Great White live on 11 July 2008 at the Moondance Jam
|Origin||Los Angeles, California, U.S.|
|Years active||1977–2001, 2006–present|
|Members||Mark Kendall |
|Past members||Terry Ilous|
Great White is an American hard rock band, formed in Los Angeles in 1977. They gained their name from the Great White Shark. They got their popularity during the 1980s and early 1990s. The band released several albums in the late 1980s and gained airplay on MTV with music videos for songs like "Once Bitten, Twice Shy". The band reached their peak popularity with the album ...Twice Shy in 1989. The band continued to release new material into the 1990s, although none of their material charted in the United States. The band broke up in 2001. Soon thereafter, lead singer Jack Russell started to tour with Tony Montana, Robby Lochner (Rob Halford), Dan McNay (Montrose), Dicki Fliszar as "Jack Russell's Great White", a group which doesn't include the band's co-founding guitarist Mark Kendall. Great White made headlines when in 2003 a Rhode Island nightclub at which they were playing caught fire due to their negligence, leading to the deaths of 100 people, including band member Ty Longley. Great White reformed in 2006. In 2011, Russell left the band, starting to tour again as "Jack Russell's Great White".
As of August 2008, Great White estimated they had sold around 8 million records worldwide.
Early career as Dante Fox (1977–1980)
Vocalist Jack Russell met guitarist Mark Kendall in 1977, and Kendall asked Russell to join his band. They decided to form a band together and they called it Highway later changing it to Livewire and then played one final show as Wires. Then in 1979, Russell was arrested for shooting a live-in maid in a botched robbery attempt, and sentenced to 8 years in prison. The band went its separate ways and Kendall was left to start over. He recruited bassist Don Costa (later a one-time member of Ozzy Osbourne and also briefly in W.A.S.P.) and drummer Tony Richards (later a member of W.A.S.P.). They auditioned several singers including John Bush from Armored Saint, They then got a singer named Butch Say whose style was similar to that of Rob Halford, but finally settling on a female singer Lisa Baker. The name they decided to go with was Dante Fox. They played their first gig in 1979 with singer Lisa Baker and played around Orange County and the Los Angeles area for 6 months with Lisa, until she joined George Lynch's band Xciter and Butch rejoined briefly. Later they found out that Russell was released from prison after serving only 18 months of his sentence and Russell talked Kendall into an audition and he got in the band by a 2 to 1 band vote. They played their first gig with Russell at The Troubadour in Hollywood, California.
Early career as Great White and mainstream success (1981–1989)
After recording several demos, the band chose as manager Alan Niven, who had worked for the independent distributor Greenworld in Torrance, California and had dealt with Mötley Crüe's debut self-release. Niven suggested the name change from Dante Fox after seeing Kendall stick his head out of a car window while driving by the Troubador and some kid in the crowd said "there goes Great White". Kendall got the nickname due to his naturally white-blonde hair, white Fender Telecaster guitar, white jumpsuit, and white Capezio shoes. In 1982, the members by this time (as Costa and Richards had left) were Mark Kendall, Jack Russell, drummer Gary Holland, and bassist Lorne Black. They were soon in the studio and they recorded and released a 5-song EP, Out of the Night, on the independent label Aegean formed by Niven. Niven then convinced the Los Angeles radio station KMET to begin adding songs from the EP to its playlist in heavy rotation. KLOS-FM soon did the same. The band suddenly went from drawing 100 people to a local club to drawing thousands in L.A. concert halls such as Perkins Palace in Pasadena, The Palace in Hollywood and the Country Club in Reseda. As an unsigned act, Great White headlined at Six Flags Magic Mountain in Valencia playing to 6,250 people. Near the end of 1983, EMI America signed the band and subsequently released Great White's eponymous debut album in early 1984. The band immediately toured the UK supporting Whitesnake's Slide It In tour and the entire US and Canada opening for Judas Priest's Defenders of the Faith tour. They also supported Kiss on their Lick It Up tour. Shot in the Dark, their follow-up independent release, marked the arrival of drummer Audie Desbrow after the firing of Holland on December 27, 1984. By the time Capitol Records signed the band and reissued Shot in the Dark, keyboardist-guitarist Michael Lardie, who had played on that album as a session musician, had come aboard as a full member. After the release of Shot in the Dark, Great White hit the road with Dokken for 5 shows and was on the verge of even bigger success.
