A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content. Although the word "novel" normally refers to long fictional works, the term "graphic novel" is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, and anthologized work. It is distinguished from the term "comic book", which is used for comics periodicals.
Fan historian Richard Kyle coined the term "graphic novel" in an essay in the November 1964 issue of the comics fanzine Capa-Alpha. The term gained popularity in the comics community after the publication of Will Eisner's A Contract with God (1978) and the start of Marvel's Graphic Novel line (1982) and became familiar to the public in the late 1980s after the commercial successes of the first volume of Art Spiegelman's Maus in 1986 and the collected editions of Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns in 1986 and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen in 1987. The Book Industry Study Group began using "graphic novel" as a category in book stores in 2001.
The term is not strictly defined, though Merriam-Webster's full dictionary definition is "a fictional story that is presented in comic-strip format and published as a book", while its simplest definition is given as "cartoon drawings that tell a story and are published as a book". In the publishing trade, the term is extends to material that would not be considered a novel if produced in another medium. Collections of comic books that do not form a continuous story, anthologies or collections of loosely related pieces, and even non-fiction are stocked by libraries and bookstores as "graphic novels" (similar to the manner in which dramatic stories are included in "comic" books). The term is also sometimes used to distinguish between works created as standalone stories, in contrast to collections or compilations of a story arc from a comic book series published in book form.
In continental Europe, both original book-length stories such as La rivolta dei racchi (1967) by Guido Buzzelli, and collections of comics have been commonly published in hardcover volumes, often called "albums", since the end of the 19th century (including such later Franco-Belgian comics series as The Adventures of Tintin in the 1930s, joined in the 1960s by such series as Lieutenant Blueberry, and Italian series such as Corto Maltese).
As the exact definition of the graphic novel is debated, the origins of the form are open to interpretation.
The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck is the oldest recognized American example of comics used to this end. It originated as the 1828 publication Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Swiss caricaturist Rodolphe Töpffer, and was first published in English translation in 1841 by London's Tilt & Bogue, which used an 1833 Paris pirate edition. The first American edition was published in 1842 by Wilson & Company in New York City using the original printing plates from the 1841 edition. Another early predecessor is Journey to the Gold Diggins by Jeremiah Saddlebags by brothers J. A. D. and D. F. Read, inspired by The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck. In 1894 Caran d'Ache broached the idea of a "drawn novel" in a letter to the newspaper Le Figaro and started work on a 360-page wordless book (never published). In the United States there is a long tradition of reissuing previously published comic strips in book form. In 1897 the Hearst Syndicate published such a collection of The Yellow Kid by Richard Outcault and it quickly became a best seller.
1920s to 1960s
The 1920s saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition, with Belgian Frans Masereel cited as "the undisputed king" of this revival. His works include Passionate Journey (1919). American Lynd Ward also worked in this tradition, publishing Gods' Man, in 1929 and going on to publish more during the 1930s.
Other prototypical examples from this period include American Milt Gross' He Done Her Wrong (1930), a wordless comic published as a hardcover book, and Une Semaine de Bonté (1934), a novel in sequential images composed of collage by the surrealist painter Max Ernst. Similarly, Charlotte Salomon's Life? or Theater? (composed 1941-43) combines images, narrative, and captions as in later graphic novels.
The 1940s saw the launching of Classics Illustrated, a comic-book series that primarily adapted notable, public domain novels into standalone comic books for young readers. In 1947 Fawcett Comics published Comics Novel #1: "Anarcho, Dictator of Death", a 52-page comic dedicated to one story. In 1950, St. John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a film noir-influenced slice of steeltown life starring a scheming, manipulative redhead named Rust. Touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover, the 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller" (Arnold Drake and Leslie Waller), penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin proved successful enough to lead to an unrelated second picture novel, The Case of the Winking Buddha by pulp novelist Manning Lee Stokes and illustrator Charles Raab. Presaging Will Eisner's multiple-story graphic novel A Contract with God (1978), cartoonist Harvey Kurtzman wrote and drew the four-story mass-market paperback Harvey Kurtzman's Jungle Book (Ballantine Books #338K), published in 1959.
