Great National Assembly
|Great National Assembly
Marea Adunare Naţională
|Communist Romania (1948-1989)|
|Preceded by||Romanian: Reprezentanţa Naţionalǎ1 (Adunarea Deputaţilor2)|
|Succeeded by||Parliament of Romania (Chamber of Deputies and the Senate)|
|open single party list|
|Palatul Adunǎrii Deputaţilor|
|1the name under which the Parliament of Romania was defined by the 1866 and 1923 Constitutions;
2after World War II the Constitution of 1923 was reestablished; due to the communist occupation of the country the Senate was suspended;
The Great National Assembly (Romanian: Marea Adunare Naţională; MAN) was the legislature of the Socialist Republic of Romania (known as the Romanian People's Republic before 1965). After the overthrow of Communism in Romania in December 1989, the National Assembly was replaced by a bicameral parliament, made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
The Great National Assembly was elected every four years and each of its members represented 60,000 citizens. Like all other Communist legislatures, it was nominally vested with great lawmaking powers, but in practice served as a rubber stamp which helped perpetuate the illusion of democracy.
The MAN had the power to, among other things, amend the constitution and appoint and depose the Supreme Commander of the Romanian Army. The resolutions required a simple majority to be passed through.
The Assembly convened twice a year for ordinary sessions and for extraordinary sessions as many times as required by the State Council or by at least one third of the members of the Assembly. It elected its own chairmen and four deputies to preside each session. On paper, it was the highest level of state power in Romania, and all other state organs were subordinate to it. In practice, like all other Communist legislatures, it did little more than give legal sanction to decisions already made by the Romanian Communist Party.
Voters were presented with a single slate of candidates from an alliance dominated by the PCR—known as the People's Democratic Front from 1947 to 1968, the Socialist Unity Front from 1968 to 1980, and the Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy from 1980 to 1989. Since no one could run for office without Front approval, the Front—and through it, the PCR—effectively predetermined the composition of the Assembly.
When the Assembly was not in session, some of its powers were exercised by the State Council (which was legally defined as the MAN in permanent session), such as setting guidelines for the law and supervising the local councils. It could also issue governmental regulations in lieu of law. If such regulation was not approved by the MAN at its next session, it was considered revoked. However, under the principles of democratic centralism, such approval was merely a formality. Combined with the MAN's infrequent sessions, this meant that State Council decisions de facto had the force of law. In emergencies, the State Council assumed the Assembly's powers to control the budget and economic plan, appoint and dismiss ministers and justices of the Supreme Court, mobilize the armed forces and declare war.
According to the official results of the March 9, 1980, election, which elected 369 deputies, 99.99% of the registered voters cast their votes. Of them, 98.52% approved the Front list, 1.48% voted against and just 44 votes were declared invalid.
Presidents of the Great National Assembly
The numbering continues from the old Assembly of Deputies presidents.
|No.||Name||Portrait||Born–Died||Took office||Left office||Party|
|Great National Assembly
|41||1||Gheorghe Apostol||1913–2010||7 April 1948||11 June 1948||PMR|
|42||2||Constantin Agiu||1891–1961||11 June 1948||27 December 1948||PMR|
|43||3||Constantin Pârvulescu||1895–1992||27 December 1948||5 July 1949||PMR|
|44||4||Dumitru Petrescu||1906–1969||5 July 1949||28 December 1949||PMR|
|45||5||Alexandru Drǎghici||1913–1993||28 December 1949||26 January 1950||PMR|
|(44)||(4)||Dumitru Petrescu||1906–1969||26 January 1950||29 May 1950||PMR|
|46||6||Constantin Doncea||1904–1973||29 May 1950||6 September 1950||PMR|
|(41)||(1)||Gheorghe Apostol||1913–2010||6 September 1950||5 April 1951||PMR|
|47||7||Ion Vincze||1910–1996||5 April 1951||26 March 1952||PMR|
|(41)||(1)||Gheorghe Apostol||1913–2010||26 March 1952||6 June 1952||PMR|
|48||8||Gheorghe Stoica||1900–1976||2 June 1952||30 November 1952||PMR|
|(43)||(3)||Constantin Pârvulescu||1895–1992||23 January 1953||5 March 1961||PMR|
|49||9||Ştefan Voitec||1900–1984||20 March 1961||28 March 1974||PMR/PCR|
|50||10||Miron Constantinescu||1917–1974||28 March 1974||18 July 1974||PCR|
|51||11||Nicolae Giosan||1921–1990||26 July 1974||12 December 1989||PCR|
- Richard Staar, Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe (4th revised edition, 1984), Hoover Institution, Stanford University. pg. 193-194
- 1948 Constitution of Romania
- 1952 Constitution of Romania
- Sergiu Verona. "Government and Politics". This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.