The band followed up with ...Twice Shy in 1989. The model Tracy Martinson appeared in the video for "Save Your Love". By this point, Great White had parted ways with Lorne Black and replaced him with bassist Tony Montana (a.k.a. Tony Cardenas). The album included their biggest hit, "Once Bitten, Twice Shy", a cover of a UK hit single by Ian Hunter. They received a Grammy Award nomination for Best Hard Rock Performance. The album was certified platinum in July 1989 and then double platinum in September of that same year. The model Bobbie Brown (also known for being in Warrant's "Cherry Pie" video) appeared in the video for "Once Bitten, Twice Shy". They finished off the 80s touring in support of ...Twice Shy as headliners and with some best known bands, such as Bon Jovi.
Hooked and Psycho City (1990–1992)
In 1990, the band featured in the heavy metal video series Hard 'N' Heavy containing music, concert footage and interviews. The video included Slash and Duff from Guns N' Roses appearing with the band at a Children of the Night Benefit concert in L.A., the performance helping to raise money for housing abused homeless children. Both bands shared the same manager, Alan Niven, at the time.
The band continued into the next decade performing the song "House of Broken Love" at the American Music Awards in January 1990. In March, Great White embarked on their first tour of Japan. They returned to the United States for the Memorial Day weekend festival dubbed The World Series of Rock, which featured Whitesnake, Skid Row, Bad English, and Hericane Alice. Great White recorded two more albums for Capitol Records, Hooked, which was certified gold, and Psycho City. In support of Hooked, Great White did a tour as opener for the German metal band Scorpions and traveled to Europe and Japan. During this tour Mark Kendall was hospitalized for a hiatal hernia for 3 weeks and then returned. Guitarist Al Pitrelli was asked to fill in for Mark during his absence. Psycho City was followed by a US tour with Kiss.
Split with Capitol Records, and decline and fall (1993–1999)
Capitol issued the compilation The Best of Great White: 1986–1992 in 1993, when Great White had already departed the label to begin work on their next studio release, Sail Away. Before the release of the album, Great White spent seven months on the road headlining clubs. According to Lardie, it was "the longest stint we ever did without a break." Great White kept up the pace once Sail Away was released on Zoo Records in 1994, touring the US several times over the following year and a half. Their next release, Let It Rock, was released in 1996 through yet another label, Imago Records.
In 1999, the band released Can't Get There from Here and embarked on a tour with Ratt, Poison, and L.A. Guns. The album featured the single "Rollin' Stoned", which managed to chart at No. 8 on the Billboard Mainstream Rock Tracks chart.
In a memo dated 20 January 2000 Mark Kendall announced he was taking a hiatus from Great White. Shortly thereafter both Audie Desbrow and Sean McNabb left Great White. Russell continued to tour with guitarist Matthew Johnson. Desbrow, clearly very unhappy with the financial state of the band and Russell's addiction problems, posted a tirade on his website lambasting Jack Russell while claiming to have been "fired" from Great White. Meanwhile, it was rumored that Sean McNabb was fired for going to management and asking to see the accounting books, but the truth was, he was policing Russell's drug use and Jack wasn't into it. The band announced plans to begin work on a new album in late 2000. Early in the process, some of the new songs were played for John Kalodner at Columbia Records. It was mutually agreed that the band needed a break and wanted to do outside projects. Kendall went on to make 2 solo albums and Russell also made a solo record. They subsequently left Columbia Records, work on the new album was discontinued. On 5 November 2001 Jack Russell announced the end of Great White, stating that he was moving on, and that Great White would play one final farewell show on 31 December 2001 at the Galaxy Theatre in Santa Ana, CA. Both Kendall and McNabb rejoined the band for the farewell show, recorded for a live CD titled Thank You...Goodnight! released by Knight Records. The live album includes two new tracks, "Back to the Rhythm" and "Play On" from their discontinued studio sessions, both of which would ultimately wind up on their reunion album Back to the Rhythm in 2007.
