Great Depression in Chile
The Great Depression that begun 1929 was felt strongly in Chile from 1930 to 1932. Saltpetre and copper exports collapsed. The World Economic Survey of the League of Nations declared Chile the worst affected nation by the depression. The crisis caused the authoritarian regime of Carlos Ibáñez del Campo to fall in July 1931 followed by a succession of short-lived governments until the election of Arturo Alessandri in December 1932. The economic crisis rose the levels of unemployment and caused a migration of unemployed saltpetre miners from the north to Santiago. Miners constituted around 6% of the active population but made up more than half of the unemployed during the crisis. Numerous soup kitchens sprang up in Santiago while homeless people begun to dwell in caves in the hills around Santiago. The state responded to the crisis by gradually raising tariffs, increasing internal demand and increasing control over the "flux and use" of foreign currency. Quotas and licences were established for imports and the gold convertibility was once again abolished in 1931.
These policies contributed to an industrial recovery and for the industry to already by 1934 surpass the levels of activity of 1929. In the 1930s the massive industrial growth was spearheaded by the textile industry, but non-metallic mining, chemical industries and machine and transport factories did also expand. Overall industry recovered and expanded faster than the traditional exports in the post depression period.
- "El impacto de la Gran Depresión en Chile: De la prosperidad a la pobreza", Memoria chilena, retrieved June 30, 2013
- Drake, Paul W. (1984), "La misión Kemmerer en Chile: Consejeros norteamericanos, estabilización y endeudamiento, 1925-1932" (PDF), Cuadernos de historia (4): 31–59
- Villalobos et al. 1974, pp. 762-763.
- Salazar & Pinto 2002, pp. 141-142.
- Villalobos et al. 1974, pp. 767-768.
- Salazar & Pinto 2002, pp. 143-144.
- Lee, C. H. (1969), "The Effects of the Depression on Primary Producing Countries", Journal of Contemporary History, 4 (4): 139–155, doi:10.1177/002200946900400409
- Salazar, Gabriel; Pinto, Julio (2002). Historia contemporánea de Chile III. La economía: mercados empresarios y trabajadores. LOM Ediciones. ISBN 956-282-172-2.
- Villalobos, Sergio; Silva, Osvaldo; Silva, Fernando; Estelle, Patricio (1974). Historia De Chile (14th ed.). Editorial Universitaria. ISBN 956-11-1163-2.