Great Lakes Megalopolis

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Great Lakes Megalopolis
Megaregion of the U.S. and Canada
Toronto
Toronto
Chicago
Chicago
Detroit
Detroit
Countries

 USA
 Canada


States  Illinois
 Indiana
 Iowa
 Kansas
 Kentucky
 Michigan
 Minnesota
 Missouri
 New York
 Ohio
 Pennsylvania
 West Virginia
 Wisconsin
Provinces

 Ontario
 Quebec


Largest city

Toronto (2,826,498)


Largest metropolitan area Chicago metropolitan area (9,729,825)
Population 59,144,461

The Great Lakes Megalopolis consists of the group of North American metropolitan areas largely in the Great Lakes region and along the Saint Lawrence Seaway. It lies mainly within the Midwestern United States, but extends into western Pennsylvania and Upstate New York, as well as Southern Ontario and the southern part of Quebec areas in Canada. It is the largest and most populated megalopolis in North America.

At its most inclusive, the region cuts a wide swath from the Twin Cities in Minnesota to Pittsburgh PA and Rochester NY. On the Canadian side, it extends as far east as Quebec City. Further south, the region is commonly considered to include Kansas City MO, Cincinnati OH, Indianapolis IN, Louisville KY, and Columbus OH. Within this broad region, there is a smaller core area that includes Chicago IL, Detroit MI, and Pittsburgh PA, which has sometimes been nicknamed Chipitts. The larger region, including fringe areas, had an estimated population of 59,144,461 as of 2011. It is projected to reach a population of approximately 65 million by 2025.

There is substantial overlap between the broader megalopolis and the once-heavily industrialized region known as the Rust Belt; however, the megalopolis and the Rust Belt are not entirely coextensive, and some metropolitan areas may be considered part of one region but not the other, depending on how they are defined geographically.

History of the concept[edit]

Map of the emerging American-Canadian megaregions as defined by America 2050.[1] This interpretation excludes the eastern part of the Windsor-Quebec City urban corridor from the Great Lakes Megalopolis.
1907 Canadian major internal and cross boarder shipping routes

The region was partially outlined as an emergent megalopolis in the 1961 book Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States by French geographer Jean Gottmann. Gottmann envisaged the development of other megalopolies in the U.S.: BosWash, from Boston to Washington, D.C., Chipitts from Chicago to Pittsburgh, and SanSan, from San Francisco to San Diego. In 1965, Herman Kahn speculated about the future of the three megalopoleis in the year 2000,[2] referring to their names as "half-frivolous" and not mentioning Gottman. In the 1960s and 1970s, urban planner and architect Constantinos Doxiadis authored books, studies, and reports including those regarding the growth potential of the Great Lakes Megalopolis.[3] Doxiadis envisioned Detroit as the central urban area in the Great Lakes Megalopolis. According to him, the megalopolis extended "from Milwaukee and Chicago to Detroit, Pittsburgh and Buffalo and into Canada from Windsor to Montreal and Quebec."[3][4]

In 2005, the Virginia Tech Metropolitan Institute's Beyond Megalopolis, an attempt to update Gottmann's work, outlined a similar "Midwest" megapolitan area as one of ten such areas in the United States (Canada is discussed tangentially).[5] Over 200 million tons of cargo are shipped annually through the Great Lakes.[6][7][8] Half the US's population growth and two-thirds of its economic growth is expected to occur within the megaregions over the next four decades. The America 2050 project has identified eleven Megaregions of the United States, including the Great Lakes Megalopolis.[9][A] The Canadian part of the region is also referred to as the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor.

Economy[edit]

According to the Brookings Institution, if it stood alone as a country, the economy of the Great Lakes region which includes most of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, would be one of the largest economic units on earth (with a $4.5-trillion gross regional product). The Great Lakes contain one-fifth of the world's surface fresh water and have a combined shoreline of 10,210 miles (17,017 km). About 200 million tons of cargo are shipped by way of the Great Lakes each year.[7][10][11]

Tourism is an important economic factor in and around the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes Cruising Coalition supports passenger ship cruises through a joint U.S-Canadian venture to Great Lakes Ports and the Saint Lawrence Seaway.[12][13]

Major land and marine transportation corridors[edit]

The Great Lakes Megalopolis includes the following major inter-urban corridors that are provided with freeway and passenger rail service in both the core and fringe areas of the mega-region. Major waterways for shipping and cruising are also indicated where applicable. Amtrak in the United states and Via Rail in Canada offer rail passenger service, while most Class I freight rail services also connect these areas. A major rail shipping service in both Canada and the United States is provided on tracks owned by Canadian National Railway Company.

