Grape seed oil
|Grape Seed Oil|
Grape seed oil in clear glass vial
|Saturated fats||Palmitic: 7%
|• Palmitoleic acid||<1%|
|• Oleic acid||15.8%|
|• Omega-3 fatty acids||α-Linolenic: 0.1%|
|• Omega-6 fatty acids||Linoleic: 69.6%|
|Food energy per 100 g||3,700 kJ (880 kcal)|
|Smoke point||216 °C (421 °F)|
|Saponification value||126 (NaOH)
|Unsaponifiable||0.3% - 1.6%|
|Peroxide value||2.92 mequiv/kg|
Grape seed oil has a moderately high smoke point of approximately 216 °C (421 °F). Yet, the oil is predominantly polyunsaturated and it is not recommended for cooking. This is due to the fact that polyunsaturated fat is so easily damaged by heat. Due to its clean, light taste, and high polyunsaturated fat content, it may be used as an ingredient in salad dressings and mayonnaise and as a base for oil infusions of garlic, rosemary, or other herbs or spices. It is also excellent for use in baked goods, pancakes, and waffles. It is also sprayed on raisins to help them retain their flavor.
The metabolic energy density of grape seed oil is typical of vegetable oils: approximately 3,700 kJ (880 kcal) per 100 g, or 500 kJ (120 kcal) per 15 ml tablespoon.
Grape seed oil is a preferred cosmetic ingredient for controlling moisture of the skin. Light and thin, grape seed oil leaves a glossy film over skin when used as a carrier oil for essential oils in aromatherapy. It contains more linoleic acid than many other carrier oils. Grape seed oil is also used as a lubricant for shaving.
Potential medicinal benefits
The properties of grape seed oil provide health benefits when consumed. A 1993 study supports the claim that grape seed oil increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C or "good cholesterol") levels and reduces LDL levels.
Although grape seeds contain antioxidants and other biologically active compounds, the cold-pressed grape seed oil contains negligible amounts due to their insolubility in lipids. For instance, sufficiently high amounts of resveratrol occur in grape seed for it to be extracted commercially, yet it is almost entirely absent in the grape seed oil. Consumption of chardonnay grape seed procyanidin extract has also been found to prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity in hamsters by improving adipokine imbalance and oxidative stress markers.
Potential medicinal complications
|Linoleic acid||ω−6 unsaturated||69.6%|
|Oleic acid||ω−9 unsaturated||15.8%|
|Alpha-linolenic acid||ω−3 unsaturated||0.1%|
|ω−7 unsaturated||less than 1%|
Grape seed oil also contains 0.8 to 1.5% unsaponifiables rich in phenols (tocopherols) and steroids (campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol). Grapeseed oil contains small amounts of vitamin E, but safflower oil, cottonseed oil, or rice bran oil contain greater amounts. Grapeseed oil is high in polyunsaturates and low in saturated fat.
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