Jump to content

Greater Los Angeles

Coordinates: 34°00′N 118°12′W / 34.0°N 118.2°W / 34.0; -118.2
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles–Long Beach, CA CSA
  Urban areas
  Counties in the Los Angeles MSA
  Counties in the Los Angeles CSA but not the MSA
Coordinates: 34°00′N 118°12′W / 34.0°N 118.2°W / 34.0; -118.2
CountryUnited States
Principal cityLos Angeles
Other major cities
 • Urban2,281.0 sq mi (5,907.8 km2)
 • Metro
33,954 sq mi (87,940 km2)
Highest elevation
11,503 ft (3,507 m)
Lowest elevation
0 ft (0 m)
 • Megacity and combined statistical area18,422,600
 • Density541.1/sq mi (208.9/km2)
 Ranked 2nd in the US
 • Megacity and combined statistical area$1.528 trillion (2022)
Time zoneUTC−8 (PST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (PDT)
Area codes213/323, 310/424, 562, 626, 661, 714/657, 760/442, 805/820, 818/747, 909/840, 949, 951
Los Angeles Metropolitan Area
Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, CA MSA
Map of Los Angeles Metropolitan Area
Coordinates: 34°03′N 118°15′W / 34.05°N 118.25°W / 34.05; -118.25
CountryUnited States
Largest cityLos Angeles
 • Total4,850.3 sq mi (12,562 km2)
Highest elevation
Mount San Antonio 10,064 ft (3,069 m)
Lowest elevation
Wilmington −9 ft (−3 m)
 • Total12,872,322
 • Rank2nd in the U.S.
 • Density2,654/sq mi (1,025/km2)
 • Total$1.227 trillion (2022)
Time zoneUTC–8 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST)UTC–7 (PDT)
Los Angeles Metropolitan Area by Sentinel-2, ESA

Greater Los Angeles is the most populous metropolitan area in the U.S. state of California, encompassing five counties in Southern California extending from Ventura County in the west to San Bernardino County and Riverside County in the east, with Los Angeles County in the center, and Orange County to the southeast. The Los Angeles–Anaheim–Riverside combined statistical area (CSA) covers 33,954 square miles (87,940 km2), making it the largest metropolitan region in the United States by land area. The contiguous urban area is 2,281 square miles (5,910 km2),[1] whereas the remainder mostly consists of mountain and desert areas. With a population of 18.4 million in 2024,[2] it is the second-largest metropolitan area in the country, behind New York, as well as one of the largest megacities in the world.[6]

In addition to being the nexus of the global entertainment industry, including films, television, and recorded music, Greater Los Angeles is also an important center of international trade, education, media, business, tourism, technology, and sports.[7] It is the third-largest metropolitan area by nominal GDP in the world with an economy exceeding $1 trillion in output, behind New York City and Tokyo.

There are three contiguous component urban areas in Greater Los Angeles: the Inland Empire, which can be broadly defined as Riverside and San Bernardino counties; the Ventura/Oxnard metropolitan area (Ventura County); and the Los Angeles metropolitan area (also known as Metropolitan Los Angeles or Metro LA) consisting of Los Angeles and Orange counties only. The Census Bureau designates the latter as the Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim metropolitan statistical area (MSA), the fourth largest metropolitan area in the western hemisphere and the second-largest metropolitan area in the United States, by population of 13 million as of the 2020 U.S. census. It has a total area of 4,850 square miles (12,561 km2). Although San Diego–Tijuana borders the Greater Los Angeles area at San Clemente and Temecula, it is not part of it as the two urban areas are not geographically contiguous due to the presence of Camp Pendleton. However, both form part of the Southern California Megalopolis which extends into Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Throughout the 20th century, Greater Los Angeles was one of the fastest-growing regions in the United States, but growth has slowed since 2000.


The Los Angeles–Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.
  Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, CA MSA
  Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario, CA MSA
  Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura, CA MSA
Area (km2) Population (2024) GDP
(million US$)
Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, CA (MSA) 12,580 12,974,926[8] 1,227,469[3]
Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario, CA (MSA) 70,610 4,623,811[8] 237,913[4]
Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura, CA (MSA) 4,770 823,863[8] 62,239[5]
Los Angeles–Long Beach, CA CSA 87,960 18,422,600 1,527,621

Los Angeles metropolitan area


The Los Angeles metropolitan area is defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget as the Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA),[9] with a 2021 population of 12,997,353.[8] The MSA is in turn made up of two "metropolitan divisions":

  • Los Angeles–Long Beach–Glendale, CA Metropolitan Division, coterminous with Los Angeles County (2021 population 9,829,544)
  • Anaheim–Santa Ana–Irvine, CA Metropolitan Division, coterminous with Orange County (2021 population 3,167,809)

The MSA is the most populous metropolitan area in the Western United States and second-most populous in the United States. It has at its core the Los AngelesLong BeachAnaheim urban area, which had a population of 12,237,376 as of the 2020 census.[10]

Greater Los Angeles


The U.S. Census Bureau also defines a wider commercial region based on commuting patterns, the Los Angeles–Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area (CSA), more commonly known as the Greater Los Angeles Area, with an estimated population of 18,422,600 in 2024.[8] The total land area of the CSA is 33,955 sq. mi (87,945 km2).

The CSA consists of three component metropolitan areas:



Nearly all of the metropolitan area of Greater Los Angeles is located within the homelands of the Tongva, otherwise referred to as Tovaangar.[11][12]



Urban form

Many areas are completely filled with houses, buildings, roads, and freeways as observed in Vermont Vista, a Los Angeles neighborhood.

Los Angeles has long been famous for its sprawl, but this has to do more with its status in history as the "poster child" of large cities that grew up with suburban-style patterns of development, rather than how it ranks in sprawl among American metro areas today, now that suburban and exurban-style development is present across the country.[13] The Los Angeles–Orange County metro area was the most densely populated "urbanized area" (as defined by the United States Census Bureau) in the United States in 2000, with 7,068 inhabitants per square mile (2,729/km2).[14] For comparison, the "New York–Newark" Urbanized Area had a population density of 5,309 per square mile (2,050/km2).

