Great Barrington, Massachusetts
|Great Barrington, Massachusetts|
View from Main Street in the spring
|Name origin: Village of Great Barrington in Gloucestershire, England|
|County||Berkshire County, Massachusetts|
|Landmark||W.E.B. Du Bois Homesite|
|Highest point||Monument Mountain|
|- elevation||1,642 ft (500 m)|
|Area||45.8 sq mi (119 km2)|
|- land||44.8 sq mi (116 km2)|
|- water||1.0 sq mi (3 km2)|
|Density||158.5/sq mi (61/km2)|
|Incorporation as town||1761|
|Government||Open town meeting|
|- location||334 Main Street (Town Hall)|
|Timezone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|- summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0619420|
Location of Massachusetts in the United States
Great Barrington is a town in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, United States. It is part of the Pittsfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 7,104 at the 2010 census. Both a summer resort and home to Ski Butternut, Great Barrington includes the villages of Van Deusenville and Housatonic. It is the birthplace of W. E. B. Du Bois. In 2012, Smithsonian magazine ranked Great Barrington #1 in its list of "The 20 Best Small Towns in America".
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government
- 5 Education
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Business
- 8 Media
- 9 Sites of interest
- 10 Notable people
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Early history: 1676–1995
The first recorded account of Europeans in the area happened in August 1676, during King Philip's War. Major John Talcott and his troops chased a group of 200 Mahican Natives west from Westfield, eventually overtaking them at the Housatonic River in what now Great Barrington. According to reports at the time, Talcott's troops killed twenty-five Indians and imprisoned another twenty. Today, a plaque for John Talcott marks the spot where the massacre is believed to have happened.
On April 25, 1724 Captain John Ashley of Westfield, Massachusetts bought on behalf of himself and a committee of the Massachusetts General Court the land that became the towns of Great Barrington, Sheffield, Egremont, Alford, Mount Washington, and Boston Corner for £460, three barrels of "sider," and thirty quarts of rum from 21 Native American sachems headed by Conkepot Poneyote. The Konkapot River in southwestern Massachusetts is named after him.
The village was first settled by colonists in 1726 and from 1742–1761 was the north parish of Sheffield. In 1761, it was officially incorporated as Great Barrington, named after the village of Barrington, Gloucestershire, England.
In the summer of 1774, 1,500 men shut down the Berkshire County Court in response to British oppression. In the winter of 1776, Henry Knox passed through Great Barrington while transporting the cannon from Fort Ticonderoga to the Siege of Boston. Due to his time in the area, he established an agricultural interest in the area of Great Barrington.
With the arrival of the railroad in the late 19th century, Great Barrington developed as a Gilded Age resort community for those seeking relief from the heat and pollution of cities. Wealthy families built grand homes called Berkshire Cottages here, as others would in Lenox and Stockbridge.
Among the earliest estates was that built by New York City banker, industrialist and art patron David Leavitt, who built an elaborate 300-acre (1.2 km2) estate, and was soon followed by those of his sons nearby. Leavitt was instrumental in the development of the local Housatonic Railroad, serving as its president.
Later estates included Searles Castle, commissioned in 1888 by the widow of Mark Hopkins together with her second husband, Edward Francis Searles, and "Brookside", built for William Hall Walker. In 1895, Colonel William L. Brown, part owner of the New York Daily News, presented Great Barrington with a statue of a newsboy, now a landmark on the western edge of town.
W. E. B. Du Bois
Great Barrington is the birthplace of W. E. B. Du Bois, an African-American academic and civil rights activist, most known for being one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. Du Bois was born on February 23, 1868, at a house later replaced by where present-day Route 23 would run. As a child, Du Bois attended the Congregational Church. Many of these church members donated the funds needed for Du Bois to attend college. Du Bois lived in the town until he was seventeen. The W.E.B. Du Bois Boyhood Homesite has interpretive trails and a walking tour.
World's first alternating current/transformer system
In November 1885 electrical engineer William Stanley, Jr., a sometimes Great Barrington resident working for George Westinghouse, began installing a demonstration transformer based alternating current lighting system. Stanley felt AC was an improvement over the direct current system being used by Thomas Edison, and Stanley was trying to get Westinghouse to adopt it. Stanley had developed a series transformer that he thought would make AC practical. He built his components at the "Old Rubber Factory" south of Cottage Street and installed a Westinghouse steam engine powering a 500 volt Siemens generator. Stringing the power lines from tree to tree down the street, in March 1886 Stanley powered the system up and was able to expand it to the point where it could light 23 businesses along Main Street with very little power loss over 4000 feet. The system's 500 AC volt current was stepped down to 100 volts using the new Stanley transformer to power incandescent lamps at each location. This was the world's first practical demonstration of a transformer/alternating current system and the basis of the AC systems that Westinghouse would begin installing later that year.
