Grand Orient of Italy

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The Grand Orient of Italy (GOI) (Italian: Grande Oriente d'Italia) is an Italian masonic grand lodge founded in 1805; the viceroy Eugene of Beauharnais was instrumental in its establishment.[1] It was based at the Palazzo Giustiniani, Rome, Italy from 1901 until 1985 and is now located at the Villa del Vascello (it). Its current Grand Master is Italian journalist Stefano Bisi.

As of March 2012 the grand lodge had 21,400 adherents divided in 757 lodges.[2]

History[edit]

The Grand Orient of Italy was founded in 1805, during the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy; the viceroy Eugene of Beauharnais was instrumental in its establishment.

Past grand masters included:

Freemasonry was suppressed by Mussolini in 1925, being restarted after the Second World War.[6]

In 1972 it was recognised as regular by the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE).[7] This is no longer the case, and the Regular Grand Lodge of Italy is the grand lodge now recognized by the UGLE.[8] Most North American grand lodges, on the other hand, still recognize the Grand Orient.

Propaganda Due, the lodge that investigative journalists have identified as being implicated in the murder of Roberto Calvi, was originally chartered by the Grand Orient. The Grand Orient revoked its charter in 1974.[7]

Prior to Gustavo Raffi's grand mastership two terms of five years was the maximum tenure for a grand master. This, however was changed during Raffi's time, and his three-term grand mastership which began in 1999 ended in 2014.[2]

List of Grand Masters[edit]

# Name
(Birth-Death)
Term Origin Occupation
1 Eugène de Beauharnais
(1781–1824)
1805 1814 Paris, France Viceroy of Italy (1805–1814)
Lodge suppressed
2 Filippo Delpino
(1779–1860)
20 December 1859 20 May 1860 † Genoa, Piedmont-Sardinia Patriot
3 Livio Zambeccari
(1802–1862)
21 May 1860 3 October 1861 Bologna, Papal States Naturalist, patriot
4 Costantino Nigra
(1828–1907)
8 October 1861 31 January 1862 Castelnuovo, Piedmont-Sardinia Italy Ambassador to Austria-Hungary (1885–1887)
5 Filippo Cordova
(1811–1868)
1 March 1862 6 August 1863 Aidone, Kingdom of Naples Minister of Justice (1862)
6 Celestino Peroglio
(1824–1909)
6 August 1863 24 May 1864 Palestro, Lombardy-Venetia Teacher
7 Giuseppe Garibaldi
(1807–1882)
24 May 1864 8 August 1864 Nice, Piedmont-Sardinia Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1861–1882)
8 Francesco De Luca
(1811–1875)
September 1864 20 June 1867 Cardinale, Kingdom of Naples Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1861–1874)
Filippo Cordova
(1811–1868)
21 June 1867 2 August 1867 Aidone, Kingdom of Naples Minister of Justice (1867)
9 Lodovico Frapolli
(1815–1878)
2 August 1867 7 September 1870 Milan, Lombardy-Venetia Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1860–1874)
10 Giuseppe Mazzoni
(1808–1880)
7 September 1870 11 May 1880 † Prato, Tuscany Founder of P2; Senator of the Kingdom (1876–1880)
11 Giuseppe Petroni
(1812–1888)
12 May 1880 16 January 1885 Bologna, Papal States Lawyer
12 Adriano Lemmi
(1822–1906)
17 January 1885 31 May 1896 Livorno, Tuscany Banker, businessman
13 Ernesto Nathan
(1845–1921)
1 June 1896 14 February 1904 London, UK Co-founder of Dante Alighieri Society; later Mayor of Rome (1907–1913)
14 Ettore Ferrari
(1845–1929)
15 February 1904 25 November 1917 Rome, Papal States Sculptor
Ernesto Nathan
(1845–1921)
26 November 1917 22 June 1919 London, UK Co-founder of Dante Alighieri Society; later Mayor of Rome (1907–1913)
15 Domizio Torrigiani
(1876–1932)
23 June 1919 23 aprile 1927 Lamporecchio, Italy Lawyer
/ Eugenio Chiesa
(1863–1930)
12 January 1930 22 June 1930 † Milan, Italy Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1904–1929)
/ Arturo Labriola
(1873–1959)
23 June 1930 29 November 1931 Naples, Italy Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1913–1929)
16 Alessandro Tedeschi
(1867–1940)
32 August 1932 19 August 1940 † Livorno, Italy Surgeon
17 Davide Augusto Albarin
(1881–1959)
19 August 1940 10 June 1944 Paris, French Empire Anti-fascist activist
18 Guido Laj
(1880–1948)
18 September 1945 5 November 1948 † Messina, Italy Journalist, politician
19 Ugo Lenzi
(1875–1953)
19 March 1949 21 April 1953 † Bologna, Italy Lawyer
20 Publio Cortini
(1895–1969)
4 October 1953 27 September 1956 Rome, Italy Businessman, engineer
21 Umberto Cipollone
(1883–1960)
30 November 1957 28 May 1960 † Lanciano, Italy Lawyer
22 Giorgio Tron
(1884–1963)
29 May 1960 28 April 1961 Villar Pellice, Italy Surgeon
23 Giordano Gamberini
(1915–2003)
17 July 1961 21 March 1970 Ravenna, Italy Writer, politician
24 Lino Salvini
(1925–1982)
22 March 1970 18 November 1978 Florence, Italy Writer, politician
25 Ennio Battelli
(1919–1984)
18 November 1978 27 March 1982 Urbino, Italy Businessman, military officer
26 Armando Corona
(1921–2009)
28 March 1982 10 March 1990 Villaputzu, Italy Businessman, politician
27 Giuliano Di Bernardo
(1939–)
11 March 1990 16 April 1993 Penne, Italy Philosopher, writer
28 Virgilio Gaito
(1930–)
18 December 1993 21 March 1999 Naples, Italy Lawyer
29 Gustavo Raffi
(1944–)
21 March 1999 6 April 2014 Bagnacavallo, Italy Lawyer
30 Stefano Bisi
(1957–)
6 April 2014 Incumbent Siena, Italy Journalist, writer

