|Graptemys pseudogeographica, |
false map turtle
13, see text
Graptemys species superficially resemble many other species of aquatic turtles, including sliders (Trachemys) and cooters (Pseudemys). However, they are distinguished by a keel that runs the length of the center of the carapace. In some southern species, the keel can result in vertebral spines, resulting in the map turtle's other common name — "sawback". They also typically grow to a smaller size at maturity. They are given the common name "map turtle" due to the map-like markings on the carapace. Map turtles are known for intricate head markings and strong sexual dimorphism with mature females twice the length and 10 times the mass of mature males.
Females of all map turtle species can be partitioned into three groups based on head (alveolar) width and corresponding ecology and phylogeny.
- Microcephalic females are narrow headed, sympatric with a broader headed species, and consume few mollusks. Microcephalic species include yellow-blotched, black-knobbed, ringed, Ouachita, and Sabine map turtles.
- Mesocephalic females have moderately broad heads and tend to eat mostly mollusks along with softer bodied prey. Mesocephalic species include Cagle's, northern, false, Mississippi, and Texas map turtles.
- Megacephalic females have exceptionally broad heads, and feed almost exclusively on mollusks. Megacephalic females include Barbour's, Escambia, Pascagoula, Pearl River, and Alabama map turtles.
Males do not fit neatly into the three groups describing head width, with differences in head width likely not influencing diet.
Adult Graptemys males have greatly elongated claws on the front feet, which are used in courtship behavior. The male faces the considerably larger female and "fans" her face, vibrating his foreclaws against her head to induce her to cooperate in mating.
Average life expectancy of map turtles ranges from 15 to 100 years, depending on species.
Throughout the pet trade, Mississippi, common, and Ouachita map turtles were bred and hatched out by the thousands in the 1970s. Various other turtles were available, but as the salmonellosis Four-inch Law was established, map turtles and others slowly decreased in popularity. Today, these same three still hold the title for most common among the pet trade. Other species being captive-bred more often include the Texas map turtle, Cagle's map turtle, and the black-knobbed map turtle. Some harder-to-find map turtles include the yellow-blotched map turtle and the Pearl River map turtle.
- Graptemys barbouri Carr & Marchand, 1942 – Barbour's map turtle
- Graptemys caglei Haynes & McKown, 1974 – Cagle's map turtle
- Graptemys ernsti Lovich & McCoy, 1992 – Escambia map turtle
- Graptemys flavimaculata Cagle, 1954 – yellow-blotched map turtle or yellow-blotched sawback
- Graptemys geographica (Lesueur, 1817) – northern map turtle, formerly known as the common map turtle
- Graptemys gibbonsi Lovich & McCoy, 1992 – Pascagoula map turtle
- Graptemys nigrinoda Cagle, 1954 – black-knobbed map turtle
- Graptemys oculifera (Baur, 1890) – ringed map turtle
- Graptemys ouachitensis Cagle, 1953 – Ouachita map turtle
- G. o. ouachitensis Cagle, 1953 – Ouachita map turtle
- G. o. sabinensis Cagle, 1953 – Sabine map turtle
- Graptemys pearlensis Ennen, Lovich, Kreiser, Selman, Qualls, 2010 – Pearl River map turtle
- Graptemys pseudogeographica (Gray, 1831) – false map turtle
- Graptemys pulchra Baur, 1893 – Alabama map turtle
- Graptemys versa Stejneger, 1925 – Texas map turtle
- Fritz, Uwe; Havaš, Peter (2007). "Checklist of Chelonians of the World" (PDF). Vertebrate Zoology. 57 (2). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- Lindeman, P.V. (2013). The Map Turtle and Sawback Atlas: Ecology, Evolution, Distribution, and Conservation. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 460 pp. ISBN 978-0-8061-4406-1. (Feeding Morphology, p. 237).
- Goin, C.J.; O.B. Goin; G.R. Zug (1978). Introduction to Herpetology, Third Edition. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. xi + 378 pp. ISBN 0-7167-0020-4. (Courtship behavior in Graptemys, p. 260).
- Genus Graptemys at The Reptile Database.
- Ennen, Joshua R., Jeffrey E. Lovich, Brian R. Kreiser, W. Selman, Carl P. Qualls (2010). "Genetic and Morphological Variation Between Populations of the Pascagoula map turtle (Graptemys gibbonsi) in the Pearl and Pascagoula Rivers with Description of a New Species". Chelonian Conservation and Biology 9 (1): 98–113. (Graptemys pearlensis, new species, p. 104).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Graptemys.|
- An Overview of Map Turtles in the United States, Reptile & Amphibian Magazine, November/December 1993, p. 6-17.
- ARKive - images and videos of the Cagle's map turtle (Graptemys caglei)
- Ouachita map turtle - Graptemys ouachitensis Species account from the Iowa Reptile and Amphibian Field Guide.
- False map turtle - Graptemys pseudogeographica Species account from the Iowa Reptile and Amphibian Field Guide.
- Common map turtle - Graptemys geographica Species account from the Iowa Reptile and Amphibian Field Guide.
- Agassiz, L. (1857). Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America. Vol. I. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. li + 452 pp. (Graptemys, new genus, p. 252).
- Smith, H.M., and E.D. Brodie, Jr. (1982). Reptiles of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. New York: Golden Press. 240 pp. ISBN 0-307-13666-3 (paperback). (Genus Graptemys, p. 48, including identification key to species).