Jack Russell's Great White (2002–2005)
By late 2002, his music now considered stylistically passe, Jack Russell contacted Kendall, who himself was struggling with irrelevancy. Kendall agreed to play some dates with Russell's band, allowing Russell to use the name Jack Russell's Great White once again. Billed as "Jack Russell's Great White," the tour was to consist primarily of classic songs from the Great White catalog with some of Russell's solo work mixed in. Eventually, more dates were added and the tour extended through the early months of 2003.
The Station nightclub fire
The band returned to the national spotlight on 20 February 2003. At the beginning of a Great White performance at The Station night club in Rhode Island, pyrotechnics used by the band's crew created a spray of sparks that ignited the foam soundproofing material in the ceiling around the stage. One hundred people, including guitarist Ty Longley, died in the fire that followed. Approximately 115 survivors were badly burned, maimed and permanently disfigured. In 2008, Jack Russell Touring INC., agreed to pay $1 million to survivors and victims' relatives of the fire while admitting to no wrongdoing. This amount also covers former tour manager Daniel Biechele along with the band members, record label, and management as it existed at the time of the fire. The settlement was the maximum allowed under the band's insurance plan. On the two-year anniversary of the fire, Jack Russell and Mark Kendall, along with Jack Russell's attorney, Ed McPherson, appeared on Larry King Live with three of the victims of the fire and the father of Ty Longley, to discuss some of the healing that had taken place over the previous two years and some of the permanent scars that remained. Victims had previously received $3.8 million raised by United Way of America.
Though the media referred to the band as "Great White" following the tragedy in Rhode Island, the band was officially performing under the moniker of "Jack Russell's Great White" at the time of the incident. Prior to the fire, the band's official website posted a message stating that Great White had not re-formed. It's unclear when the band began officially going by "Great White" again.
Great White played their first full show following the Rhode Island tragedy on 22 July, starting a benefit tour for the survivors and victims of the fire. The band toured until 2005 to raise funds for the Station Family Fund, which had been set up to help the victims of the tragedy. In late 2005, citing "medical reasons", the band canceled the second half of their summer tour. The "medical reasons" turned out to be Jack Russell's addictions to alcohol and cocaine. This was the end of this version of Great White, as Jack Russell entered rehabilitation and did not perform again until 2007. Russell used the year of 2006 to get sober and get a facelift that was detailed on ExtraTV. Russell later referred to this incarnation of Great White as "Fake White", saying "It still sounded like Great White, but not – almost like we were doing a cover of ourselves."
Reformation as Great White (2006–2010)
Talk of a reunion of Great White began in a 2004 interview, where Jack Russell told Metal Express Radio: "I spoke with Michael [Lardie], we threw that around a bit, and thought that sounds like a cool idea, it'd be fun. I'm pretty positive it's gonna happen... probably next year ... We talked to some other people, and [former drummer] Audie [Desbrow] would not be a person I would want to play with ever again in my life. There were some bridges burned there that I just can't forgive, and I'm a very forgiving person. I just can't let that one go. I have to stand up for myself..." Russell's stance towards Desbrow seemed to have changed course by 2006 when he told Mitch Lafon: "I talked to Michael Lardie the other day and he is into doing it. I just want to get hold of Tony Montana and Audie Desbrow. I think that would be very special for our 25th anniversary tour to have the same guys... we haven't played together in a very long time." Later in 2006, guitarist Mark Kendall officially announced that Great White had re-formed its classic lineup. The re-formed lineup of Russell, Kendall, Lardie, McNabb and Desbrow played their first date together in more than 5 years on 27 January 2007 at the Keyclub in Hollywood performing in the Harpseals.org Benefit Concert for the Seals 2007. The band continued to tour throughout the rest of the year.
