Great Wall Motors

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Great Wall Motors Co., Ltd.
Founded1984; 37 years ago (1984)
HeadquartersBaoding, Hebei, China
Area served
Key people
ProductsAutomobiles, engines, transmissions, electric vehicles
RevenueIncrease CN¥98.62 billion (2016)
Increase CN¥12.27 billion (2016)
Increase CN¥10.55 billion (2016)
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese长城汽车股份有限公司
Traditional Chinese長城汽車股份有限公司
Great Wall Motors
Simplified Chinese长城汽车
Traditional Chinese長城汽車 (Chinese) (Global)
Footnotes / references

Great Wall Motors Company Limited[3] is a Chinese automobile-manufacturer headquartered in Baoding, Hebei. Formed in 1984 and named after the Great Wall of China, the company is China's largest producer of sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) and pick-up trucks.[4] It sells passenger cars and trucks under the "Great Wall" brand, and SUVs under the "Haval" and "WEY" brands.

In 2016 Great Wall Motors set a historical sales record of 1,074,471 cars worldwide, an increase of 26% compared to 2015.[5]


Great Wall Pegasus in Russia

Established in 1984, Great Wall began with low volume production trucks such as the CC130. They later made the CC513, using the chassis from the Beijing BJ212. In 1993, they started producing a series of different passenger vehicles, starting with a sedan called the CC1020, with styling heavily resembling the Nissan Cedric Y30. This was followed by the CC1020S with styling based on the Toyota Crown (S130) along with a station wagon version, the CC6470. Other early Great Wall models includes a BJ212-based crew cab pickup (also called CC1020S) a BJ212-based station wagon, the CC6490 and a small sedan, the Hawk CC6470. In 1994, the Chinese government halted the production because Great Wall didn't have the right permit for car productions.[6]

In 1996, Great Wall focused on only trucks, not producing another sedan car until 2010.[7] The company has been a very successful producer of pick-ups first reaching top position in the Chinese pick-up market in 1998.[8]

Making an initial public offering on the Hong Kong stock exchange on 15 December 2003,[9] Great Wall was the first private Chinese auto manufacturer to become a public company.[10] On Sept. 27, 2011, the company announced it had sold 304 million domestic A shares, and began listing on the Shanghai Stock Exchange the next day.[11]

Sales in 2010 were measured at less than 400,000 (near 2% market share)[clarification needed] with exports a small portion of that figure at little more than 50,000,[citation needed] no increase from 2009 figures.[citation needed] That same year saw the Great Wall Haval H series as the second most-purchased SUV in China[12] although this figure may technically include two discrete models, the Great Wall Haval H3 and the Great Wall Haval H5.[citation needed]

Manufacturing for 2011 resulted in 486,800 units, and output this year was the tenth largest of any vehicle maker in China.[13] In 2012, it was reported that the company only allows workers one day off per week and new hires undergo months-long, military-style training.[14]

Great Wall started selling in Europe in 2006, offering small vans.[15] A lot of 500 SUVs were shipped to Italy in 2006 as well.[16] Great Wall products were first available in the Australian market in 2009,[17] and the company was, as of 2010, the only Chinese car manufacturer to sell in the EU.[citation needed] European sales continue, with the 2011 opening of a factory in Bulgaria that assembles three different models from knock-down kits.[18]

In April 2017, Great Wall Motors released a new premium SUV brand named WEY.[19]

In May 2017, the company launched its first electric new energy vehicle, Great Wall C30EV.[20]

In July 2018, Great Wall and German manufacturer BMW announced a partnership to produce electric Mini vehicles in China.[21]

In January 2020, Great Wall Motor stated that it will buy the car plant of General Motors in India as part of the company's aim to manufacture and sell cars in India. [22]

In February 2020, Great Wall Motor started that it will buy car manufacturing plant of General Motors Thailand (Rayong Province).[23]


The company's former logo is visible on this Wingle at the 2006 Paris Auto Show

Production facilities in China[edit]