Arlo Guthrie's song "Alice's Restaurant," which runs for 18½ minutes, is based on true-life events of the late 20th century in Great Barrington and the adjoining towns of Stockbridge and Lee. The Old Trinity Church, which was the home of Ray and Alice Brock at the time of these incidents, and is now owned by Guthrie, is at 4 Van Deusenville Road in Great Barrington.
On October 18, 1990, Richard Stanley purchased the old Miller Hotel, also known as the Barrington House. Stanley started to upgrade the building, evicting tenants who had been involved in drugs. He removed the 1960s aluminum facade and returned the historic building through renovation to its 1929 appearance.
On November 15, 1995, Richard Stanley and Joseph Wasserman opened The Triplex Cinema in the heart of Great Barrington. This contributed to further developments in the town, changing the economy and enhancing its desirability by providing a place for community events. With increased appeal as a destination, the town attracted new restaurants and retail shops, which opened on both Main Street and Railroad Street. Both streets previously had many vacant shops. The Berkshire Eagle reported that Great Barrington had 50 places to eat in a town of 7,700 people.
On June 1, 2010, a new fire station was opened for the Great Barrington Fire Department, located on Route 7. The new fire station replaced the old one, located on Castle Street. It had deteriorated and was too small for the growing needs of the fire department. The new $9.1 million facility was planned as a center for community events such as elections. It serves as the hub for emergency operations in southern Berkshire County.
The town celebrated its 250th anniversary with a large parade on July 10, 2011. Other events celebrating the 250th anniversary were held throughout the year as well.
The "Main Street Reconstruction Project" was launched in 2011, involving major improvements along Main Street between Saint James Place and Cottage Street. The plan elements include new pavement, new sidewalks, sewer and utility improvements, and the removal of the large trees that span Main Street, to be replaced with a much wider array of trees of varying sizes and growth habits. The project had finished its design phase as of 2012, and construction was to be completed in 2016.
Geography and climate
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 45.8 square miles (118.6 km2), of which 44.8 square miles (116.1 km2) is land and 0.97 square miles (2.5 km2), or 2.09%, is water. Great Barrington is bordered by West Stockbridge, Stockbridge and Lee to the north, Tyringham to the northeast, Monterey to the east, New Marlborough to the southeast, Sheffield to the south, Egremont to the southwest, and Alford to the northwest. The town is located 20 miles (32 km) south of Pittsfield, 46 miles (74 km) west of Springfield, 135 miles (217 km) west of Boston, and 134 miles (216 km) north-northeast of New York City.
Great Barrington is located within the valley of the Housatonic River. The Williams River, Green River and several brooks also flow through the valley into the Housatonic. To the east of the river, several mountains of the Berkshires rise, including East Mountain (site of the Ski Butternut resort (also known as Butternut Basin) and a state forest), Beartown Mountain (and the majority of Beartown State Forest) and Monument Mountain. The Appalachian Trail crosses through East Mountain State Forest in the southeast corner of town. The southwest corner of town is the site of several country clubs and a fairgrounds.
U.S. Route 7 passes through the center of town, and was once part of New England Interstate Route 4 (also known as the New York-Berkshire-Burlington Way). Massachusetts Route 23 passes from west to east through town, combining with Massachusetts Route 41 and U.S. Route 7 in the western part of town and Massachusetts Route 183 in the eastern part of town, which also follows part of the path of Route 7 northward from Route 23 before splitting towards the village of Housatonic. Great Barrington is located approximately 12 miles (19 km) south of Exit 2 of Interstate 90 (the Massachusetts Turnpike), the nearest interstate highway.
|Climate data for Great Barrington, Massachusetts (1981–2010 normals)|
|Average high °F (°C)||33
|Average low °F (°C)||14
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.39
|* = population estimate.
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.
As of the census of 2000, there were 7,527 people, 3,008 households, and 1,825 families residing in the town. By population, the town ranks fifth out of the 32 cities and towns in Berkshire County, and 202nd out of 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts. The population density was 166.6 people per square mile (64.3/km²), ranking it eighth in the county and 268th in the Commonwealth. There were 3,352 housing units at an average density of 74.2 per square mile (28.6/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 94.74% White, 2.09% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 1.25% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.70% from other races, and 1.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2.07% of the population. 17% were of Irish descent, 12% Italian, 11% German, 10% English and 9% Polish.