Los Angeles' reputation for sprawl is due to the fact that the city grew from relative obscurity to one of the country's ten largest cities (i.e. 10th largest city in 1920), at a time when suburban patterns of growth first became possible due to electric streetcars and automobiles. The city was also the first large American city where, in the 1920s, major clusters of regional employment, shopping, and culture were already being built outside the traditional downtown areas – in edge cities such as Mid-Wilshire, Miracle Mile and Hollywood. This pattern of growth continued ever outward, more so when the freeway system was built starting in the 1950s; thus Greater Los Angeles was the earliest large American metropolitan area with a decentralized structure. Its major commercial, financial, and cultural institutions are geographically dispersed rather than being concentrated in a single downtown or central area. Also, the population density of Los Angeles proper is low (approximately 8,300 people per square mile) when compared to some other large American cities such as New York City (27,500), San Francisco (17,000), Boston (13,300), and Chicago (11,800).[15] Densities are particularly high within a 5-mile radius of downtown, where some neighborhoods exceed 20,000 people per square mile.[16] What gives the entire Los Angeles metro region a high density is the fact that many of the city's suburbs and satellite cities have high density rates.[17] Within its urbanized areas, Los Angeles is noted for having small lot sizes and low-rise buildings. Buildings in the area are low when compared to other large cities, mainly due to zoning regulations. Los Angeles became a major city just as the Pacific Electric Railway spread population to smaller cities much as interurbans did in East Coast cities. In the first decades of the twentieth century, the area was marked by a network of fairly dense but separate cities linked by rail. The ascendance of the automobile helped fill in the gaps between these commuter towns with lower-density settlements.[18]

Starting in the early twentieth century, there was a large growth in population on the western edges of the city moving to the San Fernando Valley and out into the Conejo Valley in eastern Ventura County. Many working-class whites migrated to this area during the 1960s and 1970s out of East and Central Los Angeles.[19] As a result, there was a large growth in population into the Conejo Valley and into Ventura County through the US 101 corridor. Making the US 101 a full freeway in the 1960s and expansions that followed helped make commuting to Los Angeles easier and opened the way for development westward. Development in Ventura County and along the US 101 corridor remains controversial, with open-space advocates battling those who feel business development is necessary to economic growth.[20] Although the area still has abundant amount of open space and land, almost all of it was put aside and mandated never to be developed as part of the master plan of each city. Because of this, the area which was once a relatively inexpensive area to buy real estate, saw rising real estate prices well into the 2000s.[21] Median home prices in the Conejo Valley for instance, ranged from $700,000 to $2.2 million in 2003.[22] According to Forbes, "it's nearly impossible" to find reasonably priced real estate in California, and the prices will continue to increase.[23]

The Los Angeles area continues to grow, principally on the periphery where new, cheaper, undeveloped areas are being sought.[24] As such, in these areas, populations as well as housing prices exploded, although the housing bubble popped late in the decade of the 2000s. Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, which contain large swaths of desert, attracted most of the population increase between 2000 and 2006. Growth continues not only outside the existing urbanized area but also adjacent to existing development in the central areas.[25] As in virtually all US core cities, there is now vigorous residential development in the downtown area with both new buildings and renovation of former office buildings. The Los Angeles Downtown News keeps a list of ongoing development projects, updated every quarter.[26] Over the course of the 21st century, droughts and wildfires have increased in frequency and the region's water security has become a development issue.[27]

Downtown Los Angeles

Major business districts and edge cities


Greater Los Angeles has numerous traditional downtowns or central business districts, the largest being Downtown Los Angeles. Other important ones are Downtown Long Beach, downtown Pasadena, downtown Glendale, and downtown Burbank, and – with their county, state and federal government facilities – Downtown Santa Ana, Downtown Anaheim, Downtown Riverside, Downtown San Bernardino, downtown Irvine, and downtown Ontario.

However, most of the commercial activity (office space, retail, hotels, entertainment) is found outside traditional downtowns, among the suburban-style development in clusters known as edge cities. In fact, the Los Angeles area is considered the classic example of a metropolitan area that developed in this pattern, because it did so early in history, starting in the 1920s, and was the city to enter into the top ten of American cities while growing in this pattern.[28]



Employment is not only in the downtown area, but consistently occurs outside the central core. As such, many people commute throughout the city and suburbs in various directions for their work and daily activities, with a large portion heading to the municipalities that are outside the city of Los Angeles.[29]

Unlike most metropolitan areas, regional identity remains a contentious issue in the Greater Los Angeles area, with many residents not acknowledging any association with the region as a whole. For example, while Los Angeles County and Orange County together make up the smaller MSA region, the two host many sub-areas that each have sharp demographic, political, and financial distinctions. South Orange County residents often attempt to be identified apart from Los Angeles although they make up the same metropolitan area. Also, while only 1.63% of Los Angeles residents commute to Orange County for work, over 6% of Orange County commuters head to Los Angeles for work.[30] Western Riverside County and San Bernardino County have become commuter regions characteristic of other suburban counties throughout the nation. Residents in these counties often commute to Los Angeles County and Orange County for employment.[31]

Component counties, subregions, and cities

Los Angeles Basin at dawn

Los Angeles County


Los Angeles County, of which the City of Los Angeles is the county seat, is the most populous county in the United States and is home to over a quarter of all California residents.[32] The large size of the city of Los Angeles, as well as its history of annexing smaller towns, has made city boundaries in the central area of Los Angeles County quite complicated.[33] Many cities are completely surrounded by the city of Los Angeles and are often included in the city's areas despite being independent municipalities. For example, Santa Monica and Beverly Hills (which is almost completely surrounded by Los Angeles) are considered part of the Westside, while Hawthorne and Inglewood are associated with South L.A. Adjacent areas that are outside the actual city boundaries of incorporated Los Angeles but border the city itself include the Santa Clarita Valley, the San Gabriel Valley, South Bay, and the Gateway Cities.

Despite the large footprint of the city of Los Angeles, a majority of the land area within Los Angeles County is unincorporated and under the primary jurisdiction of Los Angeles County. Much of this land, however, cannot be easily developed due to planning challenges presented by geographic features such as the Santa Monica Mountains, the San Gabriel Mountains, and the Mojave Desert. Actual land development in these regions occurs on the fringes of incorporated cities, some of which have been fully developed, such as the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster.