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Nel 1805 fu costituito il Grande Oriente d’Italia." Tran. "In 1805 the Grand Orient of Italy was founded." La storia 1805-1860, from the GOI Official website
  2. ^ a b Ponziano, Giorgio (March 30, 2012). "Tremila massoni al Palacongresso" [Three thousand Masons at Palacongresso]. Italia Oggi (in Italian). Archived from the original on June 11, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012. 
  3. ^ Garibaldi — the mason Translated from Giuseppe Garibaldi Massone by the Grand Orient of Italy
  4. ^ Entry “Giuseppe Mazzini” in Volume III K – P of 10,000 Famous Freemasons, William R. Denslow, 1957, Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Co., Inc.
  5. ^ Ernesto Nathan, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
  6. ^ Centuries of Secrecy, Time, June 8, 1981
  7. ^ a b What was the P2 Lodge?, Anti-masonry Frequently Asked Questions, Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon
  8. ^ [1] UGLE: Recognised Grand Lodges in Europe

Bibliography[edit]

  • Enrico Simoni, Bibliografia della Massoneria in Italia, Foggia, Edizioni Bastogi, 1° volume 1992 (3471 schede), 2° volume 1993 (indici sistematici degli articoli delle Riviste massoniche del dopoguerra; 3762 schede), 1° volume di aggiornamento 1997 (schede da 3472 a 4584), 3° volume 2006 (indici sistematici degli articoli della "Rivista della Massoneria Italiana" e della "Rivista Massonica"; 1870-1926; 6478 schede), 2° volume di aggiornamento 2010 (schede da 4585 a 6648)

Coordinates: 41°53′57″N 12°28′31″E / 41.8992°N 12.4753°E / 41.8992; 12.4753