Graphene antenna

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A graphene antenna is a high-frequency antenna based on graphene, a one atom thick two dimensional carbon crystal, designed to enhance radio communications.[1][2][3][4] The unique structure of graphene would enable these enhancements. Ultimately, the choice of graphene for the basis of this nano antenna was due to the behavior of electrons.


It would be unfeasible to simply reduce traditional metallic antennas to nano sizes, because they would require tremendously high frequencies to operate.[5][6][7] Consequently, it would require a lot of power to operate them. Furthermore, electrons in these traditional metals are not very mobile at nano sizes and the necessary electromagnetic waves would not form. However, these limitations would not be an issue with graphene's unique capabilities. A flake of graphene has the potential to hold a series of metal electrodes. Consequently, it would be possible to develop an antenna from this material.[8][9]

Electron behavior[edit]

Graphene has a unique structure, wherein, electrons are able to move with minimal resistance. This enables electricity to move at a much faster speed than in metal, which is used for current antennas. Furthermore, as the electrons oscillate, they create an electromagnetic wave atop the graphene layer, referred to as the surface plasmon polariton wave. This would enable the antenna to operate at the lower end of the terahertz frequency, which would be more efficient than the current copper based antennas. Ultimately, researchers envision that graphene will be able to break through the limitations of current antennas.[8][9]


It has been estimated that speeds of up to terabits per second can be achieved using such a device.[10] Traditional antennas would require very high frequencies to operate at nano scales, making it an unfeasible option. However, the unique slower movement of electrons in graphene would enable it to operate at lower frequencies making it a feasible option for a nano sized antenna.[9][11][12]


Oak Ridge National Laboratory[edit]

Researchers from the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have discovered a unique way to create an atomic antenna. Two sheets of graphene can be connected by a silicon wire that is approximately 0.1 nanometer in diameter. This is approximately 100 times smaller than current metal based wires, which can only be reduced to 50 nanometers. This silicon wire however, is a plasmotic device, which would enable the formation of surface plasmon polariton waves required to operate this nano antenna.[12]


Samsung has funded $120,000 for research into the graphene antenna to a team of researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Polytechnic University of Catalonia. Their research has shown that graphene is a feasible material to make nano antennas with. They have simulated how the electrons would behave, and have confirmed that surface plasmon polariton waves should form. This wave is essential for the graphene antenna to operate at the low end of the terahertz range, making it more efficient than traditional antenna designs. Researchers are currently working on implementing their research, and finding a way to propagate the electromagnetic waves necessary to operate the antenna. Their findings were published in the IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications.[11][13]

University of Manchester[edit]

A collaboration between the University of Manchester and an industrial partner developed a new way to manufacture graphene antennas for radio-frequency identification.[14] The antennas are paper-based, flexible and environmentally friendly. Their findings were published in Applied Physics Letters[15] and are being commercialised by Graphene Security.[16]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien (2012). "Graphene for antenna applications: Opportunities and challenges from microwaves to THZ". 2012 Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference (LAPC). pp. 1–4. arXiv:1210.3444. doi:10.1109/lapc.2012.6402934. ISBN 978-1-4673-2220-1. S2CID 36205070.
  2. ^ Wang, W.; Ma, C.; Zhang, X.; Shen, J.; Hanagata, N.; Huangfu, J.; Xu, M. (2019). "High-performance printable 2.4 GHZ graphene-based antenna using water-transferring technology". Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. 20 (1): 870–875. Bibcode:2019STAdM..20..870W. doi:10.1080/14686996.2019.1653741. PMC 6713133. PMID 31489056.
  3. ^ Correas-Serrano, D.; Gomez-Diaz, J. S. (2017). "Graphene-based Antennas for Terahertz Systems: A Review". arXiv:1704.00371 [cond-mat.mes-hall].
  4. ^ Blackledge, J. M.; Boretti, A.; Rosa, L.; Castelletto, S. (2021). "Fractal Graphene Patch Antennas and the THZ Communications Revolution". Iop Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 1060 (1): 012001. Bibcode:2021MS&E.1060a2001B. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1060/1/012001. S2CID 234080752.
  5. ^ Giannini, Vincenzo; Fernández-Domínguez, Antonio I.; Heck, Susannah C.; Maier, Stefan A. (2011). "Plasmonic Nanoantennas: Fundamentals and Their Use in Controlling the Radiative Properties of Nanoemitters". Chemical Reviews. 111 (6): 3888–3912. doi:10.1021/cr1002672. PMID 21434605.
  6. ^ Shah, Syed Imran Hussain; Lim, Sungjoon (2021). "Review on recent origami inspired antennas from microwave to terahertz regime". Materials & Design. 198: 109345. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2020.109345. S2CID 229437610.
  7. ^ Hao, Huali; Hui, David; Lau, Denvid (2020). "Material advancement in technological development for the 5G wireless communications". Nanotechnology Reviews. 9: 683–699. doi:10.1515/ntrev-2020-0054. S2CID 221371916.
  8. ^ a b Llatser, Ignacio (2012). Characterization of graphene-based nano-antennas in the terahertz band. IEEE European Conference on Antennas and Propagation. pp. 194–198. doi:10.1109/EuCAP.2012.6206598.
  9. ^ a b c Dragoman, Mircea (2010). "Terahertz Radio based on Graphene". Journal of Applied Physics. 107 (10): 104313–104313–3. Bibcode:2010JAP...107j4313D. doi:10.1063/1.3427536.
  10. ^ Trevino, J.; Walsh, G. F.; Pecora, E. F.; Boriskina, S. V.; Dal Negro, L. (2013). "Photonic–plasmonic-coupled nanoantennas for polarization-controlled multispectral nanofocusing". Optics Letters. 38 (22): 4861. Bibcode:2013OptL...38.4861T. doi:10.1364/OL.38.004861. PMID 24322151.
  11. ^ a b Toon, John (2013-12-11). "Graphene-Based Nano-Antennas May Enable Networks of Tiny Machines". Georgia Tech. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
  12. ^ a b Anthony, Sebastian (February 2, 2012). "Graphene acts as a plasmonic antenna, leads towards 0.1nm wires in chips". ExtremeTech. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  13. ^ Hewitt, John (February 25, 2013). "Samsung funds graphene antenna project for wireless, ultra-fast intra-chip links". ExtremeTech. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
  14. ^ "Graphene antenna 'could deliver cheap, flexible sensors'". The University of Manchester. 20 May 2015. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  15. ^ Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Jia Cing; Chang, Kuo Hsin; Geim, Andre K.; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Hu, Zhirun (2015). "Binder-free highly conductive graphene laminate for low cost printed radio frequency applications". Applied Physics Letters. 106 (20): 203105. Bibcode:2015ApPhL.106t3105H. doi:10.1063/1.4919935.
  16. ^ "Graphene Antennas – Graphene Security". Retrieved 2017-07-17.

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