By the late 1960s, American comic book creators were becoming more adventurous with the form. Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin self-published a 40-page, magazine-format comics novel, His Name is... Savage (Adventure House Press) in 1968—the same year Marvel Comics published two issues of The Spectacular Spider-Man in a similar format. Columnist and comic-book writer Steven Grant also argues that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Doctor Strange story in Strange Tales #130–146, although published serially from 1965–1966, is "the first American graphic novel". (Similarly, critic Jason Sacks referred to the 13-issue "Panther's Rage" — comics' first-known titled, self-contained, multi-issue story arc — that ran from 1973 to 1975 in the Black Panther series in Marvel's Jungle Action as "Marvel's first graphic novel".)
By 1969, the author John Updike, who had entertained ideas of becoming a cartoonist in his youth, addressed the Bristol Literary Society, on "the death of the novel". Updike offered examples of new areas of exploration for novelists, declaring "I see no intrinsic reason why a doubly talented artist might not arise and create a comic strip novel masterpiece".
Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin's Blackmark (1971), a science fiction/sword-and-sorcery paperback published by Bantam Books, did not use the term originally; the back-cover blurb of the 30th-anniversary edition (ISBN 978-1-56097-456-7) calls it, retroactively, "the very first American graphic novel". The Academy of Comic Book Arts presented Kane with a special 1971 Shazam Award for what it called "his paperback comics novel". Whatever the nomenclature, Blackmark is a 119-page story of comic-book art, with captions and word balloons, published in a traditional book format. It is also the first with an original heroic-adventure character conceived expressly for this form.
European creators were also experimenting with the longer narrative in comics form. In the United Kingdom, Raymond Briggs was producing works such as Father Christmas (1972) and The Snowman (1978), which he himself described as being from the "bottomless abyss of strip cartooning", although they, along with such other Briggs works as the more mature When the Wind Blows (1982), have been re-marketed as graphic novels in the wake of the term's popularity. Briggs notes, however, "I don't know if I like that term too much".
First self-proclaimed graphic novels: 1976–1978
In 1976, the term "graphic novel" appeared in print to describe three separate works. Bloodstar by Richard Corben (adapted from a story by Robert E. Howard) used the term to define itself on its dust jacket and introduction. George Metzger's Beyond Time and Again, serialized in underground comics from 1967 to 1972, was subtitled "A Graphic Novel" on the inside title page when collected as a 48-page, black-and-white, hardcover book published by Kyle & Wheary.
The digest-sized Chandler: Red Tide (1976) by Jim Steranko, designed to be sold on newsstands, used the term "graphic novel" in its introduction and "a visual novel" on its cover, although Chandler is more commonly considered an illustrated novel than a work of comics.
The following year, Terry Nantier, who had spent his teenage years living in Paris, returned to the United States and formed Flying Buttress Publications, later to incorporate as NBM Publishing (Nantier, Beall, Minoustchine), and published Racket Rumba, a 50-page spoof of the noir-detective genre, written and drawn by the single-name French artist Loro. Nantier followed this with Enki Bilal's The Call of the Stars. The company marketed these works as "graphic albums".
The first six issues of writer-artist Jack Katz's 1974 Comics and Comix Co. series The First Kingdom were collected as a trade paperback (Pocket Books, March 1978, ISBN 978-0-671-79016-5), which described itself as "the first graphic novel". Issues of the comic had described themselves as "graphic prose", or simply as a novel.
Similarly, Sabre: Slow Fade of an Endangered Species by writer Don McGregor and artist Paul Gulacy (Eclipse Books, August 1978)—the first graphic novel sold in the newly created "direct market" of United States comic-book shops—was called a "graphic album" by the author in interviews, though the publisher dubbed it a "comic novel" on its credits page. "Graphic album" was also the term used the following year by Gene Day for his hardcover short-story collection Future Day (Flying Buttress Press).
Another early graphic novel, though it carried no self-description, was The Silver Surfer (Simon & Schuster/Fireside Books, August 1978), by Marvel Comics' Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. Significantly, this was published by a traditional book publisher and distributed through bookstores, as was cartoonist Jules Feiffer's Tantrum (Alfred A. Knopf, 1979) described on its dustjacket as a "novel-in-pictures".
Adoption of the term
Hyperbolic descriptions of longer comic books as "novels" appear on covers as early as the 1940s. Early issues of DC Comics' All-Flash Quarterly, for example, described their contents as "novel-length stories" and "full-length four chapter novels."