In 2008, bassist Sean McNabb left Great White to concentrate on a career in theater and acting. McNabb was promptly replaced with Scott Snyder (Ramos, Accomplice). McNabb is now a member of Dokken.
Great White and Jack Russell's Great White (2011–present)
In 2010, Jani Lane of Warrant filled in for Jack Russell, while Russell recuperated from surgery after suffering a perforated bowel. Terry Ilous (XYZ) replaced Jack Russell at the Coach House during the summer of 2010 and Paul Shortino (Rough Cutt, Quiet Riot, King Kobra) filled in for Russell when Great White performed at Stockholm Rock Out Festival in September.
In December 2011, Jack Russell, having recovered from his health issues, obtained a licensing agreement from Great White, and formed a new incarnation of Great White with a brand-new lineup under the name of "Jack Russell's Great White." The other band members have voiced their strong objection to this move and said that "Jack Russell does not have the right to start his own Great White or use the name without our names in the lineup. We will litigate any promoter that books 'Jack Russell's Great White' or uses any logo featuring the name Great White." In September 2013, the parties finally reached an agreement in Federal Court that legally Jack Russell will turn all his rights to the "Great White" name over to Kendall, Lardie and Desbrow. They in turn leased a way for Russell to make a living using the name "Jack Russell's Great White" with his own band; while the other original members along with new lead singer Terry Ilous [XYZ], will continue to use the official name "Great White".
On 18 March 2012 Great White announced their first new album with singer Terry Ilous, Elation, to be released in May that year, as well as a live album ( Great White: 30 years – Live On the Sunset Strip), and concert DVD of the band's 30th-anniversary show at the Key Club in Hollywood on 22 March.
In July 2013 Bassist Dario Seixas left "Jack Russell's Great White" and was replaced by Great White's former bassist Tony Montana, who returned after an absence of more than 20 years.
Lorne Black, the former bassist of Great White, died on September 27, 2013. He was 49 years old.
In a November 2015 interview with Dayton Daily News, Michael Lardie stated that Great White was "hoping to get into the studio in February or March to at least flesh out some ideas" for their next album. In October 2016, it was reported that Great White will enter WireWorld Studio in Mount Juliet, Tennessee on January 2, 2017 to begin recording their new album with producer Michael Wagener, whose collaboration with the band dates back to their 1983 EP Out of the Night and 1984 self-titled debut album. On June 2, 2017, Great White released their most recent studio effort, Full Circle, on Bluez Tone Records, with Wagener as the producer. The song "Big Time" was released as the first single and video. This was the last studio effort with Terry Ilous on lead vocals before being replaced in 2018 by Mitch Malloy. The album has been met with mixed reviews, with review site Glitter2Gutter stating, "Disappointing as a Great White record, but at least it's better than Elation. Rock this at a 5.5."
Jack Russell's Great White has released four singles as of January 9, 2017.
"Hard Habit" was released on December 19, 2014.
On July 19, 2016 Jack Russell's Great White signed with Frontiers Music. The first single with Frontiers, "Blame It On The Night", was released November 30, 2016. The second single "She Moves Me" was released on December 14, 2016. On January 5, 2017 they premiered their third single "Love Don't Live Here". Jack Russell's Great White released the music video for the song "Sign of the Times" on January 18, 2017. The debut album He Saw It Comin' released on January 27, 2017. Reviews have been largely positive for the new record, with Glitter2Gutter stating, "Crank this eclectic collection to an excellent 8.5, but give it time to grow on you organically. Don't try to force the record into being Psycho City II or Shot In The Dark II, because you will be being unfair to yourself and to the record." 
