Grape seed extract

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Grape seed extract is an industrial derivative of whole grape seeds. The extract contains proanthocyanidins.[1] Grape seed extract quality is measured by the content of procyanidins which are formed from proanthocyanidins.[2] Generally, grape seed extract quality contains 95% procyanidins, but potency varies among products.[3]. Eating foods or beverages high in procyanidin results in the sensation of the mouth puckering and dehydration otherwise known as “astringency” as felt after certain alcoholic drinks.[4]

Extraction Method[edit]

The quality of grape seed extract's beneficial properties depends on the extraction process used to obtain it and how the grapes were grown.[5] The classic method incorporates extraction with organic solvents such as acetone, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, and methanol.[6] Other methods using hot water have been used, but are not as effective in maximizing in extract production in both quantity and efficiency.[7] High performance liquid chromatography seems to be the most effective analysis along with proton NMR spectroscopy with Principal Component Analysis to ensure accurate composition.[8]

Research and Potential Health Effects[edit]

A meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials concluded that grape seed extract, in a dose of under 800 milligrams per day over at least 8 weeks, significantly lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure, although the amounts were small (3–6 mmHg) and occurred only in obese people under age 50 with existing metabolic syndrome and hypertension.[9] An earlier meta-analysis reported lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no effect on blood lipids or C-reactive protein levels.[10]

The US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health reported that oral administration of grape seed extract (dose and frequency unreported) was well tolerated in people over 14 weeks.[1] Side effects may include itchy scalp; dizziness, headache, high blood pressure or nausea.[1] In alternative medicine, grape seed extract is sold in dietary supplement form and claimed to have numerous health benefits, none of which is supported by sufficient medical evidence.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Grape Seed Extract, Herbs at a Glance". US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Institutes of Health. September 2016.
  2. ^ Rue, Emily A.; Rush, Michael D.; van Breemen, Richard B. (9 May 2017). "Procyanidins: a comprehensive review encompassing structure elucidation via mass spectrometry". Phytochemistry Reviews. 17 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1007/s11101-017-9507-3.
  3. ^ Wanwimolruk, S; Phopin, K; Prachayasittikul, V (2014). "Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)". EXCLI Journal. 13: 869–96. PMC 4464477. PMID 26417310.
  4. ^ "Interaction of astringent grape seed procyanidins with oral epithelial cells". Food Chemistry. 115 (2): 551–557. 15 July 2009. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.12.061. ISSN 0308-8146.
  5. ^ Weseler, AR; Bast, A (19 January 2017). "Masquelier's grape seed extract: from basic flavonoid research to a well-characterized food supplement with health benefits". Nutrition Journal. 16 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/s12937-016-0218-1. PMID 28103873.
  6. ^ Nowshehri, Javaid Ashraf; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali; Shah, Mohammad Yaseen (November 2015). "Blessings in disguise: Bio-functional benefits of grape seed extracts". Food Research International. 77: 333–348. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2015.08.026.
  7. ^ Nowshehri, Javaid Ashraf; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali; Shah, Mohammad Yaseen (November 2015). "Blessings in disguise: Bio-functional benefits of grape seed extracts". Food Research International. 77: 333–348. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2015.08.026.
  8. ^ Weseler, Antje R.; Bast, Aalt (19 January 2017). "Masquelier's grape seed extract: from basic flavonoid research to a well-characterized food supplement with health benefits". Nutrition Journal. 16. doi:10.1186/s12937-016-0218-1. ISSN 1475-2891.
  9. ^ Zhang H, Liu S, Li L, Liu S, Liu S, Mi J, Tian G (2016). "The impact of grape seed extract treatment on blood pressure changes: A meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials". Medicine (Baltimore). 95 (33): e4247. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000004247. PMC 5370781. PMID 27537554.
  10. ^ Feringa, Harm H.H.; Laskey, Dayne A.; Dickson, Justine E.; Coleman, Craig I. (2011). "The effect of grape seed extract on cardiovascular risk markers: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 111 (8): 1173–81. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2011.05.015. PMID 21802563.