In its earliest known citation, comic book reviewer Richard Kyle used the term "graphic novel" in CAPA-ALPHA #2 (November 1964), a newsletter published by the Comic Amateur Press Alliance, and again in an article in Bill Spicer's magazine Fantasy Illustrated #5 (Spring 1966). Kyle, inspired by European and Japanese graphic albums, used the label to designate comics of an artistically "serious" sort. Following this, Spicer, with Kyle's acknowledgment, edited and published a periodical titled Graphic Story Magazine in the fall of 1967. The Sinister House of Secret Love #2 (Jan. 1972), one of DC Comics' line of extra-length, 48-page comics, specifically used the phrase "a graphic novel of Gothic terror" on its cover.
Because of critiques regarding the content of comic books and the Comics Code Authority, an underground alternative comix movement was created. The success of this underground movement is closely connected to the comix-influenced A Contract with God and Other Tenement Stories by Will Eisner and Frank Miller’s Batman: The Dark Knight Returns.
The term "graphic novel" began to grow in popularity months after it appeared on the cover of the trade paperback edition (though not the hardcover edition) of Will Eisner's A Contract with God and Other Tenement Stories (October 1978). This collection of short stories was a mature, complex work focusing on the lives of ordinary people in the real world based on Eisner's own experiences. The term "graphic novel" was intended to distinguish it from the traditional serialized nature of comic books, with which it shared a storytelling medium.
One scholar used graphic novels to introduce the concept of graphiation, a newly coined term used to describe graphic expression or visual enunciation. Graphiation refers to the theory that the entire personality of an artist is visible through his or her visual representation of a certain character, setting, event, or object in a novel, and as a means to examine and analyze drawing style.
Even though Eisner’s A Contract with God was finally published in 1978 by a smaller company, Baronet Press, it took Eisner over a year to find a publishing house that would allow his work to reach the mass market. Eisner cited Lynd Ward's 1930s woodcuts (see above) as an inspiration.
The critical and commercial success of A Contract with God helped to establish the term "graphic novel" in common usage, and many sources have incorrectly credited Eisner with being the first to use it. These included the Time magazine website in 2003, which said in its correction, "Eisner acknowledges that the term 'graphic novel' had been coined prior to his book. But, he says, 'I had not known at the time that someone had used that term before.' Nor does he take credit for creating the first graphic book."
One of the earliest contemporaneous applications of the term post-Eisner came in 1979, when Blackmark's sequel—published a year after A Contract with God though written and drawn in the early 1970s—was labeled a "graphic novel" on the cover of Marvel Comics' black-and-white comics magazine Marvel Preview #17 (Winter 1979), where Blackmark: The Mind Demons premiered—its 117-page contents intact, but its panel-layout reconfigured to fit 62 pages.
Following this, Marvel from 1982 to 1988 published the Marvel Graphic Novel line of 10"x7" trade paperbacks—although numbering them like comic books, from #1 (Jim Starlin's The Death of Captain Marvel) to #35 (Dennis O'Neil, Mike Kaluta, and Russ Heath's Hitler's Astrologer, starring the radio and pulp fiction character the Shadow, and released in hardcover). Marvel commissioned original graphic novels from such creators as John Byrne, J. M. DeMatteis, Steve Gerber, graphic-novel pioneer McGregor, Frank Miller, Bill Sienkiewicz, Walt Simonson, Charles Vess, and Bernie Wrightson. While most of these starred Marvel superheroes, others, such as Rick Veitch's Heartburst featured original SF/fantasy characters; others still, such as John J. Muth's Dracula, featured adaptations of literary stories or characters; and one, Sam Glanzman's A Sailor's Story, was a true-life, World War II naval tale.
Cartoonist Art Spiegelman's Pulitzer Prize-winning Maus (1986), helped establish both the term and the concept of graphic novels in the minds of the mainstream public. Two DC Comics book reprints of self-contained miniseries did likewise, though they were not originally published as graphic novels: Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (1986), a collection of Frank Miller's four-part comic-book series featuring an older Batman faced with the problems of a dystopian future; and Watchmen (1986-1987), a collection of Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' 12-issue limited series in which Moore notes he "set out to explore, amongst other things, the dynamics of power in a post-Hiroshima world". These works and others were reviewed in newspapers and magazines, leading to increased coverage. Sales of graphic novels increased, with Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, for example, lasting 40 weeks on a UK best-seller list.
