Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
what is ?)(
Graphane is a two-dimensional polymer of carbon and hydrogen with the formula unit (CH)n where n is large. Partial hydrogenation results in hydrogenated graphene, which was reported by Elias et al in 2009 by a TEM study to be "direct evidence for a new graphene-based derivative". The authors viewed the panorama as "a whole range of new two-dimensional crystals with designed electronic and other properties".
Its preparation was reported in 2009. Graphane can be formed by electrolytic hydrogenation of graphene, few-layer graphene or high-oriented pyrolytic graphite. In the last case mechanical exfoliation of hydrogenated top layers can be used.
The first theoretical description of graphane was reported in 2003. The structure was found, using a cluster expansion method, to be the most stable of all the possible hydrogenation ratios of graphene. In 2007, researchers found that the compound is more stable than other compounds containing carbon and hydrogen, such as benzene, cyclohexane and polyethylene. This group named the predicted compound graphane, because it is the fully saturated version of graphene. The compound is an insulator. Chemical functionalization of graphene with hydrogen may be a suitable method to open a band gap in graphene.
Any disorder in hydrogenation conformation tends to contract the lattice constant by about 2.0%.
Partial hydrogenation leads to hydrogenated graphene rather than (fully hydrogenated) graphane. Such compounds are usually named as "graphane-like" structures. Graphane and graphane-like structures can be formed by electrolytic hydrogenation of graphene or few-layer graphene or high-oriented pyrolytic graphite. In the last case mechanical exfoliation of hydrogenated top layers can be used.
Hydrogenation of graphene on substrate affects only one side, preserving hexagonal symmetry. One-sided hydrogenation of graphene is possible due to the existence of ripplings. Because the latter are distributed randomly, the obtained material is disordered in contrast to two-sided graphane. Annealing allows the hydrogen to disperse, reverting to graphene. Simulations revealed the underlying kinetic mechanism.
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- Elias, D. C.; Nair, R. R.; Mohiuddin, T. M. G.; Morozov, S. V.; Blake, P.; Halsall, M. P.; Ferrari, A. C.; Boukhvalov, D. W.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Geim, A. K.; Novoselov, K. S.; et al. (2009). "Control of Graphene's Properties by Reversible Hydrogenation: Evidence for Graphane". Science. 323 (5914): 610–3. arXiv:0810.4706. Bibcode:2009Sci...323..610E. doi:10.1126/science.1167130. PMID 19179524. S2CID 3536592.
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- Sofo, Jorge O.; Chaudhari, Ajay S.; Barber, Greg D. (2007). "Graphane: A two-dimensional hydrocarbon". Physical Review B. 75 (15): 153401. arXiv:cond-mat/0606704. Bibcode:2007PhRvB..75o3401S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.75.153401. S2CID 101537520.
- Savini, G.; Ferrari, A. C.; Giustino, F. (2010). "First-principles prediction of doped graphane as a high-temperature electron-phonon superconductor". Physical Review Letters. 105 (3): 037002. arXiv:1002.0653. Bibcode:2010PhRvL.105c7002S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.037002. PMID 20867792. S2CID 118466816.
- Feng Huang, Liang; Zeng, Zhi (2013). "Lattice dynamics and disorder-induced contraction in functionalized graphene". Journal of Applied Physics. 113 (8): 083524. Bibcode:2013JAP...113h3524F. doi:10.1063/1.4793790.
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