|Range of D. versicolor|
Hyla versicolor LeConte, 1825
It is sometimes referred to as the eastern gray treefrog, northern gray treefrog, common gray treefrog, or tetraploid gray treefrog to distinguish it from its more southern, genetically disparate relative, Cope's gray treefrog.
As the scientific name implies, gray treefrogs are variable in color owing to their ability to camouflage themselves from gray to green or brown, depending on the substrate on which they are sitting. The degree of mottling varies. They can change from nearly black to nearly white. They change color at a slower rate than a chameleon. One aspect that is unique to this frog appearance is that its legs feature a dark bandish pattern which then contrast sharply with the black-marked bright yellow or orange under the sides of its legs and arms. Dead gray treefrogs and ones in unnatural surroundings are predominantly gray. The female does not call and has a white throat; however, the male does call and can show a black/gray/brown throat during the breeding season. The female is usually larger than the male. They are relatively small compared to other North American frog species, typically attaining no more than 1.5 to 2 in (3.8 to 5.1 cm). Their skin has a lumpy texture to it, giving them a warty appearance.
This species is virtually indistinguishable from Cope's gray treefrog, the only readily noticeable difference being that Cope's Gray treefrog has a shorter, faster call. However, the call rates of both gray treefrogs are temperature dependent and at lower temperatures Cope's gray treefrog can have a call rate approximating that of the gray treefrog. The difference in call can be heard, but it is best quantified by counting the number of pulses per second in their whistled trills. The gray treefrog has a pulse rate of 16 to 34 pulses per second while Cope's gray treefrog has a pulse rate of 34 to 60 pulses per second. Even though there is potential for overlap, because of the temperature dependence of the pulse frequency the two species are easily distinguished where they occur together. At a given temperature, the pulse frequency for the gray treefrog is approximately 1/2 that of Cope's gray treefrog.
The gray treefrog also has 48 chromosomes (4n), and is called the tetraploid gray treefrog in scientific literature. Cope's gray treefrog, or diploid gray treefrog, retained its 2n (24) original chromosome count. Hybridization between these species results in early mortality of many larvae, but some individuals survive to adulthood though they have reduced fertility.
Both of these similar species have bright-yellow patches on their hind legs, which distinguishes them from other treefrogs, such as the bird-voiced tree frog. The bright patches are normally only visible while the frog is jumping. Both species of gray treefrogs are slightly sexually dimorphic. Males have black or gray throats, while the throats of the females are lighter.
Tadpoles have rounded bodies (as opposed to the more elongated bodies of stream species) with high, wide tails that can be colored red if predators are in the system. Metamorphosis can occur as quickly as two months with optimal conditions. At metamorphosis, the new froglets will almost always turn green for a day or two before changing to the more common gray. Young frogs will also sometimes maintain a light green color and turn gray or darker green after reaching adulthood.
Dryophytes versicolor is known to be largely intersterile with D. chrysoscelis but there may be a limited amount of interfertility in sympatry. To enforce speciation there may be unknown mechanisms of reinforcement deployed between these species and further research may be fruitful.
Distribution and habitat
Gray treefrogs inhabit a wide range, and can be found in most of the eastern half of the United States, as far west as central Texas and Oklahoma. They also range into Canada in the provinces of Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba, with an isolated population in New Brunswick.
The gray treefrog is capable of surviving freezing of its internal body fluids to temperatures as low as −8 °C (18 °F).
The gray treefrog is most common in forested areas, as it is highly arboreal. Its calls are often heard in rural residential areas of the East Coast and the Midwest. It prefers to breed in semipermanent woodland ponds without fish, but it also lays eggs in swamps, vernal pools, man-made fountains and water gardens, and even in rainwater-filled swimming pool covers.
Male gray treefrogs rarely have large choruses, as they are mostly solitary animals, but might vocalize competitively at the height of breeding periods. Gray treefrogs may congregate around windows and porch lights to eat insects that are attracted to the light. During the day they often rest on horizontal tree branches or leaves out in the open, even in the sun. Evidently they are less prone to overheating and desiccation than other amphibians and rely on their superb camouflage to hide them from predators.
Mating calls and chorusing are most frequent at night, but individuals often call during daytime in response to thunder or other loud noises. Males produce advertisement calls for females as well as aggressive calls to counter other males. Females are able to discriminate between these.
Needs are similar to that of the American green treefrog.
- IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2017). "Dryophytes versicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T55687A112715618. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T55687A112715618.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
- NatureServe 'Hyla versicolor'[permanent dead link]
- Excerpt from: "Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of New Jersey" https://www.nj.gov/dep/fgw/ensp/pdf/species/no_gray_treefrog.pdf
- Mary Hoff (March–April 2014). "Chirp, Croak, Snore". DNR. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer: 32.
- Carl Gerhardt; John A. Doherty (1988). "Acoustic communication in the gray treefrog, 'Hyla versicolor': evolutionary and neurobiological implications". J. Comp. Physiol. A. 162 (2): 261–278. doi:10.1007/BF00606090. S2CID 35561883.
- "Frog Blog: Gray TreefrogsHyla versicolor vs. Hyla chrysoscelis".
- H. Carl Gerhardt; Margaret B. Ptacek; Louise Barnett; Kenneth G. Torke (1994). "Hybridization in the Diploid-Tetraploid Treefrogs Hyla chrysoscelis and Hyla versicolor". Copeia. 1994 (1): 51–59. doi:10.2307/1446670. JSTOR 1446670.
- Bernard S. Martof et al. (1980). "Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia". Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4252-4.
- Thomas F. Tyning (1990). A Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-81719-8.
- McCollum, S. (12 May 2017). "Costs and benefits of a predator-induced polyphenism in the gray treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis". Evolution. 50 (2): 583–593. doi:10.2307/2410833. JSTOR 2410833. PMID 28568914.
- Noor, Mohamed A F; (ORCID 0000-0002-5400-4408 GS 5nkhrpUAAAAJ) (1999). "Reinforcement and other consequences of sympatry". Heredity. The Genetics Society (Nature). 83 (5): 503–508. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6886320. ISSN 0018-067X. PMID 10620021.
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- Quebec range map Archived 7 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Quebec Biodiversity website
- Adaptations of Frogs to Survive Freezing
- Schwartz, J.; Mazie, A. (2020). "Taxis bold as love: the influence of aggressive calls on acoustic attraction of female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 74 (5). doi:10.1007/s00265-020-02836-x. S2CID 216048800.
- Media related to Hyla versicolor at Wikimedia Commons
- Data related to Hyla versicolor at Wikispecies
- Gray Treefrog - Hyla versicolor Species account from the Iowa Reptile and Amphibian Field Guide
- Gray Treefrog - Hyla versicolor - audio recording of call
- Tetraploid Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor), Natural Resources Canada
- Gray Treefrog Tadpole Tail Polymorphism, Images and explanation of tadpole tail coloration.
- Northern gray treefrog New Jersey Pinelands flora, fauna, and landscapes photo galleries link to northern gray treefrog photograph