Minneapolis-Chicago[edit]

This corridor occupies the northwestern fringe of the megalopolis. Interstate highway 94 (I-94) and Amtrak rail run roughly parallel from Minneapolis MN to Chicago IL by way of Madison and Milwaukee WI.

St. Louis-Chicago[edit]

I-55, Amtrak, and the Illinois Waterway connect St. Louis MO to Chicago IL.

Chicago-Rochester[edit]

I-90 and Amtrak run approximately parallel through the core area of the megalopolis from Chicago to Cleveland OH via South Bend IN, then into the eastern fringe area comprising Buffalo and Rochester NY. Amtrak also has a passenger rail link from Cleveland to Pittsburgh PA which is roughly paralleled by I-76. The main water route deviates well to the north of the land route from Chicago to Detroit. It runs north along Lake Michigan, east through the Straits of Mackinac, then south along Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, and Lake St Clair to the Detroit River. From this point, the water route roughly parallels the land route to Rochester by way of Lake Erie, the Welland Canal, and Lake Ontario.

Chicago-Detroit/Port Huron[edit]

I-94 takes a more northerly route than I-90 through the megalopolis core area east of Chicago. It extends from that city to the west end of the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor by way of Kalamazoo, Ann Arbor, Detroit, and Port Huron MI/Sarnia ON. This interstate freeway is also paralleled by Amtrak rail service. The main water route is the same as for the western part of the Chicago-Rochester water corridor from Lake Michigan to the Detroit River.

Windsor/Sarnia-Quebec City[edit]

The core area of the Great Lakes megalopolis is often considered to extend as far north and east as Toronto on the Canadian side of the border. The remainder of the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor lies more along the northeastern fringe. The entire Canadian section of the megaregion is sometimes considered a separate megalopolis. Key freeways include Highway 401, Highway 416, and Highway 417 in Ontario which connect with Autoroute 20, Autoroute 40, and Autoroute 50 respectively in Quebec. Passenger rail service is provided in both provinces by Via Rail. Intermediate points along the corridor include London, Hamilton, Toronto, Ottawa ON, and Montreal QC. The main water shipping route is the same as for the eastern part of the Chicago-Rochester corridor, starting at the Detroit River but continuing east beyond Lake Ontario along the St. Lawrence Seaway to Quebec City and the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

Secondary land or marine transportation corridors[edit]

Several corridors have interstate highways but no comprehensive passenger rail service. These highway routes pass through both core and fringe areas of the Great Lakes megalopolis. The upper Great lakes region has a marine corridor that connects Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. However, this route does not include parallel Amtrak passenger rail or interstate highway service.

Kansas City-Pittsburgh[edit]

I-70 follows the southern fringe of the megaregion. It runs from Kansas City MO to just south of Pittsburgh PA by way of St. Louis MO, Indianapolis IN, and Columbus OH.

Indianapolis-Port Huron[edit]

I-69 extends from Indianapolis IN to the west end of the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor. Intermediate points include Fort Wayne IN, Lansing, Flint, and Port Huron MI/Sarnia ON.

Cincinnati-Saginaw[edit]

I-75 runs from Saginaw MI to Cincinnati OH by way of Detroit MI and Dayton OH.

Duluth-Lake Huron[edit]

The waterway connecting Duluth MN and western Lake Superior to points east and south includes the Soo Locks connecting to Lake Huron, then south to Port Huron MI/Sarnia ON or through the Straits of Mackinac to the metropolitan areas around Lake Michigan.

