Great Lakes Megalopolis

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Great Lakes Megalopolis
Chicago
Chicago
Toronto
Toronto
Detroit
Detroit
Countries United States
 Canada
States Illinois
 Indiana
 Iowa
 Kansas
 Kentucky
 Michigan
 Minnesota
 Missouri
 New York
 Ohio
 Pennsylvania
 West Virginia
 Wisconsin
Provinces Ontario
 Quebec
Largest cityToronto (2.95 million)
Largest metropolitan area Chicago metropolitan area (9,812,676)
Population
85,011,531[1]

The Great Lakes Megalopolis consists of the group of metropolitan areas in North America largely in the Great Lakes region and along the Saint Lawrence River. It extends from the Midwestern United States in the south and west to western Pennsylvania and Upstate New York in the east and northward through Southern Ontario into southwestern Quebec in Canada. It is the most populated and largest megalopolis in North America.

At its most inclusive, in the United States the region cuts a wide swath from the Twin Cities in Minnesota in the west, south to St. Louis and Louisville, Kentucky, and east to Rochester, New York; in Canada, it continues northeasterly to Quebec City. This broader region had an estimated population of 59,144,461 as of 2011 and is projected to reach a population of about 65 million by 2025. Within this broad region, there is a core area of more continual urban development that includes Chicago, Milwaukee, Grand Rapids, South Bend, Detroit, Cleveland, Toledo, Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Rochester, Hamilton, Toronto and the metropolitan areas between these.

History of the concept[edit]

1907 Canadian major internal and cross border shipping routes
Map of the emerging American-Canadian megaregions as defined by America 2050.[2] This interpretation excludes the eastern part of the Windsor-Quebec City urban corridor from the Great Lakes Megalopolis.

The region was partially outlined as an emergent megalopolis in the 1961 book Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States by French geographer Jean Gottmann. Gottmann envisaged the development of other megalopolises in the U.S.: from Boston to Washington, D.C., from Chicago to Pittsburgh, and from San Francisco to San Diego.

In 1965, futurist Herman Kahn speculated about the three megalopolises in the year 2000.[3] In the 1960s and 1970s, urban planner and architect Constantinos Doxiadis wrote books, studies, and reports about the growth potential of the Great Lakes Megalopolis.[4] Doxiadis envisioned Detroit (on the U.S.-Canada border across from Windsor) as the central urban area in this megalopolis, which he defined as extending "from Milwaukee and Chicago to Detroit, Pittsburgh and Buffalo and into Canada from Windsor to Montreal and Quebec".[4][5]

In 2005, the Virginia Tech Metropolitan Institute's Beyond Megalopolis, an attempt to update Gottmann's work, outlined a similar "Midwest" megapolitan area as one of ten such areas in the United States (Canada is discussed tangentially).[6] Over 200 million tons of cargo are shipped annually through the Great Lakes.[7][8][9] The America 2050 project identified 11 Megaregions of the United States, including the Great Lakes Megalopolis.[10][A] The Canadian part of the region is also referred to as the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, and the densest part in Southern Ontario has long been known as the Golden Horseshoe.

Governments[edit]

There are multiple government jurisdictions throughout the megalopolis. In addition to the federal governments of the United States and Canada, there are multiple U.S. state and two Canadian province jurisdictions, and many county and local governments. Most of the states have joined the provinces in forming the Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers to coordinate economic and environmental strategies throughout most of the region.[11]

Economy[edit]

According to the Brookings Institution, if it stood alone as a country, the economy of the Great Lakes region, which includes most of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, would be one of the largest economic units in the world with a $4.5-trillion gross regional product, roughly equal to Japan's. The five Great Lakes contain one-fifth of the world's surface fresh water and have a combined shoreline of 10,210 miles (17,017 km). About 200 million tons of cargo are shipped through the Great Lakes each year.[8][12][13]

Tourism is important to the region's economy. The Great Lakes Cruising Coalition supports passenger ship cruises through a joint U.S-Canadian venture to Great Lakes Ports and the Saint Lawrence Seaway.[14][15]

