Cimex lineatus Linnaeus, 1758
Graphosoma italicum had been regarded as either a subspecies, or a mere synonym to G. lineatum. The validity of G. italicum has since been reestablished ; the closest species to G. lineatum is the spotted bug Graphosoma semipunctatum. -
- G. l. lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758) - nominal subspecies
- G. l. siciliensis Lupoli, 2017 - endemic to Sicily. Black legged, more reddish coloured ; only occurrence of the species in Europe, it actually looks close to its European relative, G. italicum.
G. lineatum can reach a length of 8–12 mm (0.31–0.47 in). The body is almost round, with a large shield. The basic color of the upperside of the body is orange yellow, with wide black longitudinal stripes. The pronotum has six black bands. The antennae are black. Also the sides of the abdominal segments (connexivum) are yellow with many small black spots. The legs are mostly reddish orange, which distinguishes it from its relative, G. italicum.
The orange and black warning colours (aposematism) indicate that the insects are foul-tasting, protecting them from predators. The nymphs do not have the orange-black stripe pattern, instead they are mostly brownish.
- Graphosoma semipunctatum (Fabricius, 1775) - The legs are orange, the red and black bands are interrupted on the pronotum, where they form black points. The distribution is restricted to the Mediterranean region.
- Graphosoma melanoxanthum, Horvath, 1903 - Dark connexivi with small red points, it is distributed in South Russia, Turkey, and Iran.
G. lineatum occurs in North Africa and Sicily. The subspecies G. l. siciliencis occurs only in Sicily.
G. lineatum is an insect of warm and sunny areas. It prefers warm slopes and meadows located on south-facing slopes.
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- Johansen, A. I. (2009) Adaptive change in protective coloration in the striated shieldbug Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Dissertation, Stockholm university.
- Larsson, F. K. (1989) Female longevity and body size as predictors of fecundity and egg length in Graphosoma lineatum L. Deutsche Entomol. Zeitschr. 36: 329-334.
- Sˇlachta, M et al. (2002) Entering diapause is a prerequisite for successful cold-acclimation in adult Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). J. Ins. Physiol. 48: 1031-1039.
- Michael Chinery, Insectes de France et d'Europe occidentale, Flammarion, May 2005, 320 p.
- Dusoulier et Lupoli, Synopsis des Pentatomoidea de France, Nouvelle Revue d’entomologie,
- Ribes & al., 2008
- R. Lupoli & F. Dusoulier, Les Punaises Pentatomoidea de France, Ancyrosoma, 2006 ISBN 9782953666113
- R. Lupoli, Graphosoma lineatum (L., 1758) and G. italicum (O.F. Müller, 1766), two valid and distinct species, probably derived from the Zanclean mediterranean transgression (Hemiptera Pentatomidae), L'Entomologiste T73 n°1, 2017, pp. 19-33