Nordic Biker War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Great Nordic Biker War)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Nordic Biker War
Date22 January 1994 – 25 September 1997
Location
Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden
Caused byDrug-trade criminal dispute
Resulted inStalemate
  • Peace treaty
  • Each side retains designated territory
  • Crackdown by police services
Parties to the civil conflict

Bandidos MC

  • Aphuset MC
  • Bronx '95 MC
  • Klan MC
  • Morbids MC
  • Rabies MC
  • Undertakers MC

Outlaws MC

Hells Angels MC

  • Avengers MC
  • Barley MC
  • Cannonball MC
  • Choppers MC
  • Customizers MC
  • Overkill MC
  • Rebels MC
  • Rednecks MC
  • Screwdrivers MC
  • Untouchables MC
Lead figures
Michael Garcia Olsen
Lars Harnes
Marko Hirsma
Uffe Lindenskov Larsen
Michael Ljunggren
Jim Tinndahn
Thore Holm Hansen
Torkjell Alasker
Thomas Möller
Christian Sass Middelboe
Jørn Nielsen
Bent Svane Nielsen
Number
130 Bandidos
290 Hells Angels
Casualties and losses
Dead: 6
Injured: 34
Dead: 3
Injured: 40
Total dead: 11 (9 bikers, 2 non-combatants)
Total injured: 96 (74 bikers, 22 non-combatants)

The Nordic Biker War refers to a gang war that began in January 1994 and continued until September 1997 in parts of Scandinavia and Finland, involving the Hells Angels and Bandidos outlaw motorcycle clubs. The conflict is also known as the Great Nordic Biker War or Second Biker War (Danish: anden rockerkrig) to distinguish it from the earlier Copenhagen Biker War, which took place between 1983 and 1985.[1][2]

The conflict arose from disputes over territory and organized crime rackets, as well as personal feuds within the biker subculture. Specifically, the members of both groups sought a monopoly on the right to engage in crime in certain geographical areas.[3] The war resulted in the killings of nine gang members, with shootings and bombings totalling another seventy-four attempted murders.[4] The bikers utilized car bombs, machine guns, hand grenades, anti-tank missiles and small arms during their gang war, and assassination attempts were even made inside prisons.[5] The majority of the hostilities took place in or around Copenhagen in Denmark, Helsinki in Finland, Oslo in Norway, and Helsingborg in Sweden.[6]

The biker war was also costly for the police, who struggled to put an end to the murders. In overtime for police officers alone, the cost was set at around 50-75 million kroner.[7][8] On 15 October 1996, a bill, known as the Rockerloven ("Rocker Act") in the media, was passed in the Folketing (Danish Parliament) which allows the police to evict motorcycle gangs from their headquarters.[9][10][11] As a result of the 1996–1997 period of the conflict alone, 138 people were sentenced to a total of 240 years in prison.[12][13] Several of those convicted were given life imprisonment for murder and attempted murder.[14] Specific wings for motorcycle gang members were created at Vridsløselille Prison and Horsens State Prison.[15] Significant improvements were also made to the security of military weapons depots as a result of the Nordic Biker War after several burglaries.[16]

The conflict effectively came to an end in the summer of 1997 when the two sides reached a peace agreement, with the well-known defence lawyer Thorkild Høyer as mediator. On 25 September 1997, Bent Svane Nielsen of the Hells Angels and then-Bandidos president Jim Tinndahn announced during a press conference that the rival clubs had ended their war. Nielsen stated "We cannot give guarantees that there will be no more incidents, but we can actively intervene and ensure that those who defy the cooperation agreement are excoided from our biker culture."[17][18]

Background[edit]

The Nordic outlaw biker culture emerged in Sweden with the establishment of numerous motorcycle clubs (MCs) in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[19] Motorcycle groups inspired by the British rocker subculture then began in Denmark in the 1970s. Beginning around 1980, Danish clubs became increasingly influenced by developments in the United States and began to refer to themselves as "bikers", the American term for motorcycle enthusiasts.[2] The term "rocker" is still commonly used by the police and media in Denmark to refer to the outlaw motorcycle subculture.[1] As the biker milieu expanded in Sweden and Denmark, violent conflicts arose between motorcycle clubs and the authorities began to take an interest in the clubs while gang wars proliferated. Outlaw motorcycle clubs then began to appear in Finland in the late 1980s, during which time there was little distinction between club-affiliated bikers and independent recreational motorcyclists. Motorcycle gang violence did not occur in the country until the early 1990s.[20] Inter-gang violence escalated in the Nordic countries as motorcycle clubs became increasingly more involved in organized crime during the 1980s and 1990s, resulting in the arrival of larger international clubs. Biker gangs in the region previously consisted of locally bounded single chapters which later merged ("patched over") into the Hells Angels (HAMC) and the Bandidos as they sought protection in more powerful clubs. The Hells Angels arrived in 1980 and gradually established dominance over the Scandinavian biker scene, before smaller clubs banded together and began forming Bandidos chapters in 1993 in order to resist forced amalgamation by the HAMC.[19]

The first Hells Angels chapter in Scandinavia was founded in Denmark on 30 December 1980 when Unionen MC from Copenhagen – a union of four local clubs, dating from 1977 – was patched over. Bullshit MC, a merger of two clubs opposed to the HAMC's dominance, settled in Copenhagen's Christiania and took control of the hashish trade in the area. Bullshit and the Hells Angels engaged in a conflict, that came to be known as the First Biker War or Copenhagen Biker War, between September 1983 and December 1985, resulting in the murder of eight Bullshit members (including three presidents), one Hells Angels member, and two innocent people. In addition, Bullshit MC members were also prime suspects for the murder of two non-bikers during the war. When the police visited the former clubhouse of Bullshit in 1986, they also found the corpse of a man beneath the clubhouse floor.[21] The first war was limited to Copenhagen alone, unlike the second, and the number of deaths during the Copenhagen war met or exceeded the number of deaths in the following war. Unlike the second war, the first had a clear winner and no "peace treaty" was required.[22] Bullshit's members were younger and less organized than those in the Hells Angels, and they disbanded in 1988.[23]

The Hells Angels subsequently expanded into Norway, opening a chapter in Trondheim in August 1992 following a patch-over of the Rowdies MC.[24][25] The Malmö club Dirty Dräggels then became Sweden's first Hells Angels chapter on 27 February 1993.[26] They were sponsored for membership by the Danish Hells Angels after vanquishing two other local clubs for the right to wear the Angels' colors. In Finland, Overkill MC of Helsinki were made a HAMC hangaround club in 1992 via an association with the Hells Angels of Denmark. Overkill became involved in a struggle with another local motorcycle gang, Iron Hog MC, for the Hells Angels' approval. On 9 February 1993, the Iron Hog president was severely beaten by Overkill bikers at a restaurant in Järvenpää, and his club subsequently withdrew.[27] Police then carried out a high-profile raid, using a Patria Pasi armored personnel carrier and a Super Puma helicopter, on Overkill's headquarters in Tapulikaupunki, Helsinki on 3 March 1993, arresting five people.[28]

The Bandidos were established on the European continent via a chapter in Marseille, France on 20 September 1989. After violent encounters between the French Bandidos and Hells Angels, American executives from both clubs met in Paris in the late summer of 1993 and signed a non-aggression pact in order to avoid police and government countermeasures that could prevent their expansion.[29] The Undertakers MC, a club in North Zealand formerly on good terms with the Hells Angels before disputes led to a strain in relations, applied for membership in the Bandidos from the club's leadership in the United States and France in 1992. After serving as prospective members for a period of time, the Undertakers were patched over by the Bandidos on 17 December 1993.[30] The Hells Angels sanctioned the Bandidos' takeover of the Undertakers on the condition that they confine themselves to just two chapters, in Stenløse and Hørsholm.[29] Upon their foundation, the Danish Bandidos attracted several new members, including former members of Bullshit and individuals who had either been expelled from the Hells Angels or had left the club in protest over the organizational and leadership philosophy.[2] Simultaneously, a conflict was brewing between the Hells Angels and the Mordids MC across the Øresund strait in southern Sweden. The Helsingborg-based Morbids were offered a path to Hells Angels membership on the condition that they merge with the Rebels, a rival club with whom they had previously clashed. The Morbids rejected the offer and instead aligned with the Danish Bandidos for support. The Bandidos and their leader, Jim Tinndahn, had no intention of adhering to what they considered Hells Angels-imposed protocol concerning their recruitment and development, and they made the Morbids a probationary Bandidos chapter on 22 January 1994.[29]