There were 3,008 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.8% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.3% were non-families. 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.89.
In the town, the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 23.5% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, and 18.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 87.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.8 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $95,490, and the median income for a family was $103,135. Males had a median income of $68,163 versus $49,474 for females. The per capita income for the town was $42,655. About 2.4% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.6% of those under age 18 and 2.5% of those age 65 or over.
Great Barrington employs the open town meeting form of government, and is led by a board of selectmen and a town manager. Great Barrington has its own public services, including police, fire and public works departments. The town has two libraries, with the main branch, Mason Library, located at 231 Main Street in Great Barrington, and a branch library, Ramsdell Library, located at 1087 Main Street in the village of Housatonic, both of which are part of the regional library network. The town is home to Southern Berkshire District Court, as well as Fairview Hospital, the largest hospital in the southern end of the county (based on the number of beds).
On the state level, Great Barrington is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives by the Fourth Berkshire district, which covers southern Berkshire County, as well as the westernmost towns in Hampden County. In the Massachusetts Senate, the town is represented by the Berkshire, Hampshire and Franklin district, which includes all of Berkshire County and western Hampshire and Franklin counties. The town is patrolled by the Great Barrington Police Department which is a 24/7/365 service.
On the national level, Great Barrington is represented in the United States House of Representatives as part of Massachusetts's 1st congressional district. Democrat Richard Neal of Springfield has represented the district since 2012.
Great Barrington has a paid by call Fire Department, The Great Barrington Fire Department (GBFD),consists of about 40 members and five pumpers, one tower ladder, two rescue vehicles, and one brush truck. Most members are trained to the First Responder level; some are trained to the EMT-Basic level. The Fire Department responds to about 600 calls per year, which vary but are mainly fire alarm activations and medical emergencies.
Great Barrington's Emergency Medical Services are covered by Southern Berkshire Volunteer Ambulance Squad Inc. (SBVAS), operated from the grounds of Fairview Hospital. The service provides 24/7/365 paramedic level service to the towns of Great Barrington, Housatonic, Alford, Egremont, Sheffield, Ashley Falls, Monterey, and Mount Washington. SBVAS is the primary paramedic intercept service for ambulances going into Fairview, including New Marlborough, Sandisfield, and Otis. The squad consists of a mix of full-time EMTs, paramedics, and volunteer EMTs. The squad responds to 3,000 to 5,000 calls a year.
Great Barrington offers the use of its own local currency, called BerkShare notes. There are about 844,000 BerkShare notes in circulation worth about $801,800 at the current exchange rate of one BerkShare to 95 U.S. cents, according to program organizers. The paper money is available in denominations of one, five, ten, twenty, and fifty. Proponents say that the currency gets residents to shop at local stores. Local areas may have their own currencies as long as they do not resemble the United States dollar and are in paper only.
Great Barrington is the largest town in the Berkshire Hills Regional School District, which includes the towns of Stockbridge and West Stockbridge, and the villages of Housatonic, Glendale and Interlaken. All three school levels are located in Great Barrington. Muddy Brook Regional Elementary School offers pre-kindergarten through fourth grade classes and is located off Route 7 in the northern part of town. Monument Valley Regional Middle School offers grades five through eight. Monument Mountain Regional High School (MMRHS) opened in 1968, consolidating the former Searles High School in Great Barrington and Williams High School in Stockbridge, and serves the high school students of the district. Students from Otis and Sandisfield also attend the school as part of a tuition agreement for high schools.
The town of Richmond maintains an agreement with the district that gives its high school students an option to attend MMRHS. The school's athletic teams are called the Spartans, and their colors are maroon and white. Sports are offered at the junior varsity and varsity level for the students to participate in, including football, soccer, baseball and softball, swimming, track and field, tennis, fencing, and cross country running. The Spartans enjoy rivalries with, among other schools, the Lee High School Wildcats, in Lee, Massachusetts and the Lenox Memorial High School Millionaires in Lenox, Massachusetts.
Great Barrington is home to Bard College at Simon's Rock, which was the first-ever early college, and remains the only accredited four-year early college program in the country. Also located here is the South County Center of the Berkshire Community College. The nearest state university is Westfield State University.
Great Barrington plays host to the American Institute for Economic Research. AIGHT was founded in 1933 as non-profit scientific and educational organization. Originally located at MIT, it relocated to the southern shore of Great Barrington's Long Pond in 1946.