European adoption of the term
Outside North America, Eisner's A Contract with God and Spiegelman's Maus led to the popularization of the expression "graphic novel" as well. Until then, most European countries used neutral, descriptive terminology that referred to the form of the medium, and not the contents. In Francophone Europe for example, the expression bandes dessinées – which literally translates as "drawn strips" – is used, while the terms stripverhaal ("strip story") and tegneserie ("drawn series") are used by the Dutch/Flemish and Scandinavians respectively. European comics studies scholars have observed that Americans originally used "graphic novel" to describe everything that deviated from their standard, 32-page comic book format, meaning that all larger-sized, longer Franco-Belgian comic albums, regardless of their contents, fell under the heading.
Unlike in the U.S. however, European use of "graphic novel" was from the start intended to differentiate between comics intended for a younger and/or general readership, and those that featured more adult, mature and literary themes, sometimes in conjuncture with an innovative and/or experimental comic art or story style. Belgian literary scholar Kurt Geeraerts has cited the definition that From Hell graphic novelist Eddie Campbell gave in his 2005 Graphic Novel Manifesto as guidance for the European approach: "The goal of the graphic novelist is to take the form of the comic book, which has become an embarrassment, and raise it to a more ambitious and meaningful level." European comic scholars have retroactively identified the 1962 Barbarella comic by Jean-Claude Forest (for its theme) and the first 1967 Corto Maltese adventure Una ballata del mare salato (A Ballad of the Salt Sea) by Hugo Pratt (for both art, and story style) in particular, as the comics up for consideration as the first European "graphic novels", with the later 1982 Feux from Lorenzo Mattotti added for its post-impressionistic art style, a style not commonly associated with comics at the time. During the late 1970s and the 1980s, Belgian publisher Casterman – publisher of the works from Forest, Pratt and Mattoti – and French publisher Les Humanoïdes Associés, became associated in particular with graphic novels before being joined by other European publishers.
American comic critics occasionally refer to European graphic novels as "Eurocomics", and attempts were made in the late 1980s to cross-fertilize the American market with these works. American publishers Catalan Communications and NBM Publishing released translated titles, predominantly from the backlog catalogs of Casterman and Les Humanoïdes Associés.
Criticism of the term
Some in the comics community have objected to the term "graphic novel" on the grounds that it is unnecessary, or that its usage has been corrupted by commercial interests. Writer Alan Moore believes,
It's a marketing term... that I never had any sympathy with. The term 'comic' does just as well for me... The problem is that 'graphic novel' just came to mean 'expensive comic book' and so what you'd get is people like DC Comics or Marvel Comics—because 'graphic novels' were getting some attention, they'd stick six issues of whatever worthless piece of crap they happened to be publishing lately under a glossy cover and call it The She-Hulk Graphic Novel...."
Author Daniel Raeburn wrote,
I snicker at the neologism first for its insecure pretension—the literary equivalent of calling a garbage man a 'sanitation engineer'—and second because a 'graphic novel' is in fact the very thing it is ashamed to admit: a comic book, rather than a comic pamphlet or comic magazine.
Writer Neil Gaiman, responding to a claim that he does not write comic books but graphic novels, said the commenter
- "meant it as a compliment, I suppose. But all of a sudden I felt like someone who'd been informed that she wasn't actually a hooker; that in fact she was a lady of the evening."
- "I kind of like that answer. Because 'graphic novel'... I don't like that name. It's trying too hard. It is a comic book. But there is a difference. And the difference is, a graphic novel is a novel in the sense that there is a beginning, a middle and an end."
Some alternative cartoonists have coined their own terms to describe extended comics narratives. The cover of Daniel Clowes' Ice Haven (2001) describes the book as "a comic-strip novel", with Clowes having noted that he "never saw anything wrong with the comic book". The cover of Craig Thompson's Blankets calls it "an illustrated novel."
- Artist's book
- Collage novel
- Comic album
- Comics studies
- Graphic narrative
- Graphic non-fiction
- List of award-winning graphic novels
- Trade paperback (comics)
- Schelly, Bill (2010). Founders of Comic Fandom: Profiles of 90 Publishers, Dealers, Collectors, Writers, Artists and Other Luminaries of the 1950s and 1960s. McFarland. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-7864-5762-5.
- Madden, David; Bane, Charles; Flory, Sean M. (2006). A Primer of the Novel: For Readers and Writers. Scarecrow Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-4616-5597-8.
- "BISAC Subject Headings List, Comics and Graphic Novels". Book Industry Study Group. Archived from the original on April 14, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- "graphic novel". Merriam-Webster.com.
- Gertler, Nat; Steve Lieber (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Creating a Graphic Novel. Alpha Books. ISBN 978-1-59257-233-5.