The Chicago metropolitan area, also called Chicagoland, is the largest metro economy in the Great Lakes Megalopolis. Chicago has one of the largest global urban area economies.[16]

Education[edit]

The Great Lakes Megalopolis is home to several of the most prestigious universities in the United States, including University of Chicago, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, University of Michigan, Northwestern University, University of Notre Dame, Washington University in St. Louis, and Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. The region also contains large public research universities such as the University at Buffalo, Indiana University, University of Louisville University of Minnesota, University of Missouri, Ohio State University, Purdue University, Michigan State University, University of Toronto, and University of Wisconsin.

Major land and marine transportation corridors[edit]

The Great Lakes Megalopolis includes the following major inter-urban corridors that are provided with freeway and passenger rail service in both the core and fringe areas of the mega-region. Major waterways for shipping and cruising are also indicated where applicable. Amtrak in the United States and Via Rail in Canada offer rail passenger service, while most Class I freight rail services also connect these points. A major rail shipping service in both Canada and the United States is provided on tracks owned by Canadian National Railway Company.

Chicago-Minneapolis/St. Paul[edit]

This corridor occupies the northwestern fringe of the megalopolis. It occupies northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and parts of eastern Minnesota. Interstate 94 and Amtrak rail run roughly parallel from Chicago to Minneapolis/St. Paul by way of Milwaukee and Madison, Wisconsin.

Chicago-St. Louis[edit]

Interstate 55, Amtrak, and the Illinois Waterway connect Chicago to St. Louis.

Chicago-Indianapolis-Cincinnati[edit]

Interstate 65 extends from the Chicago area southeast to Indianapolis, where Interstate 74 travels through to Cincinnati. Amtrak runs regular service along this same route.

Chicago-Buffalo-Rochester[edit]

Interstate 90 and Amtrak run approximately parallel through the core area of the megalopolis from Chicago to Cleveland via South Bend, Indiana, and Toledo, Ohio, then into the eastern fringe area comprising Buffalo and Rochester, New York. Amtrak also has a passenger rail link from Cleveland to Pittsburgh which is roughly paralleled by Interstate 76. The main water route deviates well to the north of the land route from Chicago to Detroit. It runs north along Lake Michigan, east through the Straits of Mackinac, then south along Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, and Lake St Clair to the Detroit River. From this point, the water route roughly parallels the land route to Rochester by way of Lake Erie, the Welland Canal, and Lake Ontario.

Chicago-Detroit[edit]

Interstate 94 takes a more northerly route than I-90 through the megalopolis core area east of Chicago. It extends from that city to the west end of the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor by way of Kalamazoo, Ann Arbor, Detroit, and Port Huron, Michigan/Sarnia, Ontario. This interstate freeway is also paralleled by Amtrak rail service. The main water route is the same as for the western part of the Chicago-Rochester water corridor from Lake Michigan to the Detroit River.

Windsor-Quebec City[edit]

The core area of the Great Lakes megalopolis extends as far northeast as Toronto in Ontario, Canada. The remainder of the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor northeast of Toronto lies along the northeastern fringe of the megaregion. The entire Canadian section of the broader megaregion is sometimes considered a separate megalopolis. Key freeways include Highway 401 and Highway 417 in Ontario which connect with Autoroute 20 and Autoroute 40 respectively in Quebec. Highway 416 and Autoroute 50 link the National Capital Region with Highway 401 and the Montreal area respectively, but the two freeways do not link directly with each other across the Ontario-Quebec border. Passenger rail service is provided in both provinces by the Via Rail Corridor Service. Intermediate points along the corridor include London, Kitchener, Hamilton, St. Catharines, Toronto, Kingston, Ottawa, and Montreal. The main water shipping route is the same as for the eastern part of the Chicago-Rochester corridor, starting at the Detroit River but continuing east beyond Lake Ontario along the St. Lawrence Seaway to Quebec City and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Toronto, Hamilton, St. Catharines, and Niagara Falls, Ontario in Canada and Niagara Falls, New York and Buffalo in the United States also form an almost continuous urban area.

