Grape seed extract

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Grape seed extract (GSE) is an industrial derivative of whole grape seeds.

The extract contains proanthocyanidins.[1] In alternative medicine, grape seed extract is sold in dietary supplement form and claimed to have numerous health benefits, most of which are not supported by sufficient medical evidence.[1]

Research and potential health effects[edit]

A meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials concluded that grape seed extract, in a dose of under 800 milligrams per day over at least 8 weeks, significantly lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure, although the amounts were small (3–6 mmHg) and occurred only in obese people under age 50 with existing metabolic syndrome and hypertension.[2] An earlier meta-analysis reported lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no effect on blood lipids or C-reactive protein levels.[3] More recent meta-analyses suggested its potential in reducing drug toxicity as a free radical scavenger in cancer,[4] capillary permeability,[5] and dental caries.[6]

The US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health reported that oral administration of grape seed extract (dose and frequency unreported) was well tolerated in people over 14 weeks.[1] Side effects may include itchy scalp; dizziness, headache, high blood pressure or nausea.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Grape Seed Extract, Herbs at a Glance". US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Institutes of Health. September 2016. 
  2. ^ Zhang H, Liu S, Li L, Liu S, Liu S, Mi J, Tian G (2016). "The impact of grape seed extract treatment on blood pressure changes: A meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials". Medicine (Baltimore). 95 (33): e4247. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000004247. PMC 5370781Freely accessible. PMID 27537554. 
  3. ^ Feringa, Harm H.H.; Laskey, Dayne A.; Dickson, Justine E.; Coleman, Craig I. (2011). "The effect of grape seed extract on cardiovascular risk markers: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 111 (8): 1173–81. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2011.05.015. PMID 21802563. 
  4. ^ Bagchi, D; Swaroop, A; Preuss, HG; Bagchi, M (October 2014). "Free radical scavenging, antioxidant and cancer chemoprevention by grape seed proanthocyanidin: an overview". Mutation Research. 768: 69–73. PMID 24751946. 
  5. ^ Weseler, AR; Bast, A (19 January 2017). "Masquelier's grape seed extract: from basic flavonoid research to a well-characterized food supplement with health benefits". Nutrition Journal. 16 (1): 5. PMID 28103873. 
  6. ^ Wu, CD (September 2009). "Grape products and oral health". Journal of Nutrition. 139 (9): 1818S–23S. PMID 19640974.