In February 2017 it was announced that Great White would appear at Rockingham Festival 2017, this to be held at Nottingham Trent University, UK, between 20 and 22 October 2017, the band scheduled to appear on Sunday 22nd. In late June, it was announced that Jack Russell's Great White would celebrate the 30th anniversary of 1987's Once Bitten by announcing a tour and a new acoustic album titled Once Acoustically Bitten, which was released on July 14. They performed material from both albums with the former being performed in its entirety on some shows. Prior to the tour, the band previewed material from the acoustic album on June 29 at the Guitar Center in Los Angeles.
North Dakota performance during COVID-19 Pandemic (2020)
On July 9, 2020, amidst growing COVID-19 numbers, Great White played an outdoor show in Dickinson, North Dakota as part of “First on First Dickinson Summer Nights”. While numerous events have been imposing restrictions, such as wearing masks and social distancing, "First On First" has no such rules in place. The concert did draw attention for the lack of safety measures during the pandemic, after which the band released a public apology statement.
- "Jack Russell To Bring Great White Back To Life On Upcoming Tour". Blabbermouth.net. Roadrunner Records. 2 November 2002. Archived from the original on 8 July 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- Jeffries, David. "Great White Biography". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "Interview of GREAT WHITE (Mark Kendall) for the "Back To The Rhythm" release". Auxportesdumetal.com. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- Olivier. "Rik Fox recalls being briefly replaced by Don Costa in W.A.S.P. before Blackie Lawless took over on bass – Sleaze Roxx". Retrieved 2020-01-31.
- "Interview with Mark Kendall (Guitar) (Great White)". Your Online Magazine for Hard Rock and Heavy Metal. 2014-06-27. Retrieved 2020-01-31.
- Hotten2016-09-10T17:00:00.253Z, Jon. "The Strange And Terrible True Story Of Great White". Classic Rock Magazine. Retrieved 2020-01-31.
- As per Jack Russell, former vocalist of Great White.
- "Jack Russell Is 'Excited' To Be Playing With Bassist Tony Montana Again". Blabbermouth.net. 2013-07-18. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- "Slash Video Appearances". Slash's Official Fan Site. October 2005. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
SLASH, Duff McKagan and Great White appear in footage from the Children of the Night Benefit in Los Angeles.
- "great white w/ slash n duff – jam @ children of the night". YouTube. 27 March 2006. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- Desbrow, Audie (20 September 2000). "Great White Drummer Gets Fired and Goes Off on the Band". Metal Sludge. Archived from the original on 10 February 2001. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "20 Questions with Ex-Great White Drummer Audie Desbrow". Metal Sludge. 26 September 2000. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- Great White Shark Attacks On Humans Caught. YouTube. 26 April 2014. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015.
- McNeice, AJ (2002). "Interview with Jack Russell". MelodicRock.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "This Day in Rock History for November 5". Gods Of Rock.com. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "Great White 9/3/2003 Interview at www.1heavymetal.com". Web.archive.org. 11 October 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-10-11. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Former Great White Duo Announce Additional Dates". Blabbermouth.net. Roadrunner Records. 28 November 2002. Archived from the original on 8 July 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- Tucker, Eric (2 September 2008). "Great White offers $1M to settle fatal fire suit". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
The band does not admit any wrongdoing as part of the settlement, which requires the approval of the more than 300 people suing, among other conditions. [...] Biechele is covered under the settlement, as are lead singer Jack Russell and other members of the band at the time of the fire. The settlement also covers the record label, manager and management company of the band at the time of the fire. [...] Jack Russell's insurer is covering the settlement. The insurer has previously said that $1 million was the maximum amount of the band's insurance policy.
- Goodnough, Abby (17 February 2008). "5 Years After a Nightclub Fire, Survivors Struggle to Remake Their Lives". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
- "No Pyrotechnic Mention In Great White's Rider". The Smoking Gun. 21 February 2003. Archived from the original on 26 March 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "2002 November » The Official Great White Website - Mistabone.com". Archived from the original on 25 April 2010.