Secondary land or marine transportation corridors[edit]

Several corridors have interstate highways but no comprehensive passenger rail service. These highway routes pass through both core and fringe areas of the Great Lakes megalopolis. The upper Great lakes region has a marine corridor that connects Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. However, this route does not include parallel Amtrak passenger rail or interstate highway service.

Kansas City-Pittsburgh[edit]

Interstate 70 follows the southern fringe of the megaregion. It runs from Kansas City to just south of Pittsburgh by way of St. Louis, Indianapolis, and Columbus, Ohio.

Detroit-Grand Rapids[edit]

Interstate 96 serves traffic between the Detroit and Grand Rapids metro areas. The route passes through Lansing on the way and extends to Muskegon to the northwest of Grand Rapids

Evansville-Indianapolis-Port Huron[edit]

Interstate 69 extends from Evansville to Martinsville, Indiana. From there, the route is temporarily an arterial highway, Indiana State Road 37, to the Interstate 465 ring road around Indianapolis. From there, I-69 resumes and continues to the west end of the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor, crossing the border into Canada and becoming Ontario Highway 402, which eventually leads to Highway 401. Intermediate points include Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Lansing, Flint, and Port Huron, Michigan/Sarnia, Ontario.

Cincinnati-Saginaw[edit]

Interstate 75 runs from Saginaw, Michigan, to Cincinnati by way of Detroit, and Toledo, Lima, and Dayton, Ohio.

Duluth-Lake Huron[edit]

The waterway connecting Duluth, Minnesota, and western Lake Superior to points east and south includes the Soo Locks connecting to Lake Huron, then south to Port Huron MI/Sarnia ON or through the Straits of Mackinac to the metropolitan areas around Lake Michigan.

Selected American and Canadian population centers[edit]

