Yasen-class submarine

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Yasen class
Graney class SSN.svg
Yasen-class SSGN profile
К-560 «Северодвинск».jpg
K-560 Severodvinsk
Class overview
Name: Yasen class
Builders: Sevmash
Operators:  Russian Navy
Preceded by:
Cost: US$0.8 billion[1]
Built: 1993–present
In commission: 2013–present
Planned: 10[2]
Building: 5
Completed: 2
Active: 1
General characteristics
Type: Nuclear attack submarine
Displacement:
  • Surfaced: 8,600 tons
  • Submerged: 13,800 tons [3]
Length: 139.5 m (458 ft)[4][5][6]
Beam: 13–15 m (43–49 ft)[4][5][6]
Propulsion: One KPM type pressurized water reactor 200 MWt turbines of 43,000 shp
Speed:
  • Surfaced: 20 kn (37 km/h; 23 mph)
  • Submerged (silent): 28 kn (52 km/h; 32 mph)
  • Submerged (max): 35 kn (65 km/h; 40 mph)[7]
Range: unlimited
Endurance: Only limited by food and maintenance requirements
Test depth:
  • Safe depth: 1,475 feet (450m)
  • Never exceed depth: 1,804 feet (580m)
  • Crush depth: 2,160 feet (658m)
Complement: 64[8]
Sensors and
processing systems:
Rim Hat ESM/ECM Snoop Pair Surface Search Radar
Armament:

The Yasen-class, Russian designations Project 885 Yasen and Project 885M Yasen-M (Russian: Ясень, meaning "ash tree", NATO reporting name Yasen), also referred to it as Graney class, are series of newest nuclear-powered cruise missile submarines, designed by Malakhit and being constructed by Sevmash for the Russian Navy.[14][15][16]

Based on the designs of the Akula and Alfa designs, Yasen class is projected to replace current Russian Navy's Soviet-era nuclear attack submarines.

History[edit]

Yasen-class submarines were designed by the Malakhit Central Design Bureau, formed by the combination of SKB-143 and TsKB-16, with work on the initial design scheduled for start in 1977 and completion in 1985.[17] Malakhit is one of the three Soviet/Russian submarine design centers, along with Rubin Design Bureau and Lazurit Central Design Bureau.

Construction on the first submarine started on 21 December 1993 with its launch slated for 1995 and commissioning for 1998.[18] However, the project was delayed due to financial problems and it appeared during 1996 that work on the submarine had stopped completely. Some reports suggested that as of 1999 the submarine was less than 10 percent completed.[19] In 2003 the project then received additional funding and the work of finishing the submarine continued.

In 2004 it was reported that the work on the submarine was moving forward, but due to the priority given to the new SSBN Dolgorukiy-class submarine, the lead unit of the class Severodvinsk would not be ready before 2010. In July 2006 the deputy chairman of the Military-Industrial Commission, Vladislav Putilin, stated that two Yasen-class submarines were to join the Russian Navy before 2015.[20]

On 24 July 2009, work commenced on a second Yasen submarine, named Kazan. On 26 July, the Russian navy command announced that starting in 2011, one multipurpose submarine would be laid down every year, although not necessarily of this class.[21]

An August 2009 report from the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence estimated the Yasen-class submarines to be the quietest, or least detectable, of contemporaneous Russian and Chinese nuclear submarines but is still not as quiet as contemporary U.S. Navy submarines (i.e. Seawolf and Virginia classes).[22][23]

In April 2010 it was reported that the 7 May launch of the first boat had been postponed due to 'technical reasons'.[24][25]

The launch of the first ship of this class and the beginning of sea trials was reported in September 2011.[26]

Roll out ceremony of Russian submarine Severodvinsk.

K-329 Severodvinsk went on her first voyage in September 2011 in order to conduct sea trials.[27]

On 9 November 2011 Russia signed a contract for 4 Yasen-class submarines to be delivered by 2016.[28]

On 26 July 2013 the third submarine, Novosibirsk, was laid down.

On 30 December 2013 the first submarine, Severodvinsk, was handed over to the Russian Navy. The flag-raising ceremony was held on 17 June 2014 marking its introduction into the Russian Navy.[29]

In October 2014, one of the U.S. Navy’s top submarine officers Rear Adm. Dave Johnson, Naval Sea Systems Command’s program executive officer (PEO) submarines, said “We’ll be facing tough potential opponents. One only has to look at the Severodvinsk, Russia’s version of a nuclear guided missile submarine (SSGN). I am so impressed with this ship that I had Carderock build a model from unclassified data.”[30]

Design[edit]