- "Great White Play First Full Show Since Rhode Island Tragedy". Blabbermouth.net. Roadrunner Records. 23 July 2003. Archived from the original on 8 July 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "Great White Cancel Tour". Blabbermouth.net. Roadrunner Records. 31 August 2005. Archived from the original on 8 July 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- Steffens, Charlie (3 February 2007). "Chasing His Demons: An interview with Jack Russell of Great White". KNAC. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "Great White Frontman Gets Great New Look". ExtraTV. 24 May 2006. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "Jack Russell (Great White) interview". Metal Express Radio. April 2004. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- Lafon, Mitch (14 May 2006). "Great White Frontman Jack Russell – "It's Our 25th Anniversary Next Year And I'm Trying To Pull The Original Guys Back Together Again"". Brave Words & Bloody Knuckles. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "Great White 3 Years After the Club Fire". Sleaze Roxx. 29 September 2006. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- Great White News and Interviews Archived 19 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- Sharpe-Young, Garry (2009). "Great White". MusicMight. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "GREAT WHITE: 'Rising' North American Release Date Announced". BLABBERMOUTH.NET. 2009-03-26. Archived from the original on 2018-05-11. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- "Singer JACK RUSSELL Launches New Version Of GREAT WHITE". Blabbermouth.net. 12 December 2011. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- "OFFICIAL STATEMENT REGARDING JACK RUSSELL ANNOUNCEMENT". greatwhiterocks.com. 12 December 2011. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
- "GREAT WHITE To Release New Studio Album In May". legacy.roadrunnerrecords.com. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Original GREAT WHITE Bassist LORNE BLACK Dies – Blabbermouth". Blabbermouth.net. 2013-09-28. Archived from the original on 2014-04-22. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- "GREAT WHITE Guitarist Michael Lardie – "We're Hoping To Get Into The Studio In February Or March To At Least Flesh Out Some Ideas"". Bravewords.com. 2015-11-18. Archived from the original on 2015-11-20. Retrieved 2015-11-18.
- "GREAT WHITE's MARK KENDALL Talks Next Studio Album, Upcoming Concert DVD/Blu-Ray". Blabbermouth.net. 2016-10-05. Archived from the original on 2016-10-07. Retrieved 2016-10-05.
- "Glitter2Gutter". Glitter2gutter.blogspot.com. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- "JACK RUSSELLS GREAT WHITE SIGNS WITH FRONTIERS MUSIC – Eddie Trunk". Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- bravewords.com. "Jack Russell's GREAT WHITE Debut New Single "Blame It On The Night"; Audio Streaming". Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "New Song Premiere: JACK RUSSELL'S GREAT WHITE's 'She Moves Me'". blabbermouth.net. 14 December 2016. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016.
- "New Song Premiere: JACK RUSSELL'S GREAT WHITE's 'Love Don't Live Here'". 5 January 2017. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "Watch Jack Russell's Great White's New Video for 'Sign of the Times': Exclusive Premiere". Ultimate Classic Rock. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "Interview: Jack Russell discusses new Jack Russell's Great White album, 'He Saw it Comin'". Archived from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "Rockingham 2017 lineup". Rockingham. Rockingham 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
- "JACK RUSSELL'S GREAT WHITE To Celebrate 30th Anniversary Of 'Once Bitten' With U.S. Tour, Acoustic Album". Blabbermouth.net. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- Blabbermouth (2020-07-11). "GREAT WHITE Plays Concert In North Dakota With No Restrictions In Place: No Social Distancing, No Masks (Video)". BLABBERMOUTH.NET. Retrieved 2020-07-15.
- Willman, Chris; Willman, Chris (2020-07-12). "Packed, Maskless Great White Show Reminds Social Media of Band's Tragic Concert Past". Variety. Retrieved 2020-07-15.