Grape seed oil

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Not to be confused with rapeseed oil.
Grape Seed Oil
GrapeSeedOil.png
Grape seed oil in clear glass vial
Fat composition
Saturated fats
Total saturated Palmitic: 7%
Stearic: 4%
Unsaturated fats
Total unsaturated 86%
Monounsaturated 16.1%
Palmitoleic acid <1%
Oleic acid 15.8%
Polyunsaturated 69.9%
Omega-3 fatty acids α-Linolenic: 0.1%
Omega-6 fatty acids Linoleic: 69.6%
Properties
Food energy per 100 g (3.5 oz) 3,700 kJ (880 kcal)
Smoke point 216 °C (421 °F)
Iodine value 124-143
Saponification value 126 (NaOH)
180-196 (KOH)
Unsaponifiable 0.3% - 1.6%
Peroxide value 2.92 mequiv/kg

Grape seed oil (also called grapeseed oil or grape oil) is pressed from the seeds of grapes, and is thus an abundant by-product of winemaking.

Uses[edit]

Cooking[edit]

Grape seed oil has a moderately high smoke point of approximately 216 °C (421 °F). Due to its clean, light taste, and high polyunsaturated fat content, it may be used as an ingredient in salad dressings and mayonnaise and as a base for oil infusions of garlic, rosemary, or other herbs or spices. It is widely used in baked goods, pancakes, and waffles. It is sprayed on raisins to help them retain their flavor.[1]

The metabolic energy density of grape seed oil is typical of vegetable oils: approximately 3,700 kJ (880 kcal) per 100 g, or 500 kJ (120 kcal) per 15 ml tablespoon.

Research[edit]

Further information: Grape seed extract

A study of 21 grape cultivars showed variation of oil composition, especially for linoleic acid and tocopherols.[2]

Although grape seeds contain polyphenols, such as proanthocyanidins,[3] grape seed oil contains negligible amounts of these compounds.[4] Grape seed oil components are under study for their potential applications in human health, but the scientific quality of clinical research as of 2016 has been inadequate to suggest any effect on lowering disease risk.[5]

Potential medicinal complications[edit]

Grapeseed oil has occasionally been found to contain dangerous levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons because of direct contact with combustion gases during the drying process.[6]

Composition[edit]

Grape seeds (numbers 7 and 8) and grapes

The following table lists a typical fatty acid composition of grape seed oil:[7]

Acid Type Percentage
Linoleic acid ω−6 unsaturated 69.6%
Oleic acid ω−9 unsaturated 15.8%
Palmitic acid
(Hexadecanoic acid)
Saturated 7%
Stearic acid
(Octadecanoic acid)
Saturated 4%
Alpha-linolenic acid ω−3 unsaturated 0.1%
Palmitoleic acid
(9-Hexadecenoic acid)
ω−7 unsaturated less than 1%

Grape seed oil also contains 0.8 to 1.5% unsaponifiables rich in phenols (tocopherols) and steroids (campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol).[8] Grapeseed oil contains small amounts of vitamin E, but safflower oil, cottonseed oil, or rice bran oil contain greater amounts.[9] Grapeseed oil is high in polyunsaturates and low in saturated fat.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bewley, J. Derek; Black, Michael; Halmer, Peter (2006). The encyclopedia of seeds: science, technology and uses. CABI. ISBN 0-85199-723-6. 
  2. ^ Sabir, A; Unver, A; Kara, Z (2012). "The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.)". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 92 (9): 1982–7. doi:10.1002/jsfa.5571. PMID 22271548. 
  3. ^ Joshi, SS; Kuszynski C. A.; Bagchi D. (2001). "The cellular and molecular basis of health benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract". Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2 (2): 187–200. doi:10.2174/1389201013378725. PMID 11480422. 
  4. ^ Nakamura, Y; Tsuji S; Tonogai Y (2003). "Analysis of proanthocyanidins in grape seed extracts, health foods and grape seed oils". Journal of Health Science. 49 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1248/jhs.49.45. 
  5. ^ Garavaglia, J; Markoski, M. M.; Oliveira, A; Marcadenti, A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453Freely accessible. PMID 27559299. 
  6. ^ Moret, S.; Dudine, A.; Conte, L.S. (2000). "Processing effects on the polyaromatic hydrocarbon content of grapeseed oil" (PDF). Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 77 (12): 1289–1292. doi:10.1007/s11746-000-0203-5. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  7. ^ Kamel, B. S.; Dawson H.; Kakuda Y. (1985). "Characteristics and composition of melon and grape seed oils and cakes". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 62 (5): 881–883. doi:10.1007/BF02541750. 
  8. ^ Oomah, B. D.; Liang J.; Godfrey D.; Mazza G. (1998). "Microwave Heating of Grapeseed: Effect on Oil Quality" (PDF). J. Agric. Food Chem. 46 (10): 4017–4021. doi:10.1021/jf980412f. 
  9. ^ Herting, D. C.; Drury, E. J. E. (1963). "Vitamin E Content of Vegetable Oils and Fats". J. Nutr. 81: 4017–4021. PMID 14100992.