Police and prosecutors described the conflict that followed as a drug-trade war between the two most powerful outlaw biker gangs in Scandinavia, the Hells Angels and the Bandidos.[31] The clubs were known to be involved in drug, prostitution and arms smuggling rings, and bikers controlled the trafficking of amphetamine, cocaine, hashish and MDMA in some areas.[32][33] Amphetamine was sourced from eastern Europe and hash from Morocco.[34] However, the criminologist Joi Bay criticised this assumption, saying that the police tactics were ineffective because they were based on the incorrect premise that the motivation of the bikers was profit, while in fact they were driven by values such as honor, style, respect, and brotherhood, and any drug crimes were incidental.[35] In retrospective interviews in 2014, involved bikers rejected the drug-trade dispute interpretation and said the war started from a purely personal confrontation when the small Morbids club, with only six members, refused to capitulate to the larger Hells Angels.[36] Most of the violence of the conflict took place in the Copenhagen area.[37] The Danish chapters of the HAMC and Bandidos were seen as the driving forces behind the biker war, and were also responsible for its resolution.[1]

Manpower and weaponry[edit]

Anti-tank weapons were stolen from Swedish Army bases and used to destroy a number of clubhouses. In total 13 anti-tank rockets were fired between 1994-1997.[36]

While there were just two Bandidos chapters in Denmark and a single Hells Angels chapter in Sweden when the war commenced in 1994, each country was home to approximately fifteen independent motorcycle gangs, most of which were aligned with the Hells Angels. The recruitment pool for the clubs in Scandinavia consisted of over a thousand outlaw bikers.[29] By 1997, the Bandidos' presence in the Nordic countries consisted of approximately one-hundred-and-thirty members from at least seven chapters, while the Hells Angels' contingent was made up of around two-hundred-and-ninety members in total from fifteen chapters, with eighty-five in Sweden, one-hundred-and-ten in Denmark, seventy in Norway and twenty-five in Finland.[38] Denmark at the time was home to the highest concentration of motorcycle gang members in Europe and possibly the world, a phenomenon police and sociologists have been unable to explain.[29]

Between 1994 and 1997, there were at least thirty-six break-ins at Swedish Army and Danish Home Guard installations; at least sixteen Bofors anti-tank missiles, ten machine guns, around three-hundred handguns, sixty-seven fully automatic rifles, two-hundred-and-five rifles of various calibres, hundreds of hand grenades and land mines, and seventeen kilograms of explosives plus detonators were stolen. Police believe the Bandidos or their support clubs were responsible for the majority of the thefts. The Danish and Swedish militaries subsequently tightened security.[34] The Hells Angels obtained Russian- and Yugoslavian-made rocket launchers as well as surplus machine guns and rifles from former Eastern Bloc countries. The conflict saw the use of the Swedish AT4 eight times, and the Russian RPG-22 three times. Hand grenades were used four times and a booby trap once. Car bombs were utilized three times, while other types of explosives were also used on three occasions. The bombs used scaled in size between one and five kilograms.[29] Over twenty drive-by shootings also occurred.[32]

The conflict[edit]

1994–1995: The beginnings of the biker war[edit]

Shortly after the Morbids MC in Helsingborg became a probationary Bandidos chapter on 22 January 1994, members of the Hells Angels prospect club Rebels MC strafed the club's headquarters with gunfire.[29] The Rebels later became a HAMC chapter in Hasslarp, based out of a rural compound less than two miles away from the Morbids' dairy farm-turned-clubhouse in Helsingborg.[32] The clubhouse was targeted again the following week when, on 26 January 1994, Malmö Hells Angels chapter president Thomas Möller fired a high-caliber submachine gun from the roof of a van, resulting in a Morbids member losing a finger.[29] On 13 February 1994, fifteen Danish Bandidos members were ambushed by Hells Angels associates at a Helsingborg nightclub, resulting in thirteen gunshots being fired and Joakim Boman, a member of the Hells Angels support club Rednecks MC, being shot dead. Three others, including Hells Angels hangaround Johnny Larsen and a Bandidos member, were wounded.[39] Boman's murder has never been solved.[40] On 21 February 1994, the Morbids retaliated by attacking the Rebels' clubhouse with a Carl Gustaf 8.4cm recoilless rifle, damaging the premises' garage and swimming pool but resulting in no injuries.[22]

The Hells Angels' leadership in the United States became concerned about the Bandidos' expansion, but also wished to avoid a war and the associated legal repercussions. The HAMC mother chapter in Oakland summoned Thomas Möller to a meeting where the club's leader Sonny Barger declared that, while the Paris pact marked Sweden as Hells Angels territory, the agreement was one of non-aggression. The Oakland chapter then met with senior Bandidos members in Houston and reaffirmed their claim over the country. Bandidos leaders in the U.S. were unable to control their probate chapter in Helsingborg, however, as the club's European president Jim Tinndahn continued to support the Morbids' retaliation against the Angels. A delegation of Bandidos from Texas met with the Hells Angels chapters in Malmö and Copenhagen in an effort to resolve the dispute but diplomacy proved futile. A series of shootings in Helsingborg followed in the spring of 1994. The war quickly revealed the differences in the strategies of the opposing sides. The Bandidos' attacks were seemingly indiscriminate, whereas the Hells Angels' were more strategically aware, targeting their rivals' leadership.[29]

In the weeks before Overkill MC in Helsinki became a prospective Hells Angels chapter on 19 February 1994, club member Marko Hirsma was beaten at a Hells Angels party in Sweden where he was working as a bar tender. The reasons behind the beating are unknown. He resigned from the club and went on to found the Undertakers MC in Vantaa in August 1994.[27] On 22 June 1994, Juha Nousiainen – president of the Barley MC, a HAMC support club in Kellokoski – fatally shot Kari Korpi, president of the Klan MC, outside a restaurant in Järvenpää. Nousiainen was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to nine years in prison on 22 September 1994.[41] While seemingly an isolated incident at the time, Korpi's killing has in retrospect been viewed in relation to the biker war.[42] According to some sources, the Klan was a Bandidos affiliate.[39]

The Customizers MC and Rabies MC in Oslo became hangaround clubs of the Hells Angels and Bandidos, respectively, in June 1994.[22]

A Morbids member was shot in his car in central Helsingborg on 11 November 1994, and a brawl ensued between Bandidos and Hells Angels supporters at a nightclub two days later.[43] That same month, a Morbids member killed a fellow inmate at Helsingborg prison for providing information to the police.[44] On December 6 and 7 1994, car bombs were discovered attached to the vehicles of two Rebels members. A shooting involving two cars occurred on a road outside Kattarp on 8 January 1995 when members of the Rebels and Morbids both arrived at the same time to assist a woman whose vehicle had broken down.[43] The Morbids were awarded Bandidos membership on 28 January 1995.[45] On 5 February 1995, a Rebels member was assaulted by two men armed with iron pipes while visiting a restaurant in Helsingborg with his girlfriend.[43]

The Undertakers were appointed a hangaround club by the Bandidos on 9 February 1995.[22]

On 19 February 1995, a shooting involving members of the Customizers and Rabies took place in Oslo when Customizers fired at Rabies bikers riding in a car, leaving one man wounded.[25] Customizers were made a Hells Angels prospect chapter and Rabies became a Bandidos probationary branch in October 1995.[22]

