Grand Orient of Italy
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The Grand Orient of Italy (GOI) (Italian: Grande Oriente d'Italia) is an Italian masonic grand lodge founded in 1805; the viceroy Eugene of Beauharnais was instrumental in its establishment. It is based at Palazzo Giustiniani, Rome, Italy. Its current Grand Master is Italian journalist Stefano Bisi.
Past grand masters included:
- Poet Giuseppe Garibaldi,
- Adriano Lemmi,
- Sculptor Ettore Ferrari,
- Mayor of Rome Ernesto Nathan
In 1972 it was recognised as regular by the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE). This is no longer the case, and the Regular Grand Lodge of Italy is the grand lodge now recognized by the UGLE. Most North American grand lodges, on the other hand, still recognize the Grand Orient.
Propaganda Due, the lodge that investigative journalists have identified as being implicated in the murder of Roberto Calvi, was originally chartered by the Grand Orient. The Grand Orient revoked its charter in 1974.
Prior to Gustavo Raffi's grand mastership two terms of five years was the maximum tenure for a grand master. This, however was changed during Raffi's time, and his three-term grand mastership which began in 1999 ended in 2014.
- "Nel 1805 fu costituito il Grande Oriente d’Italia." Tran. "In 1805 the Grand Orient of Italy was founded." La storia 1805-1860, from the GOI Official website
- Ponziano, Giorgio (March 30, 2012). "Tremila massoni al Palacongresso" [Three thousand Masons at Palacongresso]. Italia Oggi (in Italian). Archived from the original on June 11, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- Garibaldi — the mason Translated from Giuseppe Garibaldi Massone by the Grand Orient of Italy
- Entry “Giuseppe Mazzini” in Volume III K – P of 10,000 Famous Freemasons, William R. Denslow, 1957, Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Co., Inc.
- Ernesto Nathan, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
- Centuries of Secrecy, Time, June 8, 1981
- What was the P2 Lodge?, Anti-masonry Frequently Asked Questions, Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon
-  UGLE: Recognised Grand Lodges in Europe
- Enrico Simoni, Bibliografia della Massoneria in Italia, Foggia, Edizioni Bastogi, 1° volume 1992 (3471 schede), 2° volume 1993 (indici sistematici degli articoli delle Riviste massoniche del dopoguerra; 3762 schede), 1° volume di aggiornamento 1997 (schede da 3472 a 4584), 3° volume 2006 (indici sistematici degli articoli della "Rivista della Massoneria Italiana" e della "Rivista Massonica"; 1870-1926; 6478 schede), 2° volume di aggiornamento 2010 (schede da 4585 a 6648)