Grape seed oil

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Grape Seed Oil
GrapeSeedOil.png
Grape seed oil in clear glass vial
Fat composition
Saturated fats
Total saturatedPalmitic: 7%
Stearic: 4%
Unsaturated fats
Total unsaturated86%
Monounsaturated16.1%
Palmitoleic acid<1%
Oleic acid15.8%
Polyunsaturated69.9%
Omega-3 fatty acidsα-Linolenic: 0.1%
Omega-6 fatty acidsLinoleic: 69.6%
Properties
Food energy per 100 g (3.5 oz)3,700 kJ (880 kcal)
Smoke point216 °C (421 °F)
Iodine value124-143
Saponification value126 (NaOH)
180-196 (KOH)
Unsaponifiable0.3% - 1.6%
Peroxide value2.92 mequiv/kg

Grape seed oil (also called grapeseed oil or grape oil) is a vegetable oil derived from the seeds of grapes. A by-product of the winemaking industry, it is typically used for edible applications.[1][2]

Uses[edit]

Cooking[edit]

Grape seed oil has a moderately high smoke point of approximately 216 °C (421 °F). Due to its clean, light taste, and high polyunsaturated fat content, it may be used as an ingredient in salad dressings and mayonnaise and as a base for oil infusions of garlic, rosemary, or other herbs or spices. It is widely used in baked goods, pancakes, and waffles. It is sprayed on raisins to help them retain their flavor.[2]

Research[edit]

A study of 21 grape cultivars showed variation of oil composition, especially for linoleic acid and tocopherols.[3]

Although grape seeds contain polyphenols, such as proanthocyanidins,[4] grape seed oil contains negligible amounts of these compounds.[5] Grape seed oil components are under study for their potential applications in human health, but the scientific quality of clinical research as of 2016 has been inadequate to suggest any effect on lowering disease risk.[6]

Possible contamination[edit]

Grapeseed oil has occasionally been found to contain dangerous levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons because of direct contact with combustion gases during the drying process.[7]

Production[edit]

Winemaking accounts for 90% of grape cultivation, with the seeds of the plant serving as a by-product that can be pressed for oil. Grapeseed oil production primarily occurs in wine-growing regions, especially around the Mediterranean Sea.[2]

Composition[edit]

Grape seeds (numbers 7 and 8) and grapes

The following table lists a typical fatty acid composition of grape seed oil:[8]

Acid Type Percentage
Linoleic acid ω−6 unsaturated 69.6%
Oleic acid ω−9 unsaturated 15.8%
Palmitic acid
(Hexadecanoic acid)
Saturated 7%
Stearic acid
(Octadecanoic acid)
Saturated 4%
Alpha-linolenic acid ω−3 unsaturated 0.1%
Palmitoleic acid
(9-Hexadecenoic acid)
ω−7 unsaturated less than 1%

Grape seed oil also contains 0.8 to 1.5% unsaponifiables rich in phenols (tocopherols) and steroids (campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol).[9] Grapeseed oil contains small amounts of vitamin E, but safflower oil, cottonseed oil, or rice bran oil contain greater amounts.[10] Grapeseed oil is high in polyunsaturates and low in saturated fat.

Comparison to other vegetable oils[edit]

Properties of vegetable oils[11][12]
Type Processing
treatment
Saturated
fatty acids
Monounsaturated
fatty acids
Polyunsaturated
fatty acids
Smoke point
Total[11] Oleic
acid
(ω-9)
Total[11] α-Linolenic
acid
(ω-3)
Linoleic
acid
(ω-6)
ω-6:3
ratio
Almond oil
Avocado[13] 11.6 70.6 52-66[14] 13.5 1 12.5 12.5:1 250 °C (482 °F)[15]
Brazil nut[16] 24.8 32.7 31.3 42.0 0.1 41.9 419:1 208 °C (406 °F)[17]
Canola[18] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 2:1 238 °C (460 °F)[17]
Cashew oil
Chia seeds
Cocoa butter oil
Coconut[19] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[17]
Corn[20] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58 58:1 232 °C (450 °F)[21]
Cottonseed[22] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 54:1 216 °C (420 °F)[21]
Flaxseed/Linseed[23] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13 0.2:1 107 °C (225 °F)
Grape seed   10.5 14.3 14.3   74.7 - 74.7 very high 216 °C (421 °F)[24]
Hemp seed[25] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0 2.5:1 166 °C (330 °F)[26]
Vigna mungo
Mustard oil
Olive[27] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 14:1 193 °C (380 °F)[17]
Palm[28] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 45.5:1 235 °C (455 °F)
Peanut[29] 20.3 48.1 46.5 31.5 0 31.4 very high 232 °C (450 °F)[21]
Pecan oil
Perilla oil
Rice bran oil
Safflower[30] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 very high 212 °C (414 °F)[17]
Sesame[31] ? 14.2 39.7 39.3 41.7 0.3 41.3 138:1
Soybean[32] Partially hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9 13.4:1
Soybean[33] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 7.3:1 238 °C (460 °F)[21]
Walnut oil
Sunflower (standard)[34] 10.3 19.5 19.5 65.7 0 65.7 very high 227 °C (440 °F)[21]
Sunflower (< 60% linoleic)[35] 10.1 45.4 45.3 40.1 0.2 39.8 199:1
Sunflower (> 70% oleic)[36] 9.9 83.7 82.6 3.8 0.2 3.6 18:1 232 °C (450 °F)[37]
Cottonseed[38] Hydrogenated 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.2 0.3 1.5:1
Palm[39] Hydrogenated 88.2 5.7 0
The nutritional values are expressed as percent (%) by weight of total fat.