The vice-president of the Hells Angels support club Cannonball MC was shot and wounded by an Undertakers member at a restaurant in Helsinki on 1 April 1995.[27]

Jim Tinndahn transferred from the Bandidos' "Northland" chapter in Stenløse, Denmark to the Helsingborg chapter in June 1995.[22]

On 17 July 1995, Bandidos Sweden president Michael "Joe" Ljunggren was shot dead with a rifle, likely a Carl Gustaf m/45, while riding his motorcycle on the European route E4 south of Markaryd in Småland, Sweden while returning from a meeting with the Undertakers in Helsinki.[46] Ljunggren's murder remains a cold case.[47] The Choppers MC in Stockholm gained prospect status from the Hells Angels shortly after the killing, leading to a theory that the Choppers carried out the assassination of Ljunggren on orders from the HAMC.[22] The Bandidos launched two attacks against the Hells Angels in retaliation. On 25 July 1995, two Undertakers members fired a rocket-propelled grenade stolen from a Swedish Army weapons depot at the Overkill clubhouse in northern Helsinki. The missile penetrated the building's walls but failed to explode on impact.[27] An identical strike was carried out by the Helsingborg Bandidos against the Rebels' headquarters in Hasslarp on 31 July 1995, again resulting in no injuries.[30][43] Dan Lynge, a Danish police officer who infiltrated the club, carried out surveillance on the compound with a Swedish Bandidos prospect in the days before the attack.[48]

The Undertakers were upgraded to a Bandidos prospect chapter 19 August 1995 and moved to a new clubhouse in Kamppi, Helsinki.[22] The same month, Marko Hirsma and two other Undertakers members assaulted and stole the colors of the former Overkill president.[49] On 27 September 1995, Hirsma and another Undertakers biker were attacked by members of Cannonball and Overkill outside a courthouse in Pasila, Helsinki when they arrived to attend the trial of Kai Tapio Blom and Antti Tauno Tapani, two club members charged with the RPG attack on the Overkill headquarters. Four men with baseball bats destroyed an Overkill-owned tattoo parlour in Punavuori, Helsinki as reprisal on 11 October 1995.[27] Blom and Tapani were convicted in October 1995 and sentenced to six years' and four-and-a-half years' imprisonment, respectively.[50]

A prospective Outlaws chapter was founded in Oslo by Thore "Henki" Holm Hansen on 26 October 1995 and became a full-fledged chapter by the end of the year. Due to the clubs' positive relations in the U.S., the Norwegian Outlaws pledged support to the Bandidos in the escalating biker war.[22][50] Gunshots were fired at the Outlaws' clubhouse on 18 November 1995, with four bullets going through the premises' windows and another four striking its brick walls.[51]

A Rebels member was wounded in the leg during a shootout between two vehicles on a motorway outside Helsingborg on 6 December 1995.[30][43]

On 17 December 1995, two leading members of the Bronx '95 MC – a Bandidos hangaround club founded in Trondheim earlier that year – were shot and wounded while riding in a car. Three Hells Angels members were charged with attempted murder, but were acquitted in December 1996.[52] The incident effectively stopped the founding of a Bandidos chapter in Trondheim, a city that has since been seen as a Hells Angels stronghold.[53]

The conflict reached Danish soil when two Hells Angels members were severely beaten by a gang of between five and ten Bandidos at a nightclub in Strøget, Copenhagen on 26 December 1995.[30] Another Hells Angel reportedly locked himself in a women's bathroom to escape the Bandidos.[32]

1996: The conflict escalates[edit]

An explosive device was thrown at the headquarters of the Hells Angels hangaround club Screwdrivers MC in Hamar, Norway on 15 January 1996, and the Customizers' clubhouse in Oslo was struck with a petrol bomb on 18 January 1996.[30][54] On 26 January 1996, seven shots were fired at a car carrying several Outlaws members outside the Customizers' clubhouse in Alnabru, Oslo, leaving an Outlaws biker wounded in the arm. Thirteen people associated with the Customizers were charged in the case.[51] A tattoo studio linked to the Hells Angels in Oslo was firebombed on 1 February 1996.[50]

On 12 February 1996, two grenade attacks were carried out against Overkill in Helsinki; two people were badly injured when a restaurant in the Tapanila neighborhood belonging to a club member was bombed, and motorcycle garage in the Hernesaari quarter owned by the club was also targeted in a second attack.[39][30] The grenade was thrown into a warehouse next door to the garage in error.[27]

The Rebels became a full-fledged Hells Angels chapter on 27 February 1996.[22] A hand grenade left by the car of a Hells Angels hangaround in Helsingborg two days later failed to explode.[30]

Eight bikers were shot in four different Nordic countries in just over a week in early March 1996, resulting in two deaths.[27] On 1 March 1996, an Undertakers member and prospect were shot after confronting Overkill bikers carrying out reconnaissance on their clubhouse. Club vice-president Jarkko Kokko died from his wounds on 17 March 1996, and the prospect survived.[55] As a result of the killing, Overkill were made the Hells Angels' Finnish chapter on 23 March 1996 and relocated to a new headquarters in Nöykkiö, Espoo.[56] Two Hells Angels were convicted of Kokko's murder; Ilkka Ukkonen was sentenced to twelve-and-a-half years' imprisonment and Jussi Penttinen was given six years'.[57]

A Bandidos prospect was seriously injured when Bandidos and Hells Angels in two cars engaged in a gunfight in central Helsingborg on 5 March 1996.[30][43]

On 10 March 1996, the Hells Angels carried out a twin attack on Bandidos members at Copenhagen Airport and Oslo Airport, Fornebu. Members of both clubs were attending events in Helsinki and found themselves on the same flights as they returned to their respective cities in Denmark and Norway, allowing the Hells Angels to formulate at ambush at both airports. At Copenhagen, two Bandidos members, a prospect and a hangaround were shot, resulting in the death of Uffe Lindenskov Larsen, president of the club's Dalby-based "Southside" chapter.[58] Bandidos Norway president Lars Harnes was wounded in a shooting at Oslo.[59] Six Danish Hells Angels members and associates were sentenced to a total of fifty-three years' imprisonment, and one was given a life sentence, for the Copenhagen attack, while Hells Angels Oslo chapter president Torkjell "Rotta" ("Rat") Alsaker was sentenced to three years' for the shooting at Fornebu airport.[60][61] The airport shootings marked the beginning of the most violent phase of the Nordic Biker War.[62]

An unexploded hand grenade was discovered outside the clubhouse of the Bandidos' chapter in Drammen, Norway on 21 March 1996.[50]

In the early hours of 11 April 1996, the Hells Angels' compound in Hasslarp was targeted again, this time with two rockets. The clubhouse was severely damaged, but no-one was injured or killed.[63][30]

The Danish Hells Angels "South" chapter clubhouse in Snoldelev was hit with an anti-tank missile shortly after midnight on 17 April 1996, destroying the upper floor of the structure but causing no injuries to the sixteen bikers inside.[55] Four hours later, the headquarters of the HAMC support club Avengers MC in Nørresundby near Aalborg was struck by another missile, causing minor damage as the projectile embedded itself in an interior wall without exploding. Four club members inside the clubhouse were unharmed.[64] On 26 April 1996, imprisoned Bandidos "Southside" chapter vice-president Morten "Træben" ("Wooden Leg") Christiansen was left in critical condition with shrapnel wounds and burns when assailants threw a hand grenade into his cell after breaking into Horserød State Prison by cutting a large steel padlock securing the gate of the perimeter fence.[65][66] Brian "Bremse" ("Brake") Paludan Jacobsen, a member of the Hells Angels' Copenhagen chapter, lost a leg and two associates were also wounded when two hand grenades were thrown into his home in Brønshøj from a passing vehicle on 7 May 1996. A stolen car used in the attack was discovered nearby.[67][68]

Two female tourists were wounded when the car they were travelling in was fired upon while they were driving past the Customizers' Oslo clubhouse on 9 May 1996.[30] One woman suffered minor wounds despite being shot in the head. Five people with ties to the Customizers were charged in the case.[51]

An unexploded hand grenade was found outside Hells Angels' Espoo clubhouse on 12 May 1996.[30] Another attack on the same location on 18 May 1996 also failed when two drunken men blew themselves up while attempting to throw hand grenades into the clubhouse. Both men were seriously wounded but survived. Undertakers president Marko Hirsma was sentenced to nine months in prison on 12 July 1996 after being convicted of orchestrating the attempted attack.[69] The imprisonment of leading members of both the Undertakers and the Hells Angels saw the conflict decelerate in Finland. Violence continued in the prison system, however. The last public conflict of the Finnish biker war occurred on 29 June 1996 when Hells Angels and Undertakers clashed at a music festival in Järvenpää. Members of the two clubs were then involved in a prison fight the following month.