Subregions in Los Angeles County


While there is not an official designation for the regions that comprise Greater Los Angeles, one authority, the Los Angeles Times, divides the area into the following regions:[34]

Some of the above areas can be defined as being bounded by natural features such as mountains or the ocean; others are marked by city boundaries, freeways, or other constructed landmarks. For example, Downtown Los Angeles is the area of Los Angeles roughly enclosed by three freeways and one river: the Harbor Freeway (SR 110) to the west, the Santa Ana Freeway (US 101) to the north, the Los Angeles River to the east, and the Santa Monica Freeway (I-10) to the south.[35] Meanwhile, the San Fernando Valley ("The Valley") is defined as the basin consisting of the part of Los Angeles and its suburbs that lie north-northwest of downtown and is ringed by mountains.[36]

Edge cities in Los Angeles County

Central and Western area
San Fernando Valley
Elsewhere in Los Angeles County

Cities in Los Angeles County


With a population of nearly 3.9 million people at the 2020 census, the City of Los Angeles is the second most populous city in the United States after New York City, and is the focal point of the Greater Los Angeles Area.[37] As an international center for finance, entertainment, media, culture, education, tourism, and science, Los Angeles is considered one of the world's most powerful and influential global cities.[38]

List of the 88 cities of Los Angeles County and six large CDPs by population at the 2020 U.S. census:

Orange County

Aerial view of Newport Beach in Orange County

Orange County was originally an agricultural area dependent on citrus crops, avocados, and oil extraction, and became a bedroom community for Los Angeles when I–5, the Santa Ana Freeway, linked it to the city in the 1950s. The growth of Los Angeles initially fueled population growth in Orange County, but by the 1970s it had become an important economic center in its own right, with tourism and electronics industries, among others. Today, Orange County is known for its tourist attractions, such as Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, its several pristine beaches and coastline, and its wealthier areas, featured in television shows such as The O.C. None of the original downtowns serves as the central urban core for the county, but there are important clusters of business and culture in Downtown Santa Ana and in three edge cities: the Anaheim–Santa Ana edge city from Disneyland to the Orange Crush interchange (Orange, Santa Ana), the South Coast Plaza–John Wayne Airport edge city (Santa Ana, Costa Mesa, Irvine), and Irvine's Spectrum edge city.

Population of Los Angeles and Orange Counties since 1890

Orange County is sometimes figuratively divided into "North County" and "South County", with North Orange County including cities such as Anaheim, Fullerton, and Santa Ana, and is the older, more ethnically diverse and more densely built-up area closer to Los Angeles. South County, defined variously as beginning with either Costa Mesa[39] or Irvine[40] and includes cities to the east and south such as Laguna Beach, Mission Viejo, Newport Beach, and San Clemente, is more residential, affluent, recently developed, and has a mostly white population. Irvine is an exception, as it is a center of employment and is ethnically diverse. A growing alternative dividing marker between north and south is the El Toro Y interchange. Orange Coast or South Coast area is defined instead as consisting of some or all of the cities lining the coast.

Subregions in Orange County


Edge cities in Orange County


Cities in Orange County


List of the 34 cities in Orange County by population at the 2020 census:

Inland Empire

San Bernardino Valley

The Inland Empire, consisting of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, contains fast-growing suburbs of the region, with a large to majority percentage of the working population commuting to either Los Angeles or Orange Counties for work. Originally an important center for citrus production, the region became an important industrial area by the early 20th century.[41][42][43] The Inland Empire also became a key transportation center following the completion of Route 66, and later Interstate 10. With the post-World War II economic boom leading to rapid development in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, land developers bulldozed acres of agricultural land to build suburbs in order to accommodate the Los Angeles area's expanding population.[41] The development of a regional freeway system facilitated the expansion of suburbs and human migration linking the Inland Empire and rest of Greater Los Angeles. Despite being primarily suburban, the Inland Empire is also home to important warehousing, shipping, logistics and retail industries, centered on the subregion's major cities of Riverside, San Bernardino and Ontario.

While the Inland Empire is sometimes defined as the entirety of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, the eastern undeveloped, desert portions of these counties are not considered to be part of Greater Los Angeles. The state of California defines this area to include the cities of Adelanto, Apple Valley, and Victorville to the north, the Riverside–San Diego county line to the south, and the towns of Anza, Idyllwild, and Lucerne Valley, along with the San Bernardino National Forest to the east.[44]

Additionally, the southwest portion of Riverside County, centered on the city of Temecula is more economically linked to San Diego county, with its growth largely being driven by migrants from San Diego seeking more affordable housing similar to how northwestern Riverside county's growth was driven by migrants from Orange County and Los Angeles seeking more affordable housing.[45][46]

However, with clear northern and southern limits to expansion, the region's urban eastern boundaries have become increasingly nebulous as suburban sprawl continues to spread out to form a unified whole with Los Angeles, with further development encroaching past the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains and into the outlying desert areas. As a result, the regional definition of Greater Los Angeles can now be extended to include Barstow and surrounding towns in the northeast, the Morongo Basin in the east-central including Yucca Valley and Twentynine Palms, and the Coachella Valley cities in the southeast. This interconnectivity, provided by one of the most extensive freeway systems in the world, as well as economic, social and media ties, has blended boundaries between these regions and the urbanized Los Angeles and Inland Empire areas.[47]

Subregions in the Inland Empire


Edge cities in the Inland Empire


Cities in Riverside County


List of the 28 cities of Riverside County by population at the 2020 U.S. census:

Cities and towns in San Bernardino County


List of the 24 cities and incorporated towns of San Bernardino County by population at the 2020 U.S. census:

Sparsely populated areas in the Inland Empire


While the above areas are included in the regional definition of Greater Los Angeles, the U.S. Census Bureau defines Greater Los Angeles, or officially, the Los Angeles–Long Beach Combined Statistical Area, to include both the above-mentioned areas along with the entirety of San Bernardino and Riverside counties.[48] These areas are sparsely developed and are part of the Mojave and Colorado Deserts. To the north, Interstate 15 crosses desolate desert landscape after passing Barstow, linking Greater Los Angeles with Las Vegas, with Baker being the only significant outpost along the route. To the east, lie the Mojave National Preserve and Joshua Tree National Park along with the towns of Needles and Blythe on the California-Arizona border.

Ventura County

The Ventura coast

Ventura County is mostly suburban and rural and also has developed primarily through the growth of Los Angeles. Central and southern Ventura County formerly consisted of small towns along the Pacific Coast until the expansion of U.S. Route 101 drew in commuters from the San Fernando Valley. Master-planned cities soon began developing, and the county became increasingly urbanized. The northern part of the county, however, remains largely undeveloped and is mostly within the Los Padres National Forest.