Rank Area State/
Province
Image CSA/CMA
2009 population
Projected[17][18][19][20]
2025 population
Projected increase
2009-2025
Projected % increase
2009-2025
1 Chicago Illinois
Indiana
Wisconsin
2009-09-18 3060x2040 chicago skyline.jpg 9,804,845 10,216,648 411,803 4.2
2 Toronto Ontario Skyline of Toronto viewed from Harbour.jpg 5,541,400 6,682,061 1,140,661 20.5
3 Detroit Michigan DowntownDetroit.jpg 5,318,744 5,583,400 264,656 5.0
4 Montreal Quebec VuedeMontreal.jpg 3,859,300 4,246,931 387,631 10.1
5 Minneapolis – Saint Paul Minnesota
Wisconsin
Minn.jpg 3,604,460 4,031,000 426,540 11.8
6 Cleveland – Akron – Canton Ohio ClevelandSkyline.jpg 3,515,646 3,469,943 -45,703 -1.3
7 St. Louis Missouri
Illinois
St Louis night expblend.jpg 2,892,874 3,049,000 156,126 5.4
8 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania PittsburghNightSkylineCrop.jpg 2,445,117 2,868,818 367,299 15.0
9 Indianapolis Indiana The city from Wapahani Trail (5071573814).jpg 2,386,199 2,779,921 393,722 16.5
10 Cincinnati Ohio
Kentucky
Indiana
Downtown Cincinnati viewed from Mt. Adams.jpg 2,214,954 2,448,000 233,046 10.5
11 Kansas City Missouri
Kansas
Kcsky.jpg 2,038,724 2,293,564 254,840 12.5
12 Columbus Ohio ColumbusNightSkyline2.jpg 2,031,229 2,446,450 415,221 20.4
13 Milwaukee Wisconsin Milwaukeedowntown.jpg 2,025,898 2,129,949 103,706 5.1
14 Ottawa – Gatineau Ontario
Quebec
Downtown ottawa night.jpg 1,451,415 1,596,556 145,141 10.0
15 Louisville Kentucky
Indiana
Louisville skyline night.jpg 1,395,634 1,602,456 206,822 14.8
16 Grand Rapids Michigan Grdowntown.jpg 1,327,366 1,530,000 202,634 15.3
17 Buffalo New York BuffaloSkyline.jpg 1,203,493 1,251,633 48,140 6
18 Rochester New York Skyline Rochester, NY.jpg 1,149,653 1,133,558 -16,095 -1.4
19 Dayton Ohio Dayton Skyline.jpg 1,066,261 1,066,261 0 0
20 Hamilton Ontario HamiltonOntarioSkylineC.JPG 740,200 954,858 214,658 29.1
21 South Bend-Mishawaka-Elkhart Indiana
Michigan
City of South Bend, downtown skyline.jpg 720,647 NA NA NA
22 Toledo Ohio
Michigan
Skyline of Toledo, Ohio.jpg 672,220 672,220 0 0
23 Madison Wisconsin Madisonwisconsin20060813p001.jpg 628,947 820,483 191,563 30.5
24 Youngstown–Warren–Boardman Ohio
Pennsylvania
Youngstown2 036.jpg 602,964 N/A N/A N/A
25 Kalamazoo Michigan Kalamazoo.jpg 524,030 NA NA NA
26 Lansing Michigan Lansing skyline brobb 11 2009.jpg 523,609 547,325 23,716 4.6
27 London Ontario London, Ontario, Canada- The Forest City from above.jpg 510,200 634,938 142,738 29.1
28 Kitchener – Waterloo Ontario Arial photo of downtown Kitchener Ontario.JPG 492,400 635,196 142,796 29.1
29 Rockford Illinois Rockford, IL Rockford Register Star 01.JPG 455,595 499,400 43,805 9.9
30 Fort Wayne Indiana Downtown Fort Wayne, Indiana Skyline from Old Fort, May 2014.jpg 414,315 455,623 39,366 9.9
31 St. Catharines – Niagara Ontario SkylineNiagaraFalls.jpg 404,400 521,676 117,276 29.0
32 Davenport-Rock Island-Moline Iowa
Illinois
Downtown Davenport.jpg 379,690 452,565 72,875 26.1
33 Fox Cities Wisconsin Appleton Skyline, December 2012.JPG 360,000 NA NA NA
34 Oshawa Ontario Oshawa ON.JPG 356,177 419,067 62,890 17.7
35 Windsor Ontario Windsor Ontario skyline.jpg 330,900 426,861 95,961 29
36 Green Bay Wisconsin Downtown Green Bay.JPG 304,783 NA NA NA
37 Erie Pennsylvania Flagship-Niagara-Dobbins-Landing-Erie-July4-2009.jpg 280,985 N/A N/A N/A
38 Duluth-Superior Minnesota
Wisconsin
Duluth Skyline.jpg 279,771 N/A N/A N/A
39 Lafayette-Frankfort Indiana Lafayette.downtown.Riehle.Plaza.JPG 262,341 N/A N/A N/A
40 Rochester-Austin Minnesota Roch qhill.JPG 259,813 N/A N/A N/A
Total CSA/CMA of major metro areas Great Lakes from space.jpg 60,323,653 65,735,336 6,234,698 10.0

American Statistical Areas Along the Great Lakes[edit]

An enlargeable map of the U.S. statistical areas along the Great Lakes. The lighter area shows the Great Lakes Basin watershed

Along the Great Lakes, there are 27 United States statistical areas - 13 Combined Statistical Areas, 3 Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and 12 Micropolitan Statistical Areas, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget.