Jim Verner, a Bandidos member from Klodskov near Nykøbing Falster in Denmark, discovered an explosive weighing half-a-kilogram attached to his van on 10 July 1996. He had been driving with the bomb underneath his vehicle for several hours, but it failed to explode due to a technical error.[70]

On 15 July 1996, four Bandidos members – two from the Drammen chapter, and two from the visiting Helsingborg chapter – were involved in a brawl with members of the Customizers in central Oslo. Later that evening, the four Bandidos were ambushed north of Mjøndalen while on a motorcycle run. Helsingborg Bandidos prospect Jan "Face" Krogh Jensen died after being struck in the head with a bullet fired from a semi-automatic 7.65 caliber pistol. Police believe that Michael Garcia "Lerche" Olsen, to whom Krogh Jensen was serving as a bodyguard, was the intended target of the shooting.[71] Olsen had been the president of the Copenhagen Hells Angels before being expelled. He then joined the Bandidos' Helsingborg chapter, becoming the club's European sergeant-at-arms. The Customizers became the Hells Angels' Oslo chapter later that year, and a club member was acquitted of premeditated murder in Krogh Jensen's death on 11 June 1998.[72] The investigation into the killing was closed in 2000.[73] On 19 July 1996, a car occupied by a Customizers member and a companion was targeted in a drive-by shooting in Oslo city centre, but no one was injured.[30] Two people associated with the Bandidos were charged in the case, and police believe the shooting was carried out in retaliation for the killing of Jan Krogh Jensen.[51]

A six-kilogram remote-controlled bomb hidden in a sports bag was placed in front of the Hells Angels' clubhouse in Nørrebro, Copenhagen but failed to explode when the radio-controlled trigger malfunctioned, potentially saving the lives of four bikers in the building as well as residents of the street, on 21 July 1996. The device was later detonated by a police explosive ordnance disposal unit.[70] Jacob "Hip Hop" Andersen, a member of the Bandidos "Southside" chapter, was sentenced to three-and-a-half years in prison in 1997 after police technicians found his fingerprints on the sports bag.[74]

Bandidos Sweden president Mikael "Mike" Svensson was shot in the leg while driving near the Hells Angels' headquarters in Hasslarp on 23 July 1996. His car was struck by several bullets.[75] Svensson was discovered by police when he made his way to Helsingborg hospital for treatment.[43]

On 25 July 1996, a team consisting of between two and four men infiltrated Jyderup State Prison and fired over twenty rounds from an automatic weapon into the cell of Jørn "Jønke" Nielsen, a senior member of the Hells Angels' Copenhagen chapter. Nielsen was wounded, shot twice in the abdomen and once in the arm.[76]

A member of the Hells Angels was badly injured by gunfire while driving his car in Helsingborg on 4 August 1996.[30]

On 5 August 1996, a civilian was wounded in a drive-by shooting in Greve, south of Copenhagen. Police believe the victim was mistaken for a Hells Angels member living in the same building.[30] An associate of the Bandidos "Southside" chapter was wounded after being shot in his car as he left the chapter's clubhouse near Haslev on 14 August 1996.[22]

A Hells Angels member was assaulted by an unknown intruder at a prison in Helsinki in August 1996.[30]

A Bandidos member escaped being hit with gunfire when sixteen rounds were fired at his car in Stockholm on 27 August 1996.[30] The following day, the vice-president of the Hells Angels' Helsingborg chapter survived being shot three times in the legs after he was attacked by three men at his garage.[43]

On 2 September 1996, a Hells Angels member was shot and wounded by two men in a drive-by shooting as he closed a store in Aalborg owned by the HAMC's defense fund.[30] A bomb planted on the car of another Aalborg Hells Angels member exploded after falling from the vehicle in a parking lot on 4 September 1996. The explosive detonated three meters away, damaging several cars but causing no injuries.[70]

Twelve Hells Angels were arrested and charged with conspiracy to commit murder after police raided three clubhouses in Hasslarp, Djurslöv and Malmö in southern Sweden on 10 September 1996.[30]

A car bomb exploded outside a Hells Angels clubhouse situated in a residential neighborhood of Roskilde, Denmark on 12 September 1996, causing extensive damage but no injuries.[70]

Members of the Bandidos and Hells Angels are believed to have exchanged gunfire on a street in Helsingborg on 15 September 1996. A parked car suffered damage from bullets, and fifteen empty shells were found on the street.[30]

The Hells Angels' clubhouse in Roskilde was attacked again in the early hours of 22 September 1996 when over two-hundred-and-fifty machine gun rounds were fired at the building from an adjacent football pitch. One Hells Angels member was wounded.[77]

A rocket was fired at the headquarters of the Hells Angels chapter in Hasslarp on 24 September 1996, and a similar operation was conducted against the same clubhouse four days later. A missile launcher was tied to the second story of an adjacent abandoned factory, and a string rigged to the trigger and attached to the Bandidos' getaway car pulled the cord. The rocket cut through electrical wires over a railway track before hitting the compound. Two hand grenades and a smoke grenade were also thrown into the building. Both attacks caused material damage but no injuries.[29] At around 3:00 am on 3 October 1996, a powerful bomb caused a large explosion outside the HAMC clubhouse in Malmö, injuring four people and caused widespread damage to buildings within several hundred yards. Four bikers inside the building were not injured, and twenty families had to be evacuated from their homes.[78] The following day, approximately a hundred people took part in a demonstration against the Hells Angels.[30]

The Undertakers were patched over by the Bandidos on 5 October 1996, forming the club's "Downtown" chapter in Helsinki.[27]

The biker war reached its crescendo on 6 October 1996 when the Copenhagen Hells Angels chapter's annual "Viking Party", held at the club's Nørrebro headquarters and attended by around one-hundred-and-fifty people, was attacked with a rocket-propelled grenade. The missile exploded after penetrating the building's concrete walls, killing two people – Hells Angels prospect Louis Linde Nielsen and Janne Krohn, a single mother from the local area who accepted an invitation to the event – and wounding nineteen others, including HAMC Denmark national president Christian Sass Middelboe.[79] Janne Krohn was the first non-combatant killed as a result of the conflict and the resulting public outrage caused the Danish government to introduce harsher anti-crime legislation in an effort to reduce motorcycle gang violence. A bill, known as the Rockerloven ("Rocker Act") by the media, was passed on 15 October 1996 to allow the police to evict bikers from their clubhouses.[80] Bandidos member Mickey Borgfjord Larsen was arrested on 24 October 1996 after his fingerprints were found on a machine gun thrown away by assailants in Fælledparken following the attack. He was charged with the attack on the clubhouse as well as the attempted murder of Jørn Nielsen at Jyderup prison, but was released after four months in custody due to a lack of evidence.[81] Bandidos prospect Niels Poulsen was convicted of carrying out the attack on 13 March 1998 and sentenced to life imprisonment.[82]

A car bomb exploded outside the Hells Angels headquarters in Oslo on 30 October 1996. The explosion was so powerful that the clubhouse was moved to the foundation. No one was injured.[51]