Subregions in Ventura County


Edge cities in Ventura County

  • Ventura/Coastal Plain (emerging edge city as of 1991)[28]

Cities in Ventura County


List of the 10 cities of Ventura County by population at the 2020 U.S. census:

Urban areas within

Urban areas within the Los Angeles combined statistical area as of the 2020 census. (Far eastern portions of Riverside and San Bernardino counties are cropped out).
  Urban areas
  Counties in the Los Angeles MSA
  Counties in the Los Angeles CSA but not the MSA

At the core of the Los Angeles–Long Beach combined statistical area (CSA) lies the Los Angeles–Long BeachAnaheim, CA urban area, the second most populous in the United States.[10] Within the boundaries of the CSA the Census Bureau defines 30 other urban areas as well, two of which (RiversideSan Bernardino and OxnardVentura) form the core of their own metropolitan areas separate from the Los Angeles metropolitan statistical area. Urban areas situated primarily outside the Los Angeles metropolitan statistical area but within the CSA are identified with a cross (†) in the table below.

Urban area Population
(2020 census)
Land area
(sq mi)
Land area
(population / sq mi)
(population / km2)
Los AngelesLong BeachAnaheim, CA 12,237,376 1,636.83 4,239.36 7,476.28 2,886.61
RiversideSan Bernardino, CA † 2,276,703 608.56 1,576.17 3,741.10 1,444.45
Mission ViejoLake ForestLaguna Niguel, CA 646,843 163.63 423.81 3,953.02 1,526.27
TemeculaMurrietaMenifee, CA † 528,991 150.47 389.73 3,515.49 1,357.34
OxnardSan Buenaventura (Ventura), CA † 376,117 76.61 198.41 4,909.70 1,895.65
IndioPalm DesertPalm Springs, CA † 361,075 151.82 393.22 2,378.26 918.25
PalmdaleLancaster, CA 359,559 84.78 219.59 4,240.90 1,637.42
VictorvilleHesperiaApple Valley, CA † 355,816 131.77 341.29 2,700.19 1,042.55
Santa Clarita, CA 278,031 77.85 201.62 3,571.56 1,378.99
Thousand Oaks, CA † 213,986 80.20 207.71 2,668.26 1,030.22
Hemet, CA † 173,194 37.06 95.98 4,673.61 1,804.49
Simi Valley, CA † 127,364 31.63 81.91 4,027.01 1,554.84
Camarillo, CA † 76,338 22.48 58.22 3,395.98 1,311.19
Desert Hot Springs, CA † 45,767 14.08 36.47 3,250.66 1,255.09
Santa Paula, CA † 30,675 4.96 12.86 6,179.04 2,385.74
Barstow, CA † 30,522 12.38 32.07 2,465.05 951.76
CrestlineLake Arrowhead, CA † 22,272 16.85 43.64 1,321.70 510.31
Yucca Valley, CA † 18,293 11.33 29.36 1,613.95 623.15
Big Bear, CA † 16,498 15.93 41.26 1,035.73 399.90
Fillmore, CA † 16,397 2.63 6.82 6,227.80 2,404.57
Twentynine Palms, CA † 12,881 6.82 17.66 1,889.13 729.40
Blythe, CA–AZ † 11,780 6.20 16.06 1,899.83 733.53
Twentynine Palms North, CA † 11,665 2.77 7.18 4,206.03 1,623.96
Fort Irwin, CA † 8,096 3.62 9.37 2,238.42 864.26
Mecca, CA † 6,875 0.63 1.62 10,979.30 4,239.13
Needles, CA–AZ † 6,739 5.55 14.38 1,213.99 468.73
Silver Lakes, CA † 5,908 2.12 5.49 2,789.52 1,077.04
Running Springs, CA † 5,313 3.64 9.44 1,458.40 563.09
Joshua Tree, CA † 4,370 3.80 9.85 1,149.11 443.67
Wrightwood, CA † 3,927 1.38 3.59 2,835.51 1,094.80
Avalon, CA 3,362 1.19 3.08 2,826.47 1,091.31
Central Los Angeles and the Westside, as viewed from the Getty Center in the Santa Monica Mountains. San Gabriel Mountains at back left, Downtown Los Angeles skyline at center-left, Century City and Westwood in the foreground and to their right, the 405 Freeway. The Brentwood skyline, the hills of the Palos Verdes Peninsula at back right and the Pacific Ocean at far right.


Historical population
Greater Los Angeles CSA
(Five-county area)
2023 (est.)18,422,600−1.2%
U.S. Census Bureau[49]

According to the 2020 census, there were 18,644,680 people living in the Greater Los Angeles Area. The racial makeup of the area was 29.4% White (23.0% Non-Hispanic European and 6.4% Non-Hispanic Middle Eastern), 13.8% Asian (Non-Hispanic), 0.2% Pacific Islander (Non-Hispanic), 6.1% African American (Non-Hispanic), 0.2% Native American (Non-Hispanic), 0.5% from other races (Non-Hispanic), and 3.3% from two or more races (Non-Hispanic). 46.3% of the population were Hispanic of any race, a super-majority of which was of Mexican origin.[50] 29.4% of the population (5.5 million) was foreign born; most immigrants came from Latin America and Asia.[51]

The explosive growth of the region in the 20th century can be attributed to its favorable Mediterranean climate, the availability of land and many booming industries such as oil, automobile and rubber, motion pictures, intermodal, logistics, and aerospace which in turn attracted millions of people from all over the United States and world.[citation needed] Citrus production was important to the region's development in the earlier part of the 20th century.[52]

Ethnic origins in LA CSA (5 counties)

While the New York metropolitan area is presently the most populous metropolitan area in the United States, it has been predicted in the past that Greater Los Angeles will eventually surpass Greater New York in population.[citation needed] Whether this will happen is yet to be seen, but past predictions on this event have been off the mark. A 1966 article in Time predicted Greater Los Angeles would surpass New York by 1975, and that by 1990, would reach close to the 19 million mark.[53] But the article's flawed definition of Greater Los Angeles included San Diego, which is actually its own metropolitan area. A 1989 article in The New York Times predicted Greater Los Angeles would surpass Greater New York by 2010,[54] but the article predicted the population would be 18.3 million in that year, a number Greater New York already surpassed in 2007 by half a million people. By 2009, the New York metropolitan area had a population of 22.2 million compared to the Greater Los Angeles Area's 18.7 million, about a 3.56 million persons difference.[55] Percentage growth, however, has been higher in Greater Los Angeles over the past few decades than in Greater New York.