The following sortable table lists the 27 statistical areas of the United States located on the Great Lakes with the following information:

  1. Statistical areas on this table are based on the map to the right. All of these statistical areas are located along the Great Lakes.
  2. Populations are based on lists from: Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas.
  3. This list excludes Canadian cities along the Great Lakes.
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Great Lakes
Rank Map Reference Number Combined Statistical Area 2018 Population 2010

Population

Change Lake(s)
1 16 Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI CSA 9,886,910 9,840,929 +0.47% Lake Michigan
2 15 Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI CSA 5,353,002 5,318,744 +0.64% Lake Erie and Lake Huron
3 21 Cleveland-Akron-Canton, OH CSA 3,599,264 3,630,166 −0.85% Lake Erie
4 13 Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI CSA 2,049,391 2,025,989 +1.16% Lake Michigan
5 14 Grand Rapids-Kentwood-Muskegon, MI CSA 1,406,918 1,320,064 +6.58% Lake Michigan
6 24 Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Olean, NY CSA 1,206,992 1,215,826 −0.73% Lake Erie and Lake Ontario
7 25 Rochester-Batavia-Seneca Falls, NY CSA 1,162,893 1,175,001 −1.03% Lake Ontario
9 19 Toledo-Fremont, OH CSA 833,576 843,900 −1.22% Lake Erie
8 26 Syracuse-Auburn, NY CSA 727,647 742,603 −2.01% Lake Ontario
10 17 Kalamazoo-Battle Creek-Portage, MI CSA 504,022 493,020 +2.23% Lake Michigan
11 12 Saginaw-Bay City-Saginaw Township North, MI CSA 377,932 391,569 −3.48% Lake Huron
12 9 Green Bay-Shawano, WI CSA 367,045 352,422 +4.15% Lake Michigan
13 22 Erie-Meadville, PA CSA 357,124 369,331 −3.31% Lake Erie
14 1 Duluth, MN-WI MSA 278,799 279,771 −0.35% Lake Superior
15 18 Niles, MI MSA 154,141 156,813 −1.70% Lake Michigan
16 7 Traverse City, MI μSA 149,914 143,372 +4.56% Lake Michigan
17 23 Jamestown-Dunkirk-Fredonia, NY μSA 127,939 134,905 −5.16% Lake Erie
18 11 Sheboygan, WI MSA 115,456 115,007 −0.39% Lake Michigan
19 27 Watertown-Fort Atkinson, NY μSA 85,129 83,686 +1.72% Lake Ontario
20 10 Manitowoc, WI μSA 79,074 81,442 −2.91% Lake Michigan
21 20 Sandusky, OH μSA 74,615 77,079 −3.20% Lake Erie
22 3 Marquette, MI μSA 66,516 67,077 −0.84% Lake Superior
23 6 Marinette, WI-MI μSA 63,417 65,778 −3.59% Lake Michigan
24 2 Houghton, MI μSA 38,332 38,784 −1.17% Lake Superior
25 4 Sault Ste. Marie, MI μSA 37,517 38,520 −2.60% Lake Huron and Lake Superior
26 5 Escanaba, MI μSA 35,857 37,069 −3.27% Lake Michigan
27 8 Alpena, MI μSA 28,360 29,598 −4.18% Lake Huron

The following four sortable tables list the 27 census statistical areas of the United States located on the Great Lakes, by lake, with the following information:

  1. Populations are based on lists from: Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas.
  2. The list excludes Canadian cities along the Great Lakes.
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Lake Erie
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2018 Population Comment
1 15 Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI CSA 5,353,002 Also located on Lake Huron.
2 12 Cleveland-Akron-Canton, OH CSA 3,599,264
3 24 Buffalo-Cattaraugus-Olean, NY CSA 1,206,992 Also located on Lake Ontario.
4 19 Toledo-Fremont, OH CSA 833,576
5 22 Erie, PA MSA 357,124
6 23 Jamestown-Dunkirk-Fredonia, NY μSA 127,939
7 20 Sandusky, OH MSA 74,615
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Lake Huron
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2018 Population Comment
1 15 Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI CSA 5,353,002 Also located on Lake Erie
2 12 Saginaw-Bay City-Saginaw Township North, MI CSA 377,932
3 4 Sault Ste. Marie, MI μSA 37,517 Also located on Lake Superior
4 8 Alpena, MI μSA 28,360
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on Lake Michigan
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2018 Population Comment
1 16 Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City, IL-IN-WI CSA 9,886,910
2 13 Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI CSA 2,049,391
3 14 Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI CSA 1,406,918
4 17 Kalamazoo-Battle Creek-Portage, MI CSA 504,022
5 9 Green Bay-Shawano, WI CSA 367,045
6 18 Niles-Benton Harbor, MI MSA 154,151
7 7 Traverse City, MI μSA 149,914
8 11 Sheboygan, WI MSA 115,456
9 10 Manitowoc, WI μSA 79,074
10 6 Marinette, WI-MI μSA 63,471
11 5 Escanaba, MI μSA 35,857
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Lake Ontario
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2018 Population Comment
1 24 Buffalo-Cattaraugus-Olean, NY CSA 1,206,992 Also located on Lake Erie
2 25 Rochester-Batavia-Seneca Falls, NY CSA 1,162,893
3 26 Syracuse-Auburn, NY CSA 727,647
4 27 Watertown-Fort Drum, NY μSA 85,127
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Lake Superior
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2018 Population Comment
1 1 Duluth, MN-WI MSA 278,799
2 3 Marquette, MI μSA 66,516
3 4 Sault Ste. Marie, MI μSA 37,517 Also located on Lake Huron
4 2 Houghton, MI μSA 38,332

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

A. ^ a Various sources include Quebec City, Montreal and Ottawa in the Great Lakes Megalopolis, while excluding Minneapolis–Saint Paul, Kansas City, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Louisville, and Columbus.[21] All these partial-consensus and non-consensus cities lie at the eastern, western, and southern fringes of the megalopolis.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Great Lakes States 2020". Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  2. ^ "Beyond Megalopolis: Exploring America's New "Megapolitan" Geography - America 2050". america2050.org. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  3. ^ Bell, Daniel; Stephen Richards Graubard (1997). Toward the year 2000: work in progress. MIT Press. p. 87. ISBN 0-262-52237-3.
  4. ^ a b Cities: Capital for the New Megalopolis.Time magazine, November 4, 1966. Retrieved on July 16, 2010.
  5. ^ Doxiadis, Constantinos. (1970) The Great Lakes Megalopolis. Doxiadis Assoc.
  6. ^ "MegaCensusReport.indd" (PDF). America2050.org.
  7. ^ "About Our Great Lakes -Great Lakes Basin Facts- NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL)". Glerl.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-03-08. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  8. ^ a b "Economy of the Great Lakes Region". Great-lakes.net. 2012-04-13. Archived from the original on 2012-05-04. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  9. ^ U.S Army Corps of Engineers (January 2009).Great Lakes Navigation System: Economic Strength to the Nation Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on April 11, 2011.
  10. ^ America 2050: Megaregions: Great Lakes. Regional Plan Association.
  11. ^ "Home - Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers". Cglslgp.org.
  12. ^ Our lakes facts Archived 2012-03-08 at the Wayback Machine. NOAA. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
  13. ^ U.S Army Corps of Engineers (January 2009).Great Lakes Navigation System: Economic Strength to the Nation Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on July 25, 2011.
  14. ^ Great Lakes Cruising Coalition Retrieved on July 25, 2011.
  15. ^ "Forecasting 2020 U.S. County and MSA Populations" (PDF). Knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu. April 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  16. ^ Perry, Mark J. (2018-10-02). "Can You Guess Which U.S. Metro Area Has a Higher GDP than Canada?". fee.org. Retrieved 2019-03-14.
  17. ^ "Home - Federation for American Immigration Reform". fairus.org. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  18. ^ Finance, Government of Ontario, Ministry of. "Ontario Population Projections Update". Fin.gov.on.ca.
  19. ^ Institut de la statistique Quebec Archived 2003-12-07 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "Preliminary Population Projections to the Year 2020 in Michigan Metropolitan Areas" (PDF).
  21. ^ Example: Great Lakes Megalopolis (PDF) (Map). The Center for Urban and Regional Studies, Youngstown State University. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-05.

Coordinates: 41°N 85°W / 41°N 85°W / 41; -85