- Kaplan, Arie (2006). Masters of the Comic Book Universe Revealed!. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-55652-633-6.
- A complete edition was published in 1970 before being serialized in the French magazine Charlie Mensuel, as per "Dino Buzzati 1965–1975" (Italian website). Associazione Guido Buzzelli. 2004. Retrieved 2006-06-21. (WebCitation archive); Domingos Isabelinho (2004). "The Ghost of a Character: The Cage by Martin Vaughn-James". Indy Magazine. Retrieved 2006-04-06. (WebCitation archive).
- Geeraerts, K. (2011), Wat is een graphic novel?
- Coville, Jamie. "The History of Comic Books: Introduction and 'The Platinum Age 1897–1938'". TheComicBooks.com. Archived from the original on April 15, 2003.. Originally published at defunct site CollectorTimes.com
- Beerbohm, Robert (2008). "The Victorian Age Comic Strips and Books 1646-1900: Origins of Early American Comic Strips Before The Yellow Kid and 'The Platinum Age 1897–1938'". Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide #38. pp. 337–338.
- Groensteen, Thierry (June 2015). ""Maestro" : chronique d'une découverte / "Maestro": Chronicle of a Discovery". NeuviemArt 2.0. Archived from the original on July 9, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
... le caricaturiste Emmanuel Poiré, plus connu sous le pseudonyme de Caran d’Ache (1858-1909). Il s’exprimait ainsi dans une lettre adressée le 20 juillet 1894 à l’éditeur du Figaro ... L’ouvrage n’a jamais été publié, Caran d’Ache l’ayant laissé inachevé pour une raison inconnue. Mais ... puisque ce sont près d’une centaine de pages complètes (format H 20,4 x 12,5 cm) qui figurent dans le lot proposé au musée. / ... cartoonist Emmanuel Poiré, better known under the pseudonym Caran d'Ache (1858-1909). He was speaking in a letter July 20, 1894, to the editor of Le Figaro ... The book was never published, Caran d'Ache having left it unfinished for unknown reasons. But ... almost a hundred full pages (format 20.4 x H 12.5 cm) are contained in the lot proposed for the museum.
- Tychinski, Stan. "A Brief History of the Graphic Novel". Diamond Comic Distributors. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
- Sabin, Roger. Adult Comics: An Introduction(Routledge New Accents Library Collection, 2005), p. 291 ISBN 978-0-415-29139-2, ISBN 978-0-415-29139-2
- Reissued 1985 as Passionate Journey: A Novel in 165 Woodcuts ISBN 978-0-87286-174-9
- "2016 Lynd Ward Prize for Graphic Novel of the Year". Pennsylvania Center For the Book. Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
- "Graphic Witness".
- Comics Novel #1 at the Grand Comics Database
- Quattro, Ken (2006). "Archer St. John & The Little Company That Could". Comicartville Library. Archived from the original on November 28, 2010.
- It Rhymes with Lust (St. John, 1950 series) at the Grand Comics Database
- Harvey Kurtzman's Jungle Book at the Grand Comics Database
- Grant, Steven. "Permanent Damage" (column) #224, Comic Book Resources, December 28, 2005. Accessdate=2007-03-20. WebCitation archive.
- Sacks, Jason. "Panther's Rage: Marvel's First Graphic Novel". FanboyPlanet.com. Archived from the original on July 4, 2008.
[T]here were real character arcs in Spider-Man and the Fantastic Four [comics] over time. But ... 'Panther's Rage' is the first comic that was created from start to finish as a complete novel. Running in two years' issues of Jungle Action (#s 6 through 18), 'Panther's Rage' is a 200-page novel....Additional WebCitation archive.
- Gravett, Paul (2005). Graphic Novels: Stories To Change Your Life (1st ed.). Aurum Press Limited. ISBN 978-1-84513-068-8.
- Nicholas, Wroe (December 18, 2004). "Bloomin' Christmas". The Guardian. London. WebCitation archive.
- Company history page, NBM Publishing, n.d. Accessed August 18, 2010. WebCitation archive.
- Grand Comics Database: The First Kingdom
- Gough, Bob (2001). "Interview with Don McGregor". MileHighComics.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- Tallmer, Jerry. "The Three Lives of Jules Feiffer", NYC Plus #1, April 2005. WebCitation archive.
- Grand Comics Database: All-Flash (DC, 1941). See Issues #2–10.