Selected American and Canadian population centers[edit]

Rank Area State/
Province
Image CSA/CMA
2009 population
Projected[14][15][16]
2025 population
Projected increase
2009-2025
Projected % increase
2009-2025
1 Chicago Illinois
Indiana
Wisconsin
2009-09-18 3060x2040 chicago skyline.jpg 9,804,845 10,746,109 941,264 9.6
2 Toronto Ontario Skyline of Toronto viewed from Harbour.jpg 5,741,400 7,787,000 2,045,600 35.6
3 Detroit Michigan DowntownDetroit.jpg 5,318,744 5,199,608 -119,136 -2.2
4 Montreal Quebec VuedeMontreal.jpg 3,859,300 4,246,931 387,631 10.1
5 Minneapolis – Saint Paul Minnesota
Wisconsin
Minn.jpg 3,604,460 4,031,000 426,540 11.8
6 Cleveland – Akron – Canton Ohio ClevelandSkyline.jpg 3,515,646 3,795,658 280,012 6.5
7 St. Louis Missouri
Illinois
St Louis night expblend.jpg 2,892,874 3,049,000 156,126 5.4
8 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania PittsburghNightSkylineCrop.jpg 2,445,117 2,868,818 367,299 15.0
9 Cincinnati Ohio
Kentucky
Indiana
Cincinnati-scripps-center.jpg 2,214,954 2,448,000 233,046 10.5
10 Indianapolis Indiana Downtown indy from parking garage zoom.JPG 1,928,982 2,270,112 341,130 16.5
11 Kansas City Missouri
Kansas
Kcsky.jpg 2,038,724 2,293,564 254,840 12.5
12 Columbus Ohio ColumbusNightSkyline2.jpg 2,031,229 2,446,450 415,221 20.4
13 Milwaukee Wisconsin Milwaukee skyline.jpg 2,025,898 2,129,949 103,706 5.1
14 Ottawa – Gatineau Ontario
Quebec
Downtown ottawa night.jpg 1,451,415 1,596,556 145,141 10.0
15 Louisville Kentucky
Indiana
Louisville skyline night.jpg 1,395,634 1,602,456 206,822 14.8
16 Grand Rapids Michigan Grdowntown.jpg 1,327,366 1,530,000 202,634 15.3
17 Buffalo New York BuffaloSkyline.jpg 1,203,493 1,040,400 -163,093 -13.5
18 Rochester New York Skyline Rochester, NY.jpg 1,149,653 1,078,600 -71,053 -6.2
19 Dayton Ohio Dayton Skyline.jpg 1,066,261 1,066,261 0 0
20 Hamilton Ontario HamiltonOntarioSkylineC.JPG 740,200 954,858 214,658 29.1
21 Toledo Ohio
Michigan
Skyline of Toledo, Ohio.jpg 672,220 672,220 0 0
22 Madison Wisconsin Madisonwisconsin20060813p001.jpg 628,947 820,483 191,563 30.5
23 Youngstown-Warren-Boardman Ohio
Pennsylvania
Youngstown2 036.jpg 602,964 N/A N/A N/A
24 South Bend-Mishawaka-Elkhart Indiana
Michigan
City of South Bend, downtown skyline.jpg 564,943 NA NA NA
25 Kalamazoo Michigan Kalamazoo.jpg 524,030 NA NA NA
26 Lansing Michigan Lansing skyline brobb 11 2009.jpg 523,609 547,325 23,716 4.6
27 Kitchener – Waterloo Ontario Arial photo of downtown Kitchener Ontario.JPG 492,400 635,196 142,796 29.1
28 London Ontario London, Ontario, Canada- The Forest City from above.jpg 492,200 634,938 142,738 29.1
29 Rockford Illinois Rockford, IL Rockford Register Star 01.JPG 455,595 499,400 43,805 9.9
30 Fort Wayne Indiana Downtown Fort Wayne, Indiana Skyline from Old Fort, May 2014.jpg 414,315 455,623 39,366 9.9
31 St. Catharines – Niagara Ontario SkylineNiagaraFalls.jpg 404,400 521,676 117,276 29.0
32 Davenport-Rock Island-Moline Iowa
Illinois
Downtown Davenport.jpg 379,690 452,565 72,875 26.1
33 Fox Cities Wisconsin Appleton Skyline, December 2012.JPG 360,000 NA NA NA
34 Oshawa Ontario Oshawa ON.JPG 356,177 419,067 62,890 17.7
35 Windsor Ontario Windsor Ontario skyline.jpg 330,900 426,861 95,961 29
36 Green Bay Wisconsin Downtown Green Bay.JPG 304,783 NA NA NA
37 Erie Pennsylvania Flagship-Niagara-Dobbins-Landing-Erie-July4-2009.jpg 280,985 N/A N/A N/A
38 Duluth-Superior Minnesota
Wisconsin
Duluth Skyline.jpg 279,771 N/A N/A N/A
Total CSA/CMA of major metro areas Great Lakes from space.jpg 60,305,653 65,735,336 6,234,698 10.0