In November 1996, Marko Hirsma was attacked and beaten at Helsinki Prison amidst a struggle for control of the prison drug trade fought between the Bandidos and a group of rival dealers.[27]

A Bandido was wounded when two club members came under gunfire while trapped in a private yard in Valby, Copenhagen on 5 December 1996. On 9 December 1996, a member of the Bandidos' Aalborg chapter survived being shot ten times as he waited in his car.[30]

1997: Stalemate, ceasefire and peace agreement[edit]

Hells Angels member Kim Thrysøe Svendsen was shot and killed while driving in Vejgaard, Aalborg when three rounds were fired at his car on 10 January 1997. Approximately five-hundred Hells Angels from across Europe and the U.S. attended Svendsen's funeral.[83] Several members of the Bandidos were charged with the killing, but due to lack of evidence, the prosecution had to give up the case, after which the suspects were released.[84] Svendsen's murder is unsolved.[85]

On 13 January 1997, a member of the Bandidos' Helsingborg chapter was involved in a shootout outside his home with two people who fled by car. A member of the Stockholm Hells Angels visited a hospital with a bullet wound shortly afterwards.[30]

Outlaws president Thore Holm Hansen and his French bodyguard Jean-Luc Verbert were shot by members of the Hells Angels support club Untouchables MC who entered the Outlaws' clubhouse in Grønland, Oslo on 22 January 1997. Verbert was left hemiplegic.[51] Five members of Untouchables were charged in the case, one of whom was sentenced in September 1998 to three-and-a-half years in prison for the attempted murder of Verbert.[86]

On 2 February 1997, a senior Bandidos member being held at a detention center in Køge, Denmark survived an attempt on his life when an anti-tank missile fired at his cell failed to explode.[87] Another Bandidos member survived being shot while walking to his car near a kindergarten on Amager.[88] The Hells Angels again attempted to kill a jailed rival by firing an anti-tank missile into a police cellblock in Holbæk on 18 February 1997, destroying two cells but leaving a Bandido and another inmate unhurt.[89]

A Hells Angels member and two prospects were arrested while waiting in a car outside an apartment in Oslo that previously belonged to Thore Holm Hansen in February 1997. The trio, armed and dressed in camouflage clothing, were arrested after police were alerted. They were later acquitted of conspiracy to commit murder. A motorcycle shop in Alnabru, Oslo, where two Bandidos members worked, was bombed on 13 March 1997. There were no casualties. Two men were charged in the case.[51]

Yet another anti-tank missile was fired at the Helsingborg Hells Angels clubhouse on 22 March 1997. The grenade failed to explode and nobody was injured.[30]

A Hells Angels associate was wounded by a shot from a 9mm pistol, fired at him from another car as he waited at a stop light in Frederiksberg, Copenhagen on 1 April 1997. Later that day, two men, including a Bandidos member, were arrested on suspicion of carrying out the shooting.[90] An attempt was made on the life of a Bandidos member being held at Vestre Prison on 1 May 1997. An electric razor sent to him contained ninety-five grams of explosives and would have exploded had it been plugged in. Prison authorities suspected the device, however, and confiscated it before it could be used.[91] A Bandidos member was shot and wounded in Køge on 7 May 1997. On 12 May 1997, three Bandidos supporters were injured by gunfire while in a car in Aalborg.

On the orders of the Hells Angels' Oslo chapter president, Torkjell Alsaker, Screwdrivers MC members detonated a thirty-to-fifty kilogram van bomb outside the entrance of the Bandidos' headquarters in Drammen on 4 June 1997, reducing the building to rubble and killing Irene Astrid Bækkevold, a fifty-one-year-old woman who was passing in her car. Twenty-two others were injured. As with the shooting of Jan Krogh Jensen the previous year, it suspected that the intended target of the blast was Hells Angel-turned-Bandido Michael Garcia Olsen. The visiting Olsen and two others fled the burning clubhouse immediately after the explosion.[92] The Screwdrivers were granted full membership to the Hells Angels as a result of the attack.[93] After a four-and-a-half year investigation, seven men associated with the Hells Angels, including Alsaker, were convicted for their roles in the bombing.[94]

On 7 June 1997, four Bandidos members were shot outside a restaurant in Liseleje, Denmark. Bjørn Gudmandsen was killed and three others were wounded.[95] Hells Angels member Vagn Smidt was convicted of murder and three counts of attempted murder, and he was sentenced to life in prison on 20 November 1998.[96] The final incident in the biker war took place on 11 June 1997 when a Bandidos clubhouse in Dalby was attacked with a hand grenade.

The conflict effectively ended during the summer of 1997 as the continual hostilities were producing no clear victor. The deaths of Janne Krohn and Irene Bækkevold, two female non-combatants, resulted in considerable public backlash against the bikers as well as intense scrutiny from politicians and law enforcement. Internal pressure also contributed to the war's conclusion. Suffering battle fatigue after years of hostilities and facing sudden, universal condemnation from the public, the bikers were eager to end the conflict. Many bikers' businesses were also negatively effected. With each side holding a strong incentive to find a solution, American and European leaders of the Bandidos and Hells Angels met again in the U.S., first in Colorado and then in Seattle in June 1997. Ultimately, the clubs' Danish chapters were pivotal in producing the biker war's resolution. The police also helped initiate relations by providing security for peace conferences. A treaty designating each club's territory, right down to individual bars, cafes and nightclubs, was signed.[29] Hells Angels Europe president Bent Svane Nielsen and his Bandidos counterpart Jim Tinndahn held a live televised press conference on 25 September 1997 and, without revealing details of their agreement, announced an official end to hostilities.[97] The crime level among gang members subsequently returned to pre-conflict levels.[98]

Aftermath[edit]

A joint task force was established as a result of the Nordic Biker War, with police in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden cooperating with the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF).[38] In Denmark, a team consisting of homicide investigators from the National Police, the homicide department of the Copenhagen police and individual employees from the police circles of Aarhus, Odense and Roskilde was also formed.[99]

Political backlash against the bikers was particularly severe in Denmark. The Folketing (Danish Parliament) doubled the maximum penalty for illegal possession of weapons to four years' imprisonment, and also gave the police new powers to carry out phone tapping and house searches when occupants are away. Furthermore, police were given the ability to confiscate a suspect's money or property if he is unable to prove he obtained it legitimately.[34] A bill, popularly known as the Rockerloven ("Rocker Act"), was passed on 15 October 1996 to allow the police to evict motorcycle gangs from their headquarters.[100] Bikers had previously taken advantage of a government policy of subsidizing clubhouses for any hobbyist or special interest group with a membership of five or more. Many of these headquarters were situated in residential areas.[101]

138 people were sentenced to a total of 240 years in prison as a result of the 1996–1997 period of the conflict alone.[12] Several of those convicted were given life imprisonment for murder and attempted murder.[14] Specific wings were created for housing motorcycle gang members at Vridsløselille Prison and Horsens State Prison in Denmark.[15] The last gang member imprisoned for crimes committed during the biker war was paroled in December 2015.[102]

The biker war resulted in eleven killings (six Bandidos members or associates, three Hells Angels members or associates, and two non-combatants), seventy-four attempted killings, and ninety-six people injured.[29][103] Of those wounded, forty were related to the Hells Angels and thirty-four to the Bandidos, while twenty-two were on-duty police officers or civilians.[104]

List of victims[edit]

