 (but not dismissed as Mufti)
- Saad al-Alami from 1954 to 1993
- Sulaiman Ja'abari from 1993 to 1994
- Ekrima Sa'id Sabri from October 1994 to July 2006
- Muhammad Ahmad Hussein from July 2006 to the present
- Friedman, Robert I. (2001-12-06). "And Darkness Covered the Land". The Nation. Retrieved 2007-09-13.
- See Islamic Leadership in Jerusalem for further details
- The terminology was used as early as 1918. For example: Taysīr Jabārah (1985). Palestinian Leader Hajj Amin Al-Husayni: Mufti of Jerusalem. Kingston Press. ISBN 978-0-940670-10-5. states that Storrs wrote on November 19, 1918 "the Muslim element requested the Grand Mufti to have the name of the Sharif of Mecca mentioned in the Friday prayers as Caliph"
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition: Supplement. Brill Archive. 1 January 1980. p. 68. ISBN 90-04-06167-3.
- Pappe, Ilan (2002) 'The Rise and Fall of a Palestinian Dynasty. The Husaynis 1700-1948. AL Saqi edition 2010. ISBN 978-0-86356-460-4. pp.309,321
- Cohen, Aharon (1970) Israel and the Arab World. W.H. Allen. ISBN 0-491-00003-0. p.312
- Obituary: Saad al-Alami
- Yaniv Berman, "Top Palestinian Muslim Cleric Okays Suicide Bombings", Media Line, 23 October 2006.
- An answer in the Commons to a question on notice, given by the Secretary of State for the Colonies:
Mr. Hammersley asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies why no appointment has yet been made to fill the posts of Mufti of Jerusalem and President of the Moslem Supreme Council?
Colonel Stanley. An important distinction must be drawn between the two offices referred to by my hon. Friend. The post of Mufti of Jerusalem is a purely religious office with no powers or administrative functions, and was held by Haj Amin before he was given the secular appointment of President of the Supreme Moslem Council. In 1937 Haj Amin was deprived of his secular appointment and administrative functions, but no action was taken regarding the religious office of Mufti, as no legal machinery in fact exists for the formal deposition of the holder, nor is there any known precedent for such deposition. Haj Amin is thus technically still Mufti of Jerusalem, but the fact that there is no intention of allowing Haj Amin, who has openly joined the enemy, to return to Palestine in any circumstances clearly reduces the importance of the technical point.
- Zvi Elpeleg's "The Grand Mufti", page 48: "officially he now retained only the title of Mufti (following the Ottoman practice, this had been granted for life)"
- "Saad al-Alami Dead; Jerusalem Cleric, 82". The New York Times. 1993-02-07. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-10-22.