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Ormazabal, Markel; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz (2015-01-01). "Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Consecutive Extractions of Fatty Acids and Polyphenols from Vitis Vinifera Grape Wastes". Journal of Food Science. 80 (1): E101–E107. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.12715. PMID 25471637.
  2. ^ a b c Bewley, J. Derek; Black, Michael; Halmer, Peter (2006). The encyclopedia of seeds: science, technology and uses. CABI. ISBN 978-0-85199-723-0.
  3. ^ Sabir, A; Unver, A; Kara, Z (2012). "The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.)". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 92 (9): 1982–7. doi:10.1002/jsfa.5571. PMID 22271548.
  4. ^ Joshi, SS; Kuszynski C. A.; Bagchi D. (2001). "The cellular and molecular basis of health benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract". Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2 (2): 187–200. doi:10.2174/1389201013378725. PMID 11480422.
  5. ^ Nakamura, Y; Tsuji S; Tonogai Y (2003). "Analysis of proanthocyanidins in grape seed extracts, health foods and grape seed oils" (PDF). Journal of Health Science. 49 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1248/jhs.49.45.
  6. ^ Garavaglia, J; Markoski, M. M.; Oliveira, A; Marcadenti, A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299.
  7. ^ Moret, S.; Dudine, A.; Conte, L.S. (2000). "Processing effects on the polyaromatic hydrocarbon content of grapeseed oil". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 77 (12): 1289–1292. doi:10.1007/s11746-000-0203-5.
  8. ^ Kamel, B. S.; Dawson H.; Kakuda Y. (1985). "Characteristics and composition of melon and grape seed oils and cakes". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 62 (5): 881–883. doi:10.1007/BF02541750.
  9. ^ Oomah, BD; Liang J; Godfrey D; Mazza G (1998). "Microwave Heating of Grapeseed: Effect on Oil Quality". J. Agric. Food Chem. 46 (10): 4017–4021. doi:10.1021/jf980412f.
  10. ^ Herting, D. C.; Drury, E. J. E. (1963). "Vitamin E Content of Vegetable Oils and Fats". J. Nutr. 81 (4): 4017–4021. doi:10.1093/jn/81.4.335. PMID 14100992.
  11. ^ a b c "US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this table are from this database unless otherwise cited.
  12. ^ "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2017. Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.
  13. ^ "Avocado oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  14. ^ Feramuz Ozdemir; Ayhan Topuz (May 2003). "Changes in dry matter, oil content and fatty acids composition of avocado during harvesting time and post-harvesting ripening period" (PDF). Elsevier. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  15. ^ Marie Wong; Cecilia Requejo-Jackman; Allan Woolf (April 2010). "What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?". Aocs.org. The American Oil Chemists’ Society. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  16. ^ "Brazil nut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  17. ^ a b c d e Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59–65. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
  18. ^ "Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  19. ^ "Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  20. ^ "Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  21. ^ a b c d e Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
  22. ^ "Cottonseed oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  23. ^ "Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  24. ^ Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299.
  25. ^ Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, Halonen P, Mykkänen O, Hyvönen P, Järvinen T (April 2005). "Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis". The Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 16 (2): 87–94. doi:10.1080/09546630510035832. PMID 16019622. S2CID 18445488.
  26. ^ "Smoke points of oils" (PDF).
  27. ^ "Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  28. ^ "Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  29. ^ Vegetable Oils in Food Technology (2011), p. 61.
  30. ^ "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  31. ^ "Soybean oil". FoodData Central. fdc.nal.usda.gov.
  32. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  33. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  34. ^ "Sunflower oil, 65% linoleic, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  35. ^ "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  36. ^ "Sunflower oil, high oleic - 70% or more as oleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  37. ^ "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org. 2012-04-17. Retrieved 2016-05-28.
  38. ^ "Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  39. ^ "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.