  • Joakim Boman, a 23-year-old Rednecks MC member shot dead at a nightclub in Helsingborg, Sweden on 13 February 1994. His murder remains unsolved.[47]
  • Kari Korpi, the 35-year-old president of Klan MC who was fatally shot outside a restaurant in Järvenpää, Finland on 22 June 1994. Barley MC president Juha Nousiainen was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to nine years in prison on 22 September 1994.[41]
  • Michael Ljunggren, the 33-year-old president of Bandidos Sweden. Shot dead while riding his motorcycle on the European route E4, south of Markaryd, Sweden on 17 July 1995. His murder remains unsolved.[47]
  • Jarkko Kokko, the 27-year-old vice-president of Bandidos Finland. Shot in an attack on the Bandidos' clubhouse in Helsinki, Finland on 1 March 1996, he died from his wounds on 17 March. Hells Angels members Ilkka Ukkonen and Jussi Penttinen were convicted of the murder; on 7 June 1996, Ukkonen was sentenced to twelve-and-a-half years' imprisonment and Penttinen to six years'.[105]
  • Uffe Lindenskov Larsen, the 32-year-old president of the Bandidos "Southside" chapter in Dalby, Denmark. He shot and killed during the Copenhagen Airport ambush on 10 March 1996. Hells Angels members Michael Brokside and Jørgen Nielsen were convicted of Larsen's murder on 20 December 1996 and 16 October 1997, respectively, and both were sentenced to life imprisonment.[106][107]
  • Jan Krogh Jensen, a 37-year old Bandidos member shot dead in Mjøndalen, Norway on 16 July 1996. A Hells Angels member was acquitted of Krogh Jensen's murder on 11 June 1998, and the investigation into the killing was closed in 2000.[72][73]
  • Louis Linde Nielsen, a 38-year-old Hells Angels prospect, and Janne Krohn, a 29-year-old woman, were killed in a rocket attack on the Hells Angels' clubhouse in Copenhagen, Denmark on 6 October 1996. Bandidos prospect Niels Poulsen was convicted of the murders and sentenced to life imprisonment on 13 March 1998.[82]
  • Kim Thrysøe Svendsen, a 26-year-old Hells Angels member shot and killed in Aalborg, Denmark on 10 January 1997. Svendsen's murder is unsolved.[85]
  • Irene Astrid Bækkevold, a 51-year-old woman killed in a bombing carried out on the Bandidos' clubhouse in Drammen, Norway on 4 June 1997. Seven Hells Angels members were convicted of perpetrating the attack on 10 June 2002.[108]
  • Bjørn Gudmandsen, a 24-year-old Bandidos member shot dead in Liseleje, Denmark on 7 June 1997. Hells Angels member Vagn Smidt was convicted of the murder and sentenced to life in prison on 20 November 1998.[96]

Subsequent events[edit]

The Bandidos and Hells Angels quickly expanded into their allotted territories after the peace treaty, and the crime rates among the clubs' members returned to pre-conflict levels.[29] Subsequent conflicts among the two groups has largely been avoided.[98] The Finnish Bandidos and Hells Angels have operated in parallel rather than as competitors.[109] In Norway, a cold war over territory and members has emerged, with the Bandidos allied with the Outlaws on one side, and the HAMC allied with the Coffin Cheaters on the other.[1] Both clubs have continued to expand in the Nordic region since the end of the biker war in 1997. By 2005, the Hells Angels had formed eight chapters in Denmark, four in Finland, five in Norway and six in Sweden. The Bandidos had established thirteen branches in Denmark, two in Finland, five in Norway and four in Sweden.[29] The Bandidos and Hells Angels remained the most prominent criminal organizations in Scandinavia until the early 2000s and, as such, were capable of preventing any competing gangs from being established. In the mid-2000s, however, street gangs began to emerge and the motorcycle gangs' hegemony over organized crime was broken. While the status of the established motorcycle gangs has been challenged by the street gangs, researchers believe that the bikers may have benefited from police focus on their new rivals.[110] In response to the changing criminal landscape, the leaders of the Bandidos and HAMC formed their own affiliated street gangs which serve as recruitment pools and carry out street-level crimes on behalf of the clubs. These gangs include the Bandidos' X-Team, and Hells Angels' Red & White Crew and AK81.[111]

On 21 March 2001, former Bandidos member Claus Bork Hansen was shot twenty-six times and killed in Vanløse, Copenhagen after returning from a restaurant visit with his girlfriend, porn star Dorthe Damsgaard. The police had warned him several times, as recently the day before, that he was on the Bandidos' hit list and offered him protection, which he refused.[112] Hansen had been expelled from the Bandidos and had transformed the former Bandidos clubhouse in Hedehusene, where he was president, into a chapter of the Hells Angels support club Red & White Crew.[113] Detectives investigated the killing and later arrested four full members of the Bandidos and charged them with the murder. During the trial, it emerged that the Bandidos and Hells Angels held a crisis meeting on the street in front of a café in Sankt Hans Torv in Nørrebro two evenings before Hansen was shot dead. In the Eastern High Court, one of the men accused of the murder – Roskilde Bandidos chapter president Karl Martin Thorup – denied that the meeting between the Bandidos and Hells Angels in Nørrebro was about Hansen and his association with the Red & White Crew. It later emerged in the High Court, however, that the Bandidos and Hells Angels feared a new biker war because Hansen was suspected of pitting the two clubs against each other in revenge for his expulsion from the Bandidos.[114] The HAMC leadership agreed at the meeting with senior Bandidos members that the Bandidos could kill Hansen.[115] On 12 April 2002, Jens Christian Thorup was convicted and sentenced to life in prison for the murder. The twelve jurors and three magistrates also decided that he should be admitted to a psychiatric hospital when the Judicial Council determined he was mentally ill. On 15 January 2003, the Supreme Court ruled that his sentence should be reduced to sixteen years in prison.[116] The other three suspects – Karl Martin Thorup, Kent "Kemo" Sørensen and Peter Buch Rosenberg – were acquitted of charges of murder and conspiracy to murder on 11 April 2002.[117][118]

Bandidos associate Flemming Jensen was beaten, stomped and stabbed to death after getting into a fight with a group of Hells Angels members at a tavern on Jomfru Ane Gade in Aalborg on 12 August 2001. The twenty-eight-year-old Jensen was a well-known figure in the cityscape of Langå and Randers, and prior to the summer of 2000 was close to the inner circle of the heavily crime-laden Randers gang Cerberus. The Cerberus gang and their friends in the Randers motorcycle club Pirates were traditionally associated with the Bandidos, but in the summer of 2000 the Pirates switched sides and joined the Hells Angels. However, according to sources with in-depth knowledge of the gang, Flemming Jensen remained loyal to the old friends in the Bandidos circles (formerly Bullshit in Randers), but after the Cerberus dissolution had no firm connection to groups or gangs. According to Bandidos president Jim Tinndahn, however, Jensen was not an aspirant to the biker group, but had served a sentence with Bandidos members at Nyborg State Prison.[119] Shortly after the killing, police arrested Jørn "Jønke" Nielsen, who was charged with aggravated violence resulting in death as, according to witnesses, he had kicked and stomped on Flemming Jensen. 21-year-old Hells Angels prospect Jesper Østenkær Kristoffersen confessed that he was the one who carried the knife. On 7 February 2002 at the District Court in Aalborg, Kristoffersen was sentenced to six years in prison for violence resulting in death.[120] Nielsen was acquitted at the District Court in Aalborg on 4 April 2002.[121] On 18 September 2002, however, he was sentenced to four years in prison for aggravated violence.[122] On 17 August 2001, Flemming Jensen's funeral was held at Værum Church in Randers, where over a hundred people attended. A high-ranking Bandidos member promised revenge after the killing of their friend Jensen. However, Chief Detective Inspector Aage Nørgaard from Aalborg Police told B.T.: "When the bikers say they want to avenge the killing, it is almost their slogan. They always say that. I compare it to when the Queen says 'God save Denmark'." There were no new clashes, however.[123]

