Grape seed extract
Grape seed extract (GSE) is an industrial derivative of whole grape seeds.
The extract contains proanthocyanidins. In alternative medicine, grape seed extract is sold in dietary supplement form and claimed to have numerous health benefits, most of which are not supported by sufficient medical evidence.
Research and potential health effects
A meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials concluded that grape seed extract, in a dose of under 800 milligrams per day over at least 8 weeks, significantly lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure, although the amounts were small (3–6 mmHg) and occurred only in obese people under age 50 with existing metabolic syndrome and hypertension. An earlier meta-analysis reported lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no effect on blood lipids or C-reactive protein levels. More recent meta-analyses suggested its potential in reducing drug toxicity as a free radical scavenger in cancer, capillary permeability, and dental caries.
The US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health reported that oral administration of grape seed extract (dose and frequency unreported) was well tolerated in people over 14 weeks. Side effects may include itchy scalp; dizziness, headache, high blood pressure or nausea.
- "Grape Seed Extract, Herbs at a Glance". US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Institutes of Health. September 2016.
- Zhang H, Liu S, Li L, Liu S, Liu S, Mi J, Tian G (2016). "The impact of grape seed extract treatment on blood pressure changes: A meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials". Medicine (Baltimore). 95 (33): e4247. PMC . PMID 27537554. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000004247.
- Feringa, Harm H.H.; Laskey, Dayne A.; Dickson, Justine E.; Coleman, Craig I. (2011). "The effect of grape seed extract on cardiovascular risk markers: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 111 (8): 1173–81. PMID 21802563. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2011.05.015.
- Bagchi, D; Swaroop, A; Preuss, HG; Bagchi, M (October 2014). "Free radical scavenging, antioxidant and cancer chemoprevention by grape seed proanthocyanidin: an overview.". Mutation Research. 768: 69–73. PMID 24751946.
- Weseler, AR; Bast, A (19 January 2017). "Masquelier's grape seed extract: from basic flavonoid research to a well-characterized food supplement with health benefits.". Nutrition Journal. 16 (1): 5. PMID 28103873.
- Wu, CD (September 2009). "Grape products and oral health.". Journal of Nutrition. 139 (9): 1818S–23S. PMID 19640974.
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