Demographics of Los Angeles and Orange counties

County 2021 Estimate 2020 Census Change Area Density
Los Angeles County 9,829,544 10,014,009 −1.84% 4,057.88 sq mi (10,509.9 km2) 2,422/sq mi (935/km2)
Orange County 3,167,809 3,186,989 −0.60% 790.57 sq mi (2,047.6 km2) 4,007/sq mi (1,547/km2)
Total 12,997,353 13,200,998 −1.54% 4,848.45 sq mi (12,557.4 km2) 2,681/sq mi (1,035/km2)
Historical population
Los Angeles MSA
(Los Angeles and Orange Counties)
2023 (est.)12,799,100−3.0%
State Census data [56]

Age and gender


According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area had a population of 12,874,797, of which 6,402,498 (49.7% of the population) were male and 6,472,299 (50.3% of the population) were female. The age composition is shown in the table at right.

Age distribution
Los Angeles and
Orange Counties, 2009
Age % of pop.
Under 5 7.3%
5 to 9 6.6%
10 to 14 7.0%
15 to 19 7.2%
20 to 24 7.0%
25 to 34 15.5%
35 to 44 14.8%
45 to 54 13.9%
55 to 59 5.5%
60 to 64 4.4%
65 to 74 5.6%
75 to 84 3.6%
85 and over 1.6%
Median age 34.6

Median age: 34.6 years



According to the 2020 census, there were 18,644,680 people living in the Greater Los Angeles Area. The racial makeup of the area was 29.4% White (23.0% Non-Hispanic European and 6.4% Non-Hispanic Middle Eastern), 13.8% Asian (Non-Hispanic), 0.2% Pacific Islander (Non-Hispanic), 6.1% African American (Non-Hispanic), 0.2% Native American (Non-Hispanic), 0.5% from other races (Non-Hispanic), and 3.3% from two or more races (Non-Hispanic). 46.3% of the population were Hispanic of any race, a super-majority of which was of Mexican origin.[50]

Ethnic origins in LA and Orange Counties

Non-Hispanic whites make up under one-third (29.4%) of the population, approximately 5,477,462 residents. The top European ancestries were German: 7.0% (1,301,202), English: 6.1% (1,131,426), Irish: 5.4% (1,002,233), Italian: 3.4% (624,585), Scandinavian: 2.2% (405,887), French: 1.5% (284,180), Scottish: 1.4% (264,429), Polish: 1.2% (224,443), and Russian: 1.0% (189,115). The top Middle Eastern ancestries were Jewish: 3.2% (600,000), Armenian: 1.2% (214.190), Arab: 0.98% (182,934), and Iranian: 0.75% (139,632). Additionally, 3.3% (611,193) of residents identified as simply American. Values may add to over 100% because people can identify with more than one ethnicity.

Approximately 2,577,706 residents are Asian of non-Hispanic origin. Asians of non-Hispanic origin make up 13.8% of the population, about 1.4% South Asian (Indian Subcontinent), and about 12.4% were East or Southeast Asian. The six largest Asian ancestries with respect to all of Greater LA's population were Chinese: ~ 6.1% , Filipino: ~ 3.1%, Vietnamese: ~ 2.0%, Korean ~ 1.9%, Indian ~ 1.1% , and Japanese ~ 0.8%. Other important Asian American groups include Cambodian, Laotian, Hmong, Taiwanese, Pakistani, and Thai Americans.

Non-Hispanic blacks make up 6.1% of the population. Approximately 1,143,781 residents are non-Hispanic blacks. Sub-Saharan Africans were 0.7% (137,443) and Non-Hispanic Caribbean Blacks were 0.3% (62,419).

Non-Hispanic Native Americans make up 0.2% of the population (46,143).

Non-Hispanic Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders make up 0.2% of the population. Approximately 42,591 residents are Native Hawaiian or of other Pacific Islander ancestries. The largest Pacific Islander ancestries were Samoan, Native Hawaiian, and Guamanian or Chamorro, and Tongan

Non-Hispanic Multiracial people make up 3.3% of the population. Approximately 624,473 people are non-Hispanic multiracial.

People who listed "other" as their race made up 0.5% (102,434) of the population.

Source: data.census.gov. Retrieved on April 15, 2023.[57]

Hispanic or Latino origin


Hispanic or Latinos, who may be of any race, are by far the largest group; Hispanics or Latinos make up 46.3% of the population. They outnumber every other racial group. Approximately 8,630,090 residents are Hispanic or Latino. The largest Hispanic or Latino ancestry was by far Mexican, with other important groups being Salvadoran, Guatemalan, Honduran, Peruvian, Puerto Rican, Colombian, and Cuban.

Ethnic enclaves


Ethnic enclaves like Chinatown, the Byzantine-Latino Quarter, Historic Filipinotown, Little Saigon, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Little Bangladesh, Little Moscow (in Hollywood), Little Tokyo, Croatian Place and Via Italia in San Pedro, several Koreatowns, Tehrangeles in West Los Angeles, the Chinese enclaves in the San Gabriel Valley and Thai Town provide examples of the polyglot multicultural character of Los Angeles. Below is a list of many ethnic enclaves present in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