In June 2010, Bandidos president Jim Tinndahn announced that the peace treaty between his club and the Hells Angels had collapsed, partly because the HAMC had breached terms of the agreement by admitting six Bandidos members.[124] Bandidos vice-president Michael "The Chef" Rosenvold and Hells Angels president Jørn Nielsen both confirmed the end of the truce in September 2011.[125] The Bandidos subsequently set up branches in locations that, according to the agreement, were Hells Angels territory, including Odense and Amager.[126] Police sources said at the time that, despite the end of the agreement, a new biker war seemed unlikely, although there were clashes as both clubs moved into the previously neutral territory of Esbjerg.[127] The renewed tensions resulted in another outbreak of violence in September 2012. After two stabbings and an attempted hit-and-run, a seventeen-ton unmanned truck with a brick on the accelerator ploughed into a property used by the Bandidos on Amager on 18 September 2012. Police suspect the incident was carried out by the Hells Angels support group AK81. The following day, a hundred bikers – including Michael Rosenvold, who succeeded Jim Tinndahn as Bandidos Europe president – were arrested as police raided eighteen locations across Zealand in an attempt to assert control ahead of a what they believed to be an imminent gang war. Guns, knives, axes, drugs and anabolic steroids were also seized in the raids.[128]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Scandinavian approaches to outlaw motorcycle gangs Synnøve Økland Jahnsen, Australian Institute of Criminology (April 2018)
  2. ^ a b c Rockere - historisk baggrund Carsten Fenger-Grøn and Malene Grøndahl, faktalink.dk (2002)
  3. ^ Statusrapport Kriminalitet forøvet af rockere og bander 2009 Rigspolitiet (March 2009)
  4. ^ Bog går bag om rockerkrigen Berlingske (25 August 1999)
  5. ^ Jan Søgaard (29 October 2009). "'Blondie' med i sin tredje krig". Berlingske.
  6. ^ "Angels of Death: Inside the Bikers' Empire of Crime". Randomhouse.ca. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. ^ Nervøsitet efter rockerdrab Ekstra Bladet (12 August 2000)
  8. ^ Rockerlov, rockerforbud eller retssikkerhed Jakob Stensgaard, faklen.dk
  9. ^ Jurist: Svært at bruge rockerlov Karsten Stefansdottir Egekvist, Politiken (16 September 2008)
  10. ^ Rockerloven er en glidebane Jakob Stensgaard Magasinet Faklen, Dagbladet Information (15 October 1997)
  11. ^ Rockerloven 1996 Retsinformation (29 March 2014)
  12. ^ a b Fængslerne frygter en ny rockerkrig Jakob Stig Jørgensen, Politiken (20 September 2012)
  13. ^ Efterforskningschef: Vi vil ikke stå med et endnu større problem om få dage Pia Buhl Andersen, Politiken (19 September 2012)
  14. ^ a b Politichef forsvarer sig mod ros fra advokat Niels Rohleder, Dagbladet Information (31 August 1999)
  15. ^ a b Dømte rockere skal samles i københavnske fængsler Carsten Ellegaard, Jyllands-Posten (13 November 2002)
  16. ^ Folketingets Finansudvalg Folketing (2 May 2001)
  17. ^ Skudoffer har selv to liv på samvittigheden Niels Holst, Politiken (29 October 2009)
  18. ^ Rockerfred? danske-nyheder.dk (25 September 1997)
  19. ^ a b Organizing on two wheels: uncovering the organizational patterns of Hells Angels MC in Sweden Amir Rostami and Hernan Mondani, Springer Science+Business Media (24 May 2017)
  20. ^ Riders ja Backsliders Jukka Lindfors, Yle (12 March 2008)
  21. ^ TV-series "24 timer vi aldrig glemmer" (24 hours we'll never forget), episode "Mordet på Makrellen" (The murder of "The Mackerel") "Makrellen" (Henning Norbert Knudsen) was the first Bullshit president, hence the programme focused on his murder, but also on the entire MC-war. Broadcast on DR2 on 2 August 2012. This bikie war had a significant presence not only in the Danish media but also in southern Sweden.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Englenes gerninger Ambro Kragh (2017)
  23. ^ Rockerne i Bullshit ejede deres kærester. Nu fortæller kvinderne deres egen historie Sara Mejlvang Møller, Vice (5 February 2018)
  24. ^ HA-veteran døde i mc-ulykke Adresseavisen (15 May 2002)
  25. ^ a b Knowledge Management in Policing: Enforcing Law on Criminal Business Enterprises Petter Gottschalk (2009)
  26. ^ Hells Angels utökar sin närvaro i Sverige Lars-Olof Strömberg and Jakob Kjelldén, Kvällsposten (12 May 2016)
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jengiläisten riidat toivat Bandidosin Suomeen 1990-luvulla Jarkko Sipilä, MTV3 (12 May 2015)
  28. ^ MC Overkill – vaarallisia vai väärinymmärrettyjä? Panu Räty, City (19 March 1993)
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n The Mammoth Book of Bikers Arthur Veno (2007)
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Issues in Global Crime Diplomatic Security Service (1998)
  31. ^ "Angels go Global". History.ca. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  32. ^ a b c d Bikers Feud in Land of the Vikings Dean E. Murphy, Los Angeles Times (June 10, 1996)
  33. ^ Biker wars dredge up something rotten in the state of Denmark Sarah Helm, The Independent (12 May 1996)
  34. ^ a b c Biker war revving up in Denmark Ray Moseley, Chicago Tribune (July 3, 1997)
  35. ^ Wahlund, Anders; Wallberg, Peter (1996). "Motorcykelgäng ställer polisen inför nya problem" [Biker Gangs Create New Problems for Police]. Apropå (in Swedish) (5–6). Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  36. ^ a b Kristiansson, Ulf (11 January 2014). "MC-kriget som skakade Norden" [The Biker War that Shook the Nordic Countries]. Helsingborgs Dagblad (in Swedish). Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  37. ^ Biker gangs' wars terrorize Scandinavians Charles Trueheart, The Washington Post (February 27, 1997)
  38. ^ a b Sweden's Courteous Police Spoil A Hell's Angels Clubhouse Party Youssef M. Ibrahim, The New York Times (March 3, 1997)
  39. ^ a b c Major Incidents in Hells Angels-Bandidos Feud in Nordic Countries Associated Press (July 31, 1996)
  40. ^ Minst tolv mördare går fria – efter blodiga mc-gängkrigen Arne Lapidus, Kvällsposten (14 July 2019)
  41. ^ a b Moottori- pyöräjengin johtajalle 9 v vankeutta Helsingin Sanomat (23 September 1994)
  42. ^ MC-kriget mellan Hells Angels och Bandidos Magnus Hellberg and Per Lindelöw, Expressen (6 December 2018)
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h Motorcykelgäng ställer polisen inför nya problem Brottsförebyggande rådet (May 1996)
  44. ^ Chronologie van een bendeoorlog Trouw (7 October 1996)
  45. ^ History of Bandidos MC Helsingborg Bandidos-MC.se (2020)
  46. ^ MC-kriget mellan Hells Angels och Bandidos Magnus Hellberg and Per Lindelöw, Expressen (6 December 2018)
  47. ^ a b c Olösta morden kring Hells Angels och Bandidos Jens Andersson, Göteborgs-Tidningen (17 September 2016)
  48. ^ Jag tipsade om attacken Per-Ola Ohlsson, Aftonbladet (2 June 2002)