A Litex Motors-produced 2012 Great Wall Voleex C10 in Sofia

With a manufacturing location in Baoding, Hebei province, Great Wall has expansion plans for future production bases and facilities.[citation needed]

Other production bases include a site in Tianjin, a direct-controlled municipality, that began operating in 2011 with further expansion phases planned until 2015.[citation needed] The first phase of this facility may become operational in August 2011 adding 250,000 units per year capacity, and when the project reaches completion total capacity will be twice that.[24]

Another 500,000 units per year base was built in Baoding. This second base become operational in October 2013 and is located in the Xushui county.[25]

Overseas production facilities[edit]

There have been several other overseas factories that produced Great Wall models from knock-down kits, located in Bulgaria,[26] Ecuador,[27] Egypt, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Iran,[28] Nigeria,[29] Russia, Senegal,[citation needed] Ukraine,[30] and Vietnam.[citation needed] It is possible that there are now more than ten such factories.[30]

These facilities are not necessarily affiliated with or owned by Great Wall. By 2015 Great Wall plans for the existence of 24 such workshops.[citation needed]


Together with the Bulgarian company Litex Motors, Great Wall has a production base in Bahovitsa,[26] near the town of Lovech, Bulgaria, that became operational in February 2012.[31] As of 2012, the factory had the capacity to assemble 2,000 cars per year[32] from knock-down kits.[18] Initially only making the Voleex C10, the factory later added production of an SUV and a pick-up, the Hover 6 and the Steed 5.[18] Plans for a trial run of electric cars were discussed in late 2011, but were postponed.[33]

As of January 2015, the company had a production output of about 5,000 vehicles per year (the Hover H6 and the Steed 5 models) and was planning to reach up to 8,000 vehicles within a year or two.[34] By mid-2016, the company had a total of 14 dealerships in 12 Bulgarian cities, three of them in the capital Sofia.[35]


In January 2020, Great Wall announced its plans to acquire the General Motors India manufacturing facility in Talegaon, Maharashtra. In June 2020 it committed to a phased investment of $1 billion but no date was confirmed for the start of production,[36] despite the expectation for confirmation of the investment approval by the Indian government by the end of 2020.[37]


The Iranian motor company Diar has assembled Great Wall vehicles from knock-down kits.[28]


In September 2015, Great Wall Motors broke ground on a new plant located in the Tula Region, Russia.[38] The plant is slated to have a total production capacity of 150,000 units per year if the project is successful enough to warrant a second phase of expansion.[39] Initially scheduled to open in 2017, the facility is touted as an "all-process vehicle plant",[38] which may indicate it is on a larger scale than other overseas assembly shops.


As of 2013, Great Wall Motors had plans to invest $340 million for a new factory in Thailand,[40] but this expansion effort was shelved in early 2014.[39] On February 17, 2020, General Motors announced it will withdraw from the Thai market and sell its Rayong plant to Great Wall Motors by the end of the year.[41] On 30 September 2020, Great Wall Motors signed a share sales and purchase agreement with General Motors to acquire GM’s production facilities in Rayong. With a plan to begin its production in the first quarter of 2021 with automobile production capacity of 80,000 units per annum.[42]

Cancelled projects[edit]

Great Wall Voleex C10 at the 2010 Santiago Autoshow in Chile


A new factory was set to become operational by 2013 in Brazil,[43] but as of May 2019 has not eventuated.

Research and development[edit]

While R&D activities commenced in 1998,[30] in 2010 the company began construction of a technical center in Baoding, Hebei province.[44] Part of an effort to increase R&D investment,[45] the center may become fully operational in 2013 as Great Wall states it will obtain "world-leading R&D... and technical ability" by that year.[30]

Currently, component design may rely heavily on foreign technical assistance, and some hard-to-source parts may be provisioned from overseas;[citation needed] the company states it has cooperative agreements with companies such as Autoliv, Delphi Automotive, BorgWarner, Robert Bosch GmbH, the German company Brose, Ricardo plc, TRW Automotive, and Valeo in regards to specific parts such as engines, transmissions, door locks, and airbags, etc.[30] As of 2009, some models used Mitsubishi engines and Siemens electronic systems—both sourced in China.[46]

In January 2016, GWM has announced the creation of a R&D center in Yokohama, Japan as part of a strategy to enter the Japanese auto market.[47]

In June 2016, GWM has announced the creation of a R&D center in Bangalore, India as part of a strategy to enter the Indian auto market.