Ethnic Enclave Name Neighborhood Ethnicity Represented Official Recognition or Dedicated District
East Asian Ethnic Enclaves
Chinatown Chinatown, Los Angeles Chinese Americans, Taiwanese Americans, & Hong Kong Americans; as well as many other Asian Americans Yes, 1938
626/SGV Chinese enclaves in the San Gabriel Valley No
Cerritos, California No
Irvine, California & Tustin, California[58] No
Chino Hills, California & Eastvale, California No
Little Taipei Monterey Park, California No
Rowland Heights, & Hacienda Heights, California
Little Saigon Little Saigon, Orange County, Westminster, Garden Grove, & Fountain Valley, California Vietnamese Americans Yes, 1988
Koreatown Koreatown, Los Angeles Korean Americans Yes, 2008
Orange County Koreatown Koreatown, Garden Grove Yes, 2019
North Orange County Koreantown[59][60] Buena Park, Fullerton, & La Mirada Yes, 2023 [61]
Little Tokyo Little Tokyo, Los Angeles Japanese Americans Yes, 1995
Little Osaka/Sawtelle Japantown Sawtelle, Los Angeles Yes, 2015
Japan's 48th prefecture[62] Torrance, & Gardena, California No
Costa Mesa[63] No
Terminal Island Japanese Fishing Village Terminal Island[64] Historically Japanese Americans No
South East Asian Ethnic Enclaves
Filipinotown Historic Filipinotown, Los Angeles Filipino Americans Yes, 2002
Manilatown Downtown Riverside No
Little Manila Carson, California No
Panorama City, Eagle Rock, & Glendale No
West Covina No
Cerritos, California No
Rancho Cucamonga No
Westside Long Beach, California No
Thai Town Thai Town, Los Angeles Thai Americans Yes, October 27, 1999
Cambodia Town Cambodia Town, Long Beach, California Cambodian Americans Yes, 2007
South Asian Ethnic Enclaves
Little India Little India, Artesia, California Indian Americans Yes
Little Bangladesh Little Bangladesh, Los Angeles Bangladeshi Americans Yes, 2010
Middle Eastern Ethnic Enclaves
Little Armenia Little Armenia, Los Angeles Armenian Americans Yes, October 6, 2000
Arabia Street West Los Angeles Middle Eastern Americans No
Reseda, Los Angeles
Little Arabia Anaheim, California Egyptian American, Syrian American, Lebanese American, & Yemeni American Yes, August 24, 2022[65]
Little Gaza Palestinian American Pending
Tehrangeles or Little Persia Westwood, Los Angeles Iranian Americans No
Southern San Fernando Valley
Beverly Hills, California
Persian Square Near UCLA Yes, 2010[66]
Little Afghanistan Hollywood Afghan Americans No
Los Angeles Community Eruv Agoura Hills, Beverly Hills, Hancock Park, Pico-Robertson, West Hollywood, & Westwood Jewish American
North Valley Eruv Chatsworth, Granada Hills, North Hills, & Northridge
Valley Eruv North Hollywood, Valley Village, Van Nuys, Sherman Oaks, Sherman Village, and Panorama City
Woodland Hills/West Hills Eruv Woodland Hills/West Hills
Latin American/Caribbean Ethnic Enclaves
El Salvador Corridor Pico-Union, Los Angeles Salvadoran Americans Yes, August 2012
Guatemalan Americans, Honduran Americans, & other Central American groups No
Little Central America Westlake, Los Angeles & Harvard Heights, Los Angeles
Olvera Street El Pueblo de Los Ángeles Historical Monument Mexican Americans & Chicano Yes, 1877
Sonoratown Removed, 1732–1938
Mariachi Plaza East Los Angeles, California No
Gateway Cities No
El Monte, La Puente, Baldwin Park, West Covina, Covina, Irwindale, Azusa No
Santa Ana No
San Fernando No
Anaheim Colony District Anaheim, California No
Pomona and Ontario No
San Bernardino Valley San Bernardino, Colton, Fontana, Rialto, and Bloomington No
Moreno Valley and Perris No
Riverside, Corona, and Jurupa Valley No
Byzantine-Latino Quarter Byzantine-Latino Quarter, Los Angeles Mexican American, & Hispanic Caribbean American No
El Corredor Oaxaqueño Mid-City, Los Angeles Oaxacan Mexican Americans No
Little Brazil Culver City, California Brazilian Americans & Other Lusophone Americans No
Little Belize Vermont Square, Los Angeles Belizean Americans No
African and African American Ethnic Enclaves
Little Ethiopia Little Ethiopia, Los Angeles Ethiopian Americans Yes, 2002
Freetown Whittier, California African Americans No
South-central Los Angeles, Compton, Carson, Inglewood, Culver City, and Hawthorne No
Altadena, California No
Antelope Valley No
Native American Ethnic Enclaves
Indian Alley Skid Row, Los Angeles Native Americans No
Pacific Islander Ethnic Enclaves
Carson, California Pacific Islander Americans No
Eagle Rock, Los Angeles & Glendale, California No
Anglo American Ethnic Enclaves
Orange Coast Huntington Beach, California, Newport Beach, California, Laguna Beach, California, Dana Point, California, and San Clemente, California Anglo Americans No
Horsetown USA Norco, California No
Malibu, California No
European Ethnic Enclaves
Little Italy Downtown LA, modern day Chinatown, Los Angeles Historically Italian Americans No
Little Italy/Via Italia[67] San Pedro, Los Angeles Italian Americans & Maltese Americans Yes[68]
Croatian Place Croatian Americans No
Greektown Historically Greek Americans No
Byzantine-Latino Quarter Byzantine-Latino Quarter, Los Angeles No
Little Portugal Artesia, California Historically Portuguese Americans No
Frogtown Frogtown, Los Angeles & Lincoln Heights, Los Angeles Historically French Americans No
Little Moscow Los Feliz, Los Angeles Russian Americans No
Little Odessa West Hollywood, California Ukrainian Americans in Los Angeles and Russian Americans No
Little Britain Santa Monica, California British Americans No
Anaheim, California Anaheim, California Historically German Americans No
Bellflower, California[69] Dutch Americans No


Presidential Election Results for the Los Angeles-Anaheim-Riverside Consolidated Statistical Area (Counties of Los Angeles, Orange, Ventura, Riverside and San Bernardino)
Year GOP DEM Others
2020 34.8% 2,799,636 63.1% 5,078,481 2.1% 169,472
2016 31.5% 2,013,697 62.3% 3,983,255 6.1% 391,977
2012 37.4% 2,196,108 60.2% 3,534,444 2.4% 143,577
2008 37.3% 2,099,609 60.8% 3,425,319 1.9% 107,147
2004 45.3% 2,490,150 53.4% 2,932,429 1.3% 69,649
2000 41.3% 2,003,114 54.6% 2,652,907 4.1% 198,750
1996 38.3% 1,661,209 51.3% 2,220,837 10.4% 449,706
1992 33.8% 1,657,151 45.0% 2,202,345 21.2% 1,038,448
1988 53.8% 2,408,696 45.0% 2,014,670 1.2% 54,441
1984 60.6% 2,614,904 38.3% 1,650,231 1.1% 48,225
1980 55.5% 2,187,859 35.0% 1,381,285 9.5% 374,993
1976 50.8% 1,877,267 46.7% 1,728,532 2.5% 93,554
1972 57.7% 2,346,127 38.7% 1,573,708 3.6% 146,653
1968 50.3% 1,836,478 43.0% 1,570,478 7.3% 247,280
1964 44.0% 1,578,837 55.9% 2,006,184 0.1% 2,488
1960 50.8% 1,677,962 48.9% 1,612,924 0.3% 10,524