- Per Time magazine letter. Time.com (WebCitation archive) from comics historian and author R. C. Harvey in response to claims in Arnold, Andrew D., "The Graphic Novel Silver Anniversary" (WebCitation archive), Time.com, November 14, 2003
- Gravett, Graphic Novels, p. 3
- Cover, The Sinister House of Secret Love #2 at the Grand Comics Database
- Drawn to Change: Comics and Critical Consciousness, Issue 73, Labour, 2014, p. 154-155.
- Comic Books, Tragic Stories: Will Eisner’s American Jewish History, Volume 30, Issue 2, AJS Review, 2006, p. 287
- Baetens, Jan; Frey, Hugo (2015). The Graphic Novel: An Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 137.
- Comic Books, Tragic Stories: Will Eisner’s American Jewish History, Volume 30, Issue 2, AJS Review, 2006, p. 284
- Arnold, Andrew D. (2003-11-21). "A Graphic Literature Library – TIME.comix responds". Time.com. Retrieved 2006-06-21.. WebCitation archive
- Moore letter, Cerebus 217 (April 1997), Aardvark Vanaheim
- Lanham, Fritz. "From Pulp to Pulitzer", Houston Chronicle, August 29, 2004. WebCitation archive.
- Campbell, Eddie (2001). Alec:How to be an Artist (1st ed.). Eddie Campbell Comics. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-9577896-3-0.
- Notable exceptions have become the German and Spanish speaking populaces who have adopted the US derived comic and cómicos respectively. The traditional Spanish term had previously been tebeo ("strip"). The likewise German expression Serienbilder ("serialized images") has, unlike its Spanish counterpart, become obsolete. The term "comic" is used in the other European countries as well, but exclusively to refer to the standard American comic book format.
- The first Barbarella album, Le Terrain vague, was collected in 1964.
- The story's first appearance in album form was in 1975.
- Corto Maltese was originally published in the Italian magazine Il Sergente Kirk (during the period 1967–1969), but Pratt moved to France in 1970 and began a series of short Corto Maltese stories for the French comics magazine Pif Gadget.
- Amazing Heroes, issue 160, March 1989, "Special European Issue!". Having fallen out of favor, the term "Eurocomics" might be misconstrued as derogatory in current understanding, due to its connotations with the popular slang expression "eurotrash" which is derogatory. However, quite the opposite was true at the time, as it was intended by American critics as a means to differentiate European comics from their American counterparts, underscoring the more mature qualities of the former. Graphic novel became the generally used expression for what once had been referred to as "eurocomic".
- Kavanagh, Barry (October 17, 2000). "The Alan Moore Interview: Northampton / Graphic novel". Blather.net. Retrieved 2007-03-20.. WebCitation archive
- Raeburn, Daniel. Chris Ware (Monographics Series), Yale University Press, 2004, p. 110. ISBN 978-0-300-10291-8.
- Bender, Hy (1999). The Sandman Companion. Vertigo. ISBN 978-1-56389-644-6.
- Rogers, Vaneta. "Behind the Page: Jeff Smith, Part Two", Newsarama, February 26, 2008. WebCitation archive.
- Bushell, Laura (July 21, 2005). "Daniel Clowes Interview: The Ghost World Creator Does It Again". BBC – Collective. Retrieved 2006-06-21. WebCitation archive.
- Arnold, Andrew D. "The Graphic Novel Silver Anniversary", Time, November 14, 2003
- Tychinski, Stan. Brodart.com: "A Brief History of the Graphic Novel" (n.d., 2004)
- Couch, Chris. "The Publication and Formats of Comics, Graphic Novels, and Tankobon", Image & Narrative #1 (Dec. 2000)
- Graphic Novels: Everything You Need to Know by Paul Gravett
- Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art by Scott McCloud
- The Victorian Age: Comic Strips and Books 1646-1900 Origins of Early American Comic Strips Before The Yellow Kid, Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide #38 2008 pages 330-366 by Robert Lee Beerbohm, Doug Wheeler, Richard Samuel West and Richard D. Olson, PhD
- Weiner, Stephen & Couch, Chris. Faster than a speeding bullet: the rise of the graphic novel, NBM, 2004, ISBN 978-1-56163-368-5
- BestGraphicNovels.co Graphic novel review site featuring primarily DC and Marvel comic books
- The Graphic Novel: An Introduction by Jan Baetens and Hugo Frey
- The System of Comics by Thierry Groensteen