Brand names[edit]

The Haval badge is visible on this H9 seen at a Chinese dealership in 2015

GWM and Haval[edit]

While its entire model line initially carried the same badge, the company planned around 2010 to differentiate its SUV, passenger car, and pick-up truck offerings naming them Haval, Voleex and Wingle respectively.[30] This goal may not have seen full fruition as compact cars carry the Great Wall badge as late as 2016.[48] However, SUVs have been branded as Havals since 2013.[49] Great Wall recognizes this on its website stating that in March 2013, "[The] Haval brand became independent officially, bringing GWM into an era of dual brand of Haval and Great Wall."[50] In 2020, it was reported that the firm would not be selling Great Wall branded passenger cars anymore (at least in certain international markets) as all their SUVs would carry the Haval name, whilst their pick-ups, including the replacement for the Great Wall Steed (known as the Model P/Poer/Cannon ute[51][52][53]), will be branded under the GWM marque.[54][55]


ORA is positioned as the new generation electric car and owns different models based on exclusive new energy platform. ORA brand was officially launched with its first model ORA iQ on August 20, 2018. ORA R1 was launched On December 26 of the same year.

GWM named the brand ORA to commemorate the world-renowned scientist Leonhard Euler. It implies that ORA has leading resource technologies (ME platform), strict quality standards, personality, people-oriented design concept, intelligent products, and a model advancing with the times, so the new generation of consumers could more easily enjoy the most reliable resource electric vehicle and the driving experience beyond expectations.

ORA brand is positioned as the new generation electric car. Since its establishment, ORA brand has insisted on making 100% pure electric vehicles.

WEY and TANK[edit]

"WEY" is the first Chinese auto brand named after the founder. It is also the first Chinese luxury SUV brand created by a global team of over 1,600 designers and researchers from GWM with five-year efforts in line with the highest standards of global luxury brands. It is not only a symbol or an antonomasia, but also a commitment made by Mr. Jack Wey, the founder of WEY brand, in his own name. That is, he will defend WEY brand with ingenuity, like guarding the highest honor and belief; and he will record the glory and the era with the dream and determination of the Chinese luxury SUV leader.

WEY's unique up-pointing logo is inspired from the landmark building structure, the grand flagpole of Baoding Museum of Zhili Governor's Office, which is located at Baoding, China, the hometown of the brand founder, Mr. Jack Wey. It declares the pursuit and commitment of WEY: Be a leading brand of luxury SUV globally. Guide the Chinese brands to go farther and better. Mr. Jack Wey, the founder of WEY, has named the brand after his family. He has created a Chinese luxury SUV from nothing. The vision determines the world a man can see, while the courage determines the world a man can build. Mr. Jack Wey, a pursuer with unprecedented courage, is now in a more extensive race course, chasing for his better goals. He is shocking the world with his view of the future.

The "TANK" brand became independent when Great Wall launched the TANK 300 under the WEY brand, and due to the significantly different segment and styling of the TANK 300, Great Wall decided to isolate the vehicle and establish the TANK as a whole new vehicle brand that focuses on off-road vehicles.


A wide model range can be had from Great Wall—from light trucks and SUVs to urban runabouts.