Greater Los Angeles is a politically divided metropolitan area. During the 1970s and 1980s, the region leaned toward the Republican Party. Los Angeles County, the most populous of the region, is a Democratic stronghold, although it voted twice for both Richard Nixon (1968 and 1972) and Ronald Reagan (1980 and 1984). Riverside County, San Bernardino County, and Orange County have historically leaned toward the Republican Party but have started shifting leftward in recent years. Ventura County is politically divided.



The Los Angeles metropolitan area has the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, behind the Greater Tokyo Area and the New York metropolitan area. In 2022, the combined statistical area of Greater Los Angeles (which includes the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Inland Empire, and Ventura County) had a $1.528 trillion economy.

Los Angeles and Orange Counties together have an economy of roughly $1.227 trillion.[3] Important are coastal California land values and the rents they command, which contribute heavily to GDP earnings, though there are worries that these high land values contribute to the long-term problem of housing affordability and are thus a possible risk to future GDP increase.[70][71] This is evident when comparing the coast with the Inland Empire, a large component of the five-county combined statistical area (CSA) that nevertheless contributes a far smaller portion to regional gross metropolitan product but still dominates in industry. The Greater Los Angeles CSA is the third-largest economic center in the world, after Greater Tokyo and the New York-Newark-Bridgeport CSA.

Greater Los Angeles is a hotspot for Asian car manufacturers. Specifically, Mitsubishi, Hyundai, Honda, and Mazda have their U.S. headquarters in the area.[72] Nissan and Toyota were headquartered in the area in the recent past as well. (Nissan moved to Tennessee; Toyota moved to Texas.)[73]

The economy of the Los Angeles metropolitan area is famously and heavily based on the entertainment industry, with a particular focus on television, motion pictures, interactive games, and recorded music – the Hollywood district of Los Angeles and its surrounding areas are known as the "movie capital of the United States" due to the region's extreme commercial and historical importance to the American motion picture industry. Other significant sectors include shipping/international trade – particularly at the adjacent Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach, together comprising the United States' busiest seaport – logistics – the Inland Empire being the largest concentration of warehousing and intermodal facilities in the world – as well as aerospace, technology, petroleum, fashion and apparel, and tourism.

The City of Los Angeles is home to five Fortune 500 companies: energy company Occidental Petroleum (until 2014 when it moved its headquarters to Houston), healthcare provider Health Net, metals distributor Reliance Steel & Aluminum, engineering firm AECOM, and real estate group CB Richard Ellis. Other companies headquartered in Los Angeles include American Apparel, City National Bank, 20th Century Studios, Latham & Watkins, Univision, Metro Interactive, LLC, Premier America, Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, DeviantArt,[74] Guess?, O'Melveny & Myers; Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, Tokyopop, The Jim Henson Company, Paramount Pictures, Sunkist Growers, Incorporated, Tutor Perini, Fox Sports Net, Capital Group, and The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf. Korean Air's US passenger and cargo operations headquarters are in two separate offices in Los Angeles.[75] Entertainment and media giant The Walt Disney Company is headquartered in nearby Burbank.

Port of Long Beach

The Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach together comprise the fifth-busiest port in the world, being the center of imports and exports for trade on the west Pacific Coast as well as being one of the most significant ports of the western hemisphere. The Port of Los Angeles occupies 7,500 acres (3,035 hectares) of land and water along 43 miles (69 kilometres) of waterfront and is the busiest container port in the United States. The Port is the busiest port in the United States by container volume, the 8th busiest container port in the world.[76][77][78] The top trading partners in 2004 were: China ($68.8 billion), Japan ($24.1 billion), Taiwan ($10.8 billion), Thailand ($6.7 billion), & South Korea ($5.6 billion)

The Port of Long Beach is the second-busiest container port in the United States. It adjoins the separate Port of Los Angeles. Acting as a major gateway for U.S.-Asian trade, the port occupies 3,200 acres (1,295 hectares) of land with 25 miles (40 kilometres) of waterfront in the city of Long Beach, California. The seaport has approximately $100 billion in trade and provides more than 316,000 jobs in Southern California. The Port of Long Beach imports and exports more than $100 billion worth of goods every year. The seaport provides the country with jobs, generates tax revenue, and supports retail and manufacturing businesses.[citation needed]

Economic statistics for Los Angeles and Orange Counties


In 2014, the population of the Long Beach–Los Angeles–Anaheim metropolitan statistical area (MSA) reached 13,262,220 and ranked second in the United States – a 1 percent increase from 2013.[79] In 2014, Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $50,751 and ranked 29th in the country.

In 2014, Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim placed third among the largest exporters in the United States (shipment totaling to $75.5 billion). The metro accounted for 40.8 percent of California's merchandise exports, mainly exporting computer and electronic products ($18.6 billion); transportation equipment ($15.3 billion) and chemicals ($5.6 billion). Nonetheless, the greater Los Angeles metro has immensely benefited from the free trade agreements: greater Los Angeles exported $25.1 billion to the NAFTA region and $776 million in goods to the CAFTA region.

Overall, in 2014 the average wages and salaries reached $57,519 (in 2010, the average wages and salaries reached $54,729).[80] Meanwhile, the median household income in 2014 was $56,935, a 1.4 percent increase from 2013 (average median household income was $56,164).[81]

Note: Dollar items are in current dollars (not adjusted for inflation). Per capita items in dollars; other dollar items in thousands of dollars.

Table 2 (refer below) is a chart of the four highest sectors in the metro area, with health care and social assistance reaching 15.54%.