  49. ^ Tuomiot sinkoiskusta alenivat hovioikeudessa Susanna Reinboth, Helsingin Sanomat (14 June 1996)
  50. ^ a b c d Norsk mafia: Organisert kriminalitet i Norge Jan Thomas (2020)
  51. ^ a b c d e f g Her er politiets fiasko-liste Dagbladet (12 October 1998)
  52. ^ Kriminelle vil inn i Bandidos Adresseavisen (3 May 2002)
  53. ^ Bandidosmedlem narko-tatt Adresseavisen (24 October 2000)
  54. ^ MC-kriget som skakade Norden Ulf Kristiansson, Helsingborgs Dagblad (11 January 2014)
  55. ^ a b Missiles used to attack Hells Angels' clubhouses Chicago Tribune (April 18, 1996)
  56. ^ Prosenttijengit Suomessa Mika Tani, Police of Finland (September 2020)
  57. ^ Was geschah am 25. September 1997 in unserem Dänemark? Günter Schwarz, SH-UgeAvisen (25 September 2017)
  58. ^ Biker Shootout Kills One at Copenhagen Airport Jan M. Olsen, Associated Press (10 March 1996)
  59. ^ Tre års fengsel for Hells Angels-leder Verdens Gang (25 February 2003)
  60. ^ Efter 17 år i fængsel: Kendt HA-rocker løslades Uffe Jørgensen Odde, B.T. (13 June 2013)
  61. ^ Hells Angels-leder fikk tre års fengsel Dagbladet (4 November 1998)
  62. ^ Toprocker er død: Han skød rocker-krigen i gang Jesper Vestergaard Larsen, B.T. (15 March 2014)
  63. ^ Fakta/mc-kriget Dagens Nyheter (7 October 1996)
  64. ^ Copenhagen - A Hell's Angels club house burns after being hit by an anti-tank missile The Independent (18 April 1996)
  65. ^ Prison hand grenade attack wounds jailed biker United Press International (April 26, 1996)
  66. ^ Attentäter brachen in Gefängnis ein Die Welt (27 April 1996)
  67. ^ Hells Angels attacked in biker war United Press International (May 7, 1996)
  68. ^ Gewalt: „Gott vergibt, Bandidos nie“ Thomas Hüetlin, Der Spiegel (22 July 1996)
  69. ^ Bandidos-johtajan syytteistä pääosa nurin kranaattijutussa Jarkko Sipilä, Helsingin Sanomat (12 July 1996)
  70. ^ a b c d Rockere bag en stribe af bomber Jan Søgaard, B.T. (19 September 2003)
  71. ^ 30-åring tiltalt for Bandidos-drapet Dagbladet (12 December 1997)
  72. ^ a b Ble feil mann likvidert? Bjørnar Tommelstad, Verdens Gang (21 February 2015)
  73. ^ a b Bandidos-drapet uoppklart.net
  74. ^ Bombedømt rocker sigtet for bombe-mord Jan Søgaard, B.T. (28 April 2004)
  75. ^ DN-BAKGRUND: Sex dödade i mc-kriget Dagens Nyheter (6 August 1996)
  76. ^ Drabelige angreb Ekstra Bladet (20 April 2003)
  77. ^ Forslag til folketingsbeslutning om ekspropriation af rockerejendomme retsinformation.dk
  78. ^ Så satte de skräck i hela Norden Aftonbladet (10 August 2016)
  79. ^ The Angels get a rocket from Hell The Independent (7 October 1996)
  80. ^ Højesteret godkender Rockerloven Niels Rohleder, Dagbladet Information (17 August 1999)
  81. ^ Den dræbte blev morder som 17-årig Jan Søgaard, B.T. (18 September 2003)
  82. ^ a b Danish biker gets life for grenade attack BBC (13 March 1998)
  83. ^ ROCKERBEGRAVELSE ROCKERKRIGEN POLITI VEJGÅRD MC ROCKRBORG KIM THRYSØE SVENDSEN Europeana (21 January 1997)
  84. ^ Nul erstatning til Bandidos-rockere Nul erstatning til Bandidos-rockere B.T. (9 June 2000)
  85. ^ a b Rockerkrigens uløste gåde: Find min søns morder Anton Rasmussen, Ekstra Bladet (20 February 2017)
  86. ^ Dømt for drapsforsøk på mc-leder Verdens Gang (29 September 1998)
  87. ^ Rockerattentat Danske Nyheder.dk (3 February 1997)
  88. ^ Rocker-skyderi Danske Nyheder.dk (4 February 1997)
  89. ^ Rocket As Weapon in Biker Gangs`War SME (19 February 1997)
  90. ^ Rockerattentat igen Danske Nyheder.dk (1 April 1997)
  91. ^ Det var en bombe Danske Nyheder.dk (2 May 1997)
  92. ^ Reports: Biker bomb in Norway was aimed at Hells Angel defector Associated Press (June 7, 1997)
  93. ^ Slik sprengte de Drammen Verdens Gang (17 November 2001)
  94. ^ Bombedømte må betale 450 millioner Arild M. Jonassen, Verdens Gang (27 October 2004)
  95. ^ Håndgranater og bilbomber: Sådan forløb 90’ernes blodige rockeropgør Signe Lene Christiansen, DR (10 March 2016)
  96. ^ a b Denmark Hells Angel Gets Life Associated Press (November 20, 1998)
  97. ^ "Danish Bikers Call Truce in Deadly Feud". Independent.co.uk. 26 September 1997. Retrieved 5 October 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  98. ^ a b Youth Gangs in International Perspective: Results from the Eurogang Program Finn-Aage Esbensen and Cheryl L. Maxson (2012)
  99. ^ Rockerlov, rockerforbud eller retssikkerhed akob Stensgaard, faklen.dk
  100. ^ Højesteret godkender Rockerloven Niels Rohleder, Dagbladet Information (17 August 1999)
  101. ^ The Fat Mexican: The Bloody Rise of the Bandidos Motorcycle Club Alex Caine (2009)
  102. ^ Raketmorder prøveløslades Sune, Fischer, Ekstra Bladet (4 December 2015)
  103. ^ 90'ernes rockerkrig var mere blodig= Palle Skov, DR (16 September 2008)
  104. ^ Per Larsen (2005). Den store Nordiske Rockerkrig. Dansk Politi-Idræts Forlag A/S. ISBN 87-987446-1-5.
  105. ^ Bandidos-kerhon varapresidentin ampuja sai yli 12 vuotta Susanna Reinboth, Helsingin Sanomat (8 June 1996)
  106. ^ Hell's Angels Convicted In Denmark Slaying The New York Times (21 December 1996)
  107. ^ De mest markante rockerprofiler Søren Larsen, B.T. (3 January 2003)
  108. ^ HA-leder ble frikjent Hans O. Torgesen and Arild M. Jonasse, Aftenposten (11 June 2002)
  109. ^ Bandidoksen Suomen johtajan ampunut mies pääsee vankilasta vapaaksi Asta Tenhunen, Savon Sanomat (9 March 2017)
  110. ^ Why have Sweden's biker gangs been able to fly under the radar? The Local (24 January 2020)
  111. ^ Nätverket Baris Kayhan (2017)
  112. ^ Tidligere Bandidos-Præsident likvideret Local Eyes (21 March 2001)
  113. ^ Mordet på Claus Bork Hansen B.T. (17 June 2003)
  114. ^ HA og Bandidos holdt krisemøde før drab Jan Søgaard, B.T. (1 March 2002)
  115. ^ Carsten Ellegaard (8 April 2002). "Anklager: HA godkendte drab på Bandidos-top". Jyllands-Posten.
  116. ^ Rocker fik nedsat straf for drab Ekstra Bladet (15 January 2003)
  117. ^ En fik livstid for rockerdrab - tre blev frikendt Politiken (12 April 2002)
  118. ^ Idømt livsvarigt for rockerdrab Søren Larsen, B.T. (12 April 2002)
  119. ^ Flemming gik aldrig med kniv Niels Westberg, Ekstra Bladet (14 August 2001)
  120. ^ Seks år for rockerdrab Ekstra Bladet (7 February 2002)
  121. ^ Jønke klarede frisag i retten Politiken (5 April 2002)
  122. ^ Chokeret Jønke fik 4 års fængsel Niels Ole Qvist, B.T. (19 September 2002)
  123. ^ Bandidos lover hævn over HA Morten Nøhr Mortensen, B.T. (19 August 2001)
  124. ^ Bandidos-præsident rev personligt fredsaftale i stykker Frank Hvilsom, Politiken (14 June 2010)
  125. ^ Biker gang peace deal off in Denmark Luna Finnsson, IceNews (30 September 2011)
  126. ^ Bandidos rykker ind på Amager Sune Fischer, Ekstra Bladet (18 February 2012)
  127. ^ Rocker-slagsmål kom uventet Jørgen Nygaard, TV Syd (28 July 2011)
  128. ^ Police raid biker gang strongholds The Copenhagen Post (20 September 2012)

External links[edit]