Electric vehicles[edit]

Great Wall planned to sell electric vehicles domestically beginning in 2011,[4] and in that year the company stated it had "made quite a huge investment in exploring technologies for new energy autos".[30] An all-electric SUV was showcased at the 2010 Guangzhou Auto Show,[citation needed] and the company is considering a tie-up with electric car maker Coda Automotive.[56]

China subsidizes oil[57] and wants its domestic automakers to begin selling electric vehicles for this reason. Some Chinese automakers also see opportunities in less mature electric vehicles because Western companies have yet to develop much of a lead in the technology.[58]

In 2019, it unveiled the Ora R1,[59] which is dubbed as the world’s cheapest electric car.[60]

Sales outside China[edit]

A Great Wall dealership in Adelaide, Australia

Great Wall products have been available in many places across the globe, including Australia. The majority of exports may be in the form of knock-down kits as is the case with the assembly plant in Bulgaria.[26]

In Europe, Great Wall Motors is present in Romania,[61] Bulgaria,[62] North Macedonia,[63] Italy,[64] Serbia,[65] and the United Kingdom.[66] In the future, it plans to also expand in, among others, Hungary, Poland,[67] and Austria.[68]

In the Americas, Great Wall Motors has firstly landed in Paraguay,[69] and now it is present in Belize, Ecuador,[70] Chile,[71] Costa Rica[72] and Uruguay,[73] Peru, Argentina, Bolivia, Guatemala.

Great Wall launched its range in India at the Auto Expo, with sales schedule for 2021.[74]

While Great Wall is engaged in export, nearly 70 percent of sales in 2009 came from central and western China.[1]

Great Wall launched in Thailand, with sales schedule for 2021.

After-sale care training[edit]

The company offers an after-sales service training course for employees of overseas distributors.[75]


It is important to note that cars sold in the European Union, the Hover and Steed, may be marketed as commercial vehicles exempting them from EU safety standards. As of 2010, some Great Wall products including passenger vehicles and the new Hover (Haval H5) and Steed (Wingle 5 and 6) have obtained an EU whole vehicle type approval, an EU regime that tests road vehicles and approves them for production and sale in Europe.[76] In 2012, the Haval H6 is planned to receive EU certification.[77][needs update]

Between 2010 and 2015, the Australasian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP) tested various Great Wall cars with all receiving two or three stars except the four-starred X240 (known elsewhere as the H5E).[78] As of July 2021, ANCAP's website lists the Haval H2 (from October 2015) and the Haval H9 (also from October 2015) as having received the maximum ranking, five stars. [79]


An Australian importer recalled Chinese-made cars of several brands including Great Wall due to discoveries of asbestos in gaskets.[80] There is an ongoing verification process in Europe to evaluate the presence of asbestos.[81][82]


Team Great Wall #307 in the 2012 Dakar Rally

The company made appearances at the Dakar Rally previously. In 2010, it first entered the race as car #389,[83] with a modified model based on Haval H3,[84] and ranked 33rd.[85] The next year it finished 22nd as car #373.[86][87] Its best rankings were achieved in the 2012 and 2013 editions, when the team finished 6th.[88][89] At the 2014 edition, the team had been competing with the new Haval H8 model, and finished in 8th.[90][91] Since 2015, the company decided to quit Dakar Rally, but kept participating in other domestic rally races.[92]


The Great Wall Peri (left) and Fiat Panda (right)

Italian automaker Fiat has claimed that a Great Wall A-segment car, the Peri (Jing Ling in China), is a copy of its popular second generation Fiat Panda.[93] A 2008 Turin court ruling substantiated the claim stating that the Great Wall Peri, “doesn’t look like a different car but is a [Fiat] Panda with a different front end.”[94] A copyright infringement case in Shijiazhuang, China, however, was rejected, with the court claiming that "consumers would not be confused between the two" as they are "clearly different, particularly the front and rear parts of the vehicles".[95]

Other Great Wall models were also inspired by products of foreign automakers. The Great Wall Florid looks like a Toyota ist, the Great Wall Sailor/SA220 looks like a Nissan Frontier, the Great Wall Coolbear is essentially a carbon copy of the first-generation Scion xB, and the original Great Wall Hover model looks like the Isuzu Axiom.[96][97]


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External links[edit]