Great dirhombicosidodecahedron

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Great dirhombicosidodecahedron
Great dirhombicosidodecahedron.png
Type Uniform star polyhedron
Elements F = 124, E = 240
V = 60 (χ = −56)
Faces by sides 40{3}+60{4}+24{5/2}
Wythoff symbol |3/2 5/3 3 5/2
Symmetry group Ih, [5,3], *532
Index references U75, C92, W119
Dual polyhedron Great dirhombicosidodecacron
Vertex figure Great dirhombicosidodecahedron vertfig.png
Bowers acronym Gidrid

In geometry, the great dirhombicosidodecahedron (or great snub disicosidisdodecahedron) is a nonconvex uniform polyhedron, indexed last as U75.

This is the only non-degenerate uniform polyhedron with more than six faces meeting at a vertex. Each vertex has 4 squares which pass through the vertex central axis (and thus through the centre of the figure), alternating with two triangles and two pentagrams. Another unusual feature is that the faces all occur in coplanar pairs.

This is also the only uniform polyhedron that cannot be made by the Wythoff construction from a spherical triangle. It has a special Wythoff symbol | 3/2 5/3 3 5/2 relating it to a spherical quadrilateral. This symbol suggests that it is a sort of snub polyhedron, except that instead of the non-snub faces being surrounded by snub triangles as in most snub polyhedra, they are surrounded by snub squares.

It has been nicknamed "Miller's monster" (after J. C. P. Miller, who with H. S. M. Coxeter and M. S. Longuet-Higgins enumerated the uniform polyhedra in 1954).

Related polyhedra[edit]

If the definition of a uniform polyhedron is relaxed to allow any even number of faces adjacent to an edge, then this definition gives rise to one further polyhedron: the great disnub dirhombidodecahedron which has the same vertices and edges but with a different arrangement of triangular faces.

The vertices and edges are also shared with the uniform compounds of 20 octahedra or 20 tetrahemihexahedra. 180 of the 240 edges are shared with the great snub dodecicosidodecahedron.

Convex hull
Great snub dodecicosidodecahedron.png
Great snub dodecicosidodecahedron
Great dirhombicosidodecahedron.png
Great dirhombicosidodecahedron
Great disnub dirhombidodecahedron.png
Great disnub dirhombidodecahedron
UC14-20 octahedra.png
Compound of twenty octahedra
UC19-20 tetrahemihexahedron.png
Compound of twenty tetrahemihexahedra

Cartesian coordinates[edit]

Cartesian coordinates for the vertices of a great dirhombicosidodecahedron are all the even permutations of

(0, ±2/τ, ±2/τ)
(±(−1+1/τ3), ±(1/τ2−1/τ), ±(1/τ+τ))
(±(−1/τ+τ), ±(−1−1/τ3, ±(1/τ2+1/τ))

where τ = (1+5)/2 is the golden ratio (sometimes written φ). These vertices result in an edge length of 22.


There is some controversy on how to colour the faces of this polyhedron. Although the common way to fill in a polygon is to just colour its whole interior, this can result in some filled regions hanging as membranes over empty space. Hence, the "neo filling" is sometimes used instead as a more accurate filling. In the neo filling, orientable polyhedra are filled traditionally, but non-orientable polyhedra have their faces filled with the modulo-2 method (only odd-density regions are filled in). In addition, overlapping regions of coplanar faces can cancel each other out. Usage of the "neo filling" makes the great dirhombicosidodecahedron a hollow polyhedron.[1]

Great dirhombicosidodecahedron.png
Traditional filling
Great dirhombicosidodecahedron 2.png
"Neo filling"
Great dirhombicosidodecahedron interior.png
Interior view, "neo filling"


  • Coxeter, Harold Scott MacDonald; Longuet-Higgins, M. S.; Miller, J. C. P. (1954), "Uniform polyhedra", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 246: 401–450, doi:10.1098/rsta.1954.0003, ISSN 0080-4614, JSTOR 91532, MR 0062446
  • Wenninger, Magnus (1974). Polyhedron Models. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09859-9. OCLC 1738087.
  • Har'El, Z. Uniform Solution for Uniform Polyhedra., Geometriae Dedicata 47, 57-110, 1993. Zvi Har’El, Kaleido software, Images, dual images
  • Mäder, R. E. Uniform Polyhedra. Mathematica J. 3, 48-57, 1993.
  • Klitzing, Richard. "3D uniform polyhedra".

External links[edit]