American census urban statistical areas[edit]

For Canadian census urban statistical areas in the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway region, see Quebec City-Windsor Corridor.
An enlargeable map of the U.S. statistical areas along the Great Lakes. The lighter area shows the Great Lakes Basin watershed

Along the Great Lakes, there are 27 United States statistical areas - 10 Combined Statistical Areas, 7 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (independent of the Combined Statistical Areas), and 3 Micropolitan Statistical Areas (independent of the Combined Statistical Areas), as defined by the Office of Management and Budget.

The following sortable table lists the 27 statistical areas of the United States located on the Great Lakes with the following information:

  1. The rank by population as of 2007-07-01, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau
  2. The census statistical area name as defined by the United States Census Bureau
  3. The census statistical area population as of 2007-07-01, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau
  4. Lakes within census statistical area
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Great Lakes
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2007 Population Lake(s)
1 16 Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City, IL-IN-WI CSA 9,745,165 Lake Michigan
2 15 Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI CSA 5,405,918 Lake Erie and Lake Huron
3 21 Cleveland-Akron-Elyria, OH CSA 2,896,968 Lake Erie
4 13 Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI CSA 1,739,497 Lake Michigan
5 14 Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI CSA 1,323,095 Lake Michigan
6 24 Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY CSA 1,208,270 Lake Erie and Lake Ontario
7 25 Rochester-Batavia-Seneca Falls, NY CSA 1,122,845 Lake Ontario
8 26 Syracuse-Auburn, NY CSA 725,359 Lake Ontario
9 19 Toledo-Fremont, OH CSA 711,952 Lake Erie
10 17 Kalamazoo-Portage, MI MSA 323,264 Lake Michigan
11 12 Saginaw-Bay City-Saginaw Township North, MI CSA 309,785 Lake Huron
12 9 Green Bay, WI MSA 301,131 Lake Michigan
13 22 Erie, PA MSA 279,092 Lake Erie
14 1 Duluth, MN-WI MSA 274,308 Lake Superior
15 18 Niles-Benton Harbor, MI MSA 159,589 Lake Michigan
16 7 Traverse City, MI μSA 142,075 Lake Michigan
17 23 Jamestown-Dunkirk-Fredonia, NY μSA 133,945 Lake Erie
18 27 Watertown-Fort Drum, NY μSA 117,201 Lake Ontario
19 11 Sheboygan, WI MSA 114,504 Lake Michigan
20 10 Manitowoc, WI μSA 80,928 Lake Michigan
21 20 Sandusky, OH MSA 77,323 Lake Erie
22 6 Marinette, WI-MI μSA 66,820 Lake Michigan
23 3 Marquette, MI μSA 65,216 Lake Superior
24 4 Sault Ste. Marie, MI μSA 38,922 Lake Huron and Lake Superior
25 5 Escanaba, MI μSA 37,367 Lake Michigan
26 2 Houghton, MI μSA 37,352 Lake Superior
27 8 Alpena, MI μSA 29,707 Lake Huron

The following four sortable tables list the 27 census statistical areas of the United States located on the Great Lakes, by lake, with the following information:

  1. The rank by population as of 2007-07-01, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau
  2. The census statistical area name as defined by the United States Census Bureau
  3. The census statistical area population as of 2007-07-01, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau
  4. Comment
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Lake Erie
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2007 Population Comment
1 15 Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI CSA 5,405,918 Also located on Lake Huron.
2 12 Cleveland-Akron-Elyria, OH CSA 2,896,968
3 24 Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY CSA 1,208,270 Also located on Lake Ontario.
4 19 Toledo-Fremont, OH CSA 711,952
5 22 Erie, PA MSA 279,092
6 23 Jamestown-Dunkirk-Fredonia, NY μSA 133,945
7 20 Sandusky, OH MSA 77,323
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Lake Huron
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2007 Population Comment
1 15 Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI CSA 5,405,918 Also located on Lake Erie
2 12 Saginaw-Bay City-Saginaw Township North, MI CSA 309,785
3 4 Sault Ste. Marie, MI μSA 38,922 Also located on Lake Superior
4 8 Alpena, MI μSA 29,707
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on Lake Michigan
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2007 Population Comment
1 16 Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City, IL-IN-WI CSA 9,745,165
2 13 Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI CSA 1,739,497
3 14 Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI CSA 1,323,095
4 17 Kalamazoo-Portage, MI MSA 323,264
5 9 Green Bay, WI MSA 301,131
6 18 Niles-Benton Harbor, MI MSA 159,589
7 7 Traverse City, MI μSA 142,075
8 11 Sheboygan, WI MSA 114,504
9 10 Manitowoc, WI μSA 80,928
10 6 Marinette, WI-MI μSA 66,820
11 5 Escanaba, MI μSA 37,367
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Lake Ontario
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2007 Population Comment
1 24 Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY CSA 1,208,270 Also located on Lake Erie
2 25 Rochester-Batavia-Seneca Falls, NY CSA 1,122,845
3 26 Syracuse-Auburn, NY CSA 725,359
4 27 Watertown-Fort Drum, NY μSA 117,201
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Lake Superior
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2007 Population Comment
1 1 Duluth, MN-WI MSA 274,308
2 3 Marquette, MI μSA 65,216
3 4 Sault Ste. Marie, MI μSA 38,922 Also located on Lake Michigan
4 2 Houghton, MI μSA 37,352

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

A. ^ a Various sources include Quebec City, Montreal and Ottawa in the Great Lakes Megalopolis, while excluding Minneapolis–Saint Paul, Kansas City, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Louisville, and Columbus.[17] All these partial-consensus and non-consensus cities lie at the eastern, western, and southern fringes of the megalopolis.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Beyond Megalopolis: Exploring America's New "Megapolitan" Geography - America 2050". america2050.org. Retrieved 8 July 2016. 
  2. ^ Bell, Daniel; Stephen Richards Graubard (1997). Toward the year 2000: work in progress. MIT Press. p. 87. ISBN 0-262-52237-3. 
  3. ^ a b Cities: Capital for the New Megalopolis.Time magazine, November 4, 1966. Retrieved on July 16, 2010.
  4. ^ Doxiadis, Constantinos. (1970) The Great Lakes Megalopolis. Doxiadis Assoc.
  5. ^ MegaCensusReport.indd
  6. ^ "About Our Great Lakes -Great Lakes Basin Facts- NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL)". Glerl.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  7. ^ a b "Economy of the Great Lakes Region". Great-lakes.net. 2012-04-13. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  8. ^ U.S Army Corps of Engineers (January 2009).Great Lakes Navigation System: Economic Strength to the Nation. Retrieved on April 11, 2011.
  9. ^ America 2050: Megaregions: Great Lakes. Regional Plan Association.
  10. ^ Our lakes facts. NOAA. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
  11. ^ U.S Army Corps of Engineers (January 2009).Great Lakes Navigation System: Economic Strength to the Nation. Retrieved on July 25, 2011.
  12. ^ Great Lakes Cruising Coalition Retrieved on July 25, 2011.
  13. ^ http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/papers/1319.pdf
  14. ^ "Home - Federation for American Immigration Reform". fairus.org. Retrieved 8 July 2016. 
  15. ^ Ontario Population Projections Update
  16. ^ Institut de la statistique Quebec
  17. ^ Example: Great Lakes Megalopolis (PDF) (Map). The Center for Urban and Regional Studies, Youngstown State University. 2005. 

Coordinates: 41°N 85°W / 41°N 85°W / 41; -85