Great Barrington is served by the Berkshire Regional Transit Authority, which offers bus transportation throughout Berkshire County. Peter Pan Bus Lines and Greyhound Lines have stops in Great Barrington for long-range bus transportation. The town lies along the Housatonic Railroad line, which roughly follows Route 7 and the river through southern New England.
Walter J. Koladza Airport is located in Great Barrington, and features a full service FBO for general aviation aircraft. The nearest international airports are Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, and Albany International Airport in Albany, New York.
Great Barrington is served by a local weekly newspaper, The Berkshire Record, and a weekly shopper, The Shoppers Guide. The town also gets newspaper delivery from The Berkshire Eagle of Pittsfield. The former second town newspaper, The Berkshire Courier, has gone out of print. The masthead of the Courier was incorporated by the Berkshire Record in 1995.
Great Barrington has a few local radio stations:
- WSBS 860 kHz (full service)
- WNNU 89.5 MHz (//WNNZ Springfield)
- W231AK 94.1 MHz (//WSBS full service)
- WBCR-LP 97.7 MHz (local variety)
- W254AU 98.7 MHz (//WFCR NPR Amherst)
- WAMQ 105.1 MHz (//WAMC NPR Albany)
Great Barrington is in the Albany, New York, television market, with two Springfield TV stations appearing on the cable lineup: WGBY (PBS 57), and WSHM-LD (CBS 3). The town is served by Charter Communications out of Pittsfield. Local cable operators up until Charter had carried WWLP (NBC 22 Springfield) on the system, but it was dropped in March 2017.
Sites of interest
- Aston Magna Festival
- Bard College at Simon's Rock
- First Congregational Church of Great Barrington
- Great Barrington Historical Society & Museum
- Mahaiwe Performing Arts Center
- Searles Castle
- W.E.B. Du Bois Boyhood Homesite
- Karen Allen, actress known for Raiders of the Lost Ark
- Jayne Atkinson, actress known for House of Cards
- Phyllis Curtin, classical soprano
- W. E. B. Du Bois, academic, scholar, activist, journalist, sociologist
- Michel Gill, actor known for House of Cards
- Cynthia Roberts Gorton, writer
- Thomas Ingersoll, founder of Ingersoll, Ontario; Laura Secord's father
- Anson Jones, doctor, businessperson, member of Congress, and last President of the Republic of Texas
- Chris Noth, actor of Sex and the City fame
- Shorty Rogers, jazz trumpeter and one of the principal creators of West Coast jazz
- John Schroeder, golfer
- Laura Secord, warned the British of an impending American attack on Canada
- Mark H. Sibley, US congressman
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Great Barrington town, Berkshire County, Massachusetts". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
- Charles James Taylor (1882). History of Great Barrington: (Berkshire County,) Massachusetts. C. W. Bryan & Company. pp. 8–10.
- Abbot, Kate. "Kate Abbott: A walk into Great Barrington's past". The Berkshire Eagle. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- The Westfield (Massachusetts) Jubilee, Clark & Story, Publishers, 1870; p 67 and Appendix p 221 'Indian Deed of Great Barrington'
- David Leavitt, Obituary, The New York Times, December 31, 1879
- "Mrs. Hopkins's Recent Art Purchase", The New York Times, December 18, 1881.
- Lewis, David Levering (2009). W.E.B. Du Bois: A Biography. Henry Holt and Co. Single volume edition. pp. 11, 14, 15, 39, 40. ISBN 978-0-8050-8769-7.
- "W.E.B. Du Bois National Historic Site". W.E.B. Du Bois National Historic Site. Retrieved December 19, 2013.
- ethw.org - William Stanley, Jr.
- Great Barrington 1886 - Inspiring an industry toward AC power
- Guthrie Center
- Strzempko, Adam. "Great Barrington tornado 14 years later". WWLP.com. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
- "Town Welcomes New Station With Open Arms". The Berkshire Eagle via YellowBrix. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "Main Street Reconstruction Project". Town of Great Barrington. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "Total Population (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010.
- "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1950 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1920 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1890 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1870 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1860 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1850 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "South Berkshire District Court", State of Massachusetts
- Senators and Representatives by City and Town
- Great Barrington Fire Department
- (Ladder 1)
- Southern Berkshire Volunteer Ambulance Squad Inc. (SBVAS)
- BerkShares:Local Currency for the Berkshire Region
- "Some communities are printing their own currency", CNN, 22 April 2009. Retrieved on April 22, 2009.
- The Maroon Tribune, July 28, 2011 Retrieved 15 September 2013
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article Great Barrington.|