Industry Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, CA MSA
NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 15.54%
NAICS 44–45 Retail trade 11.27%
NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 10.79%
NAICS 31–33 Manufacturing 10.47%

Table 3 (refer below) displays the location quotient for employment in the Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim MSA. Top three sectors include information; art, entertainment, and recreation; and real estate and rental and leasing. (Data obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014. Data measures Location Quotient for sectors in the MSA area. U.S. Total is the base areas.[82])

Industry Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, CA MSA
NAICS 99 Unclassified 2.46
NAICS 51 Information 1.88
NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 1.36
NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 1.29
NAICS 42 Wholesale trade 1.21
NAICS 61 Educational services 1.13
NAICS 54 Professional and technical services 1.11
NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services 1.06
NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration 1.04
NAICS 31–33 Manufacturing 1
NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 1
NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 1
NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.95
NAICS 48–49 Transportation and warehousing 0.88
NAICS 52 Finance and insurance 0.86
NAICS 44–45 Retail trade 0.85
NAICS 23 Construction 0.76
NAICS 22 Utilities 0.65
NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 0.15
NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 0.15

Utilities and infrastructure


There are nine electric utility power companies in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Southern California Edison serves a large majority of the Los Angeles metropolitan area except for Los Angeles city limits, Burbank, Glendale, Pasadena, Azusa, Vernon, Anaheim, and southern Orange County. Southern Orange County is part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and it is served by San Diego Gas & Electric. There are three natural gas providers in the metropolitan area. Southern California Gas Company serves a large majority of the Los Angeles metropolitan area except for Long Beach and southern Orange County.

The Los Angeles metropolitan area is served by the following utility companies.


  • Southern California Edison (largest electric utility in the Los Angeles metropolitan area)
  • Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (second-largest electric utility in the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the largest within the Los Angeles city limits)
  • Burbank Water and Power
  • Glendale Water and Power
  • Pasadena Water and Power
  • Anaheim Water and Power
  • Azusa Light & Power
  • Vernon Light & Power
  • San Diego Gas & Electric (serves southern Orange County, which is part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area)

The only nuclear power plant that serves the Los Angeles metropolitan area is Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station in the US state of Arizona 46 miles west of Phoenix. LADWP and Southern California Edison get their electricity from it.

Natural gas


Cable television


Phone and Internet


Medical facilities


Greater Los Angeles is one of the world's largest patient destinations. The Los Angeles Medical Services provide quality medical services and specialty care services to the populations served in compliance with local, state and federal regulations as well as human rights protection.[83] Archived February 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine

Los Angeles and Orange counties have separate medical service department but both work jointly. Government and Private hospitals open normally Monday through Friday, excluding City Holidays but some speciality hospitals are open year-round.[83] Archived February 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine

The main healthcare providers in the Los Angeles metropolitan area are Kaiser Permanente, Cedars-Sinai Health System, UCLA Health, Dignity Healthcare, and Providence Healthcare. LA Care and Care1st are also the main providers for those in the metropolitan area that have Medi-Cal.



Major events include:[84]

Awards ceremonies


Annual county fairs


Annual Conventions


Tourism and attractions


Due to L.A.'s position as The Entertainment Capital of the World, there are many tourist attractions in the area. Consequently, Greater Los Angeles is one of the most visited areas in the world. Here is a breakdown of some of its major attractions:

Amusement parks

Sleeping Beauty Castle at Disneyland


Laguna Beach coastline is popular for sunbathers

Shopping centers and districts


There are hundreds of shopping centers and shopping districts across the area. Some key ones that attract out-of-area visitors are listed here; see also the Table of Shopping Centers in Southern California for a more complete list.

Visitors may also stroll Broadway and 7th streets in Downtown Los Angeles, the main shopping districts until the 1950s, to see the architecture of the buildings that once housed the large downtown department stores such as the May Company, Bullock's, The Broadway, Desmond's, Coulter's, Barker Brothers, and J. W. Robinson's.

Film and TV Studio Tours

Warner Bros. Studios in the San Fernando Valley

Water Parks


Zoos and Aquariums

Los Angeles Zoo



There are over 100 museums in the area, with some of the most widely visited being:

Convention Centers


State Parks & Beaches


National parks, monuments, & refuges


Places of Worship

Hsi Lai Temple Main Hall.

Other visitor attractions


Area and ZIP codes


Area codes




The Los Angeles metropolitan area is home to the headquarters of several well-known media companies including: the Los Angeles Times, Fox Broadcasting Company, Universal Studios, and The Walt Disney Company. Local television channels broadcasting to the Los Angeles market include KCBS-TV 2 (CBS), KNBC 4 (NBC), KTLA 5 (The CW), KABC 7 (ABC), KCAL-TV 9 (Independent), KTTV 11 (Fox), KCOP 13 (MyNetworkTV), KCET 28, (PBS), KPXN-TV 30 (Ion), KMEX-DT 34 (Univision), KVEA 52 (Telemundo) and KLCS 58 (PBS). Radio stations serving the area include: KKJZ, KIIS, KNX (AM), and KMZT.



Primary and secondary education


The Los Angeles Unified School District serves the city of L.A., and other school districts serve the surrounding areas. A number of private schools are also located in the region.

Higher education

Cal State LA's The Golden Eagle, consisting of two adjoining structures separated by a promenade.

Greater Los Angeles is home to a number of colleges and universities. The University of Southern California and University of California, Los Angeles, are among the largest, and the Claremont Colleges and California Institute of Technology are among the most academically renowned. Below is a list of some of the most well known colleges and universities within the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area.


Rush hour on the Harbor Freeway, Downtown

Greater Los Angeles is known for its expansive transportation network. Most notable is its extensive highway system. The area is a junction for numerous interstates coming from the north, east, and south and contains the three principal north–south highways in California: Interstate 5, U.S. Route 101, and California State Route 1. The area is also home to several ports, including the twin ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles, which are the two busiest in the United States, as well as Port of Hueneme.[85] Additionally, the region is also served by the Los Angeles Metro Rail and Metrolink commuter rail systems that link neighborhoods of Los Angeles with immediate surrounding suburbs and most of the region (excluding the outer region of the Inland Empire) with Oceanside in San Diego County, respectively. Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) is the principal international airport of the region and is one of the busiest in the world.[86] Other airports include Ontario International Airport (ONT), John Wayne Airport (SNA), Bob Hope Airport (BUR), Long Beach Municipal Airport (LGB), and Palm Springs International Airport (PSP).

Historic streetcar network

Los Angeles Pacific Electric (Red Cars) network

The Pacific Electric Railway Company, nicknamed the Red Cars, was a privately owned mass transit system in