The vessel's design is claimed to be state-of-the-art. The Yasen-class nuclear submarines are presumed to be armed with land-attack cruise missiles, anti-ship missiles, anti-submarine missiles including the P-800 Oniks SLCM, Kalibr family SLCM, or 3M51 SLCM.[7] Kalibr-PL has several variants including the 3M54K (terminal-supersonic) and 3M54K1 (subsonic) antiship, 91R1 antisubmarine, and the 3M14K land-attack variant. For the 855M Zircon (missile) hypersonic long-range weapon.[31] Each submarine can carry 32 Kalibr or 24 Oniks (Note: other sources claim 40 Kalibr and 32 Oniks)[32] missiles which are stored in eight vertical launchers (additional missiles may be carried in the torpedo room at the expense of torpedoes).[33][34][35][36] It will also have eight 650 mm and two 533 mm tubes as well as mines and anti-ship missiles such as the RPK-7.

This class is the first Russian submarine to be equipped with a spherical sonar, designated as MGK-600 Irtysh-Amfora.[37] The device (allegedly the Irtysh/Amfora sonar system) was tested on a modified Yankee class submarine.[38] The sonar system consists of a spherical bow array, flank arrays and a towed array. Due to the large size of this spherical array, the torpedo tubes are slanted.[17] In other words, the torpedo tube outer doors are not located in the immediate bow as in the previous Akula class[39] but moved aft.[40] The hull is constructed from low-magnetic steel.[41] Unlike previous Russian submarines which have a double hull, Yasen-class submarines mostly have a single hull.[42] The submarine has a crew of about 90, suggesting a high degree of automation in the submarine's different systems. The newest USA attack submarine, the Virginia-class submarine, has a crew of 134 in comparison.

Yasen-class submarines will be the first Russian SSNs/SSGNs equipped with a fourth generation nuclear reactor.[43][44] The reactor (built by Afrikantov OKBM)[45][46] will allegedly have a 25-30 year core life and will not have to be refueled.[47]

Steam turbines were supplied by Kaluga Turbine Works.[48]

A VSK rescue pod is carried in the sail.[17]

Costs[edit]

Initial estimates regarding the cost of the first Yasen-class submarine ranged from US$1 billion[49] to US$2 billion.[50][51] In 2011, it was reported that the cost of first-of-class, Severodvinsk, was 50 billion rubles (roughly US$1.6 billion)[52] while the second unit, Kazan, will cost an estimated 47 billion rubles (US$725 million, in 2019 RUB/USD exchange rate).[53] In 2011, then Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov criticized the ever increasing cost of the Borei and Yasen-class submarines. The Minister described the massive increase in cost between the first and the second Yasen-class submarine as "incomprehensible". However, he insisted that the Ministry of Defence and Sevmash would resolve the issue. Officials from the United Shipbuilding Corporation replied that work done in Sevmash accounts for only 30% of the submarine's completion cost, the remaining 70% being linked to suppliers/contractors.[54]

Operational history[edit]

At the end of April 2016, K-560 Severodvinsk conducted drills using Kalibr cruise missiles.[55]

Successor/supplement[edit]

Due to the high cost of each Yasen class submarine, some sources believe that a new generation of SSNs would be of smaller dimensions[56][57] with a reduced armament/payload.[58] The successor/supplement to the Yasen-class is in development[59][60][61] and dubbed "Husky class" by the media.[62][63][64] The final design of the submarine is yet to be completed and may feature a more conventional layout with bow-mounted torpedo tubes (as opposed to the midship torpedo tubes on Yasen-class submarines) and a smaller chin-mounted sonar, i.e. the sonar will be mounted below the torpedo tubes (as opposed to a large spherical sonar on Yasen-class submarines).[65] The first boat expected to be delivered to the Russian Navy by 2027.[66]

Units[edit]

# Name Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status Notes
K-560 Severodvinsk 885 21 December 1993[67] 15 June 2010[68][69] 30 December 2013[70] Northern Active
K-561 Kazan 885M 24 July 2009[4][71] 31 March 2017[72] 2020[73][74] In sea trials[75]
K-573 Novosibirsk 885M 26 July 2013[76] 2019[77] 2020[78][74] Under construction On 21 August 2014, it has successfully completed hydraulic pressure hull tests.[79][80]
K-571 Krasnoyarsk 885M 27 July 2014[81][82] 2021[83] 2021[78] Under construction On 23 January 2017, it has successfully completed hydraulic pressure hull tests.[84]
K-564 Arkhangelsk 885M 19 March 2015[85][86] Before 2020[87] 2022[78] Under construction
K-xxx Perm 885M 29 July 2016[88] Before 2020[87] 2023[78] Under construction
K-xxx Ulyanovsk 885M 28 July 2017[89][90] 2024[78] Under construction
K-xxx 885M 2020 [91] Ordered[92]
K-xxx 885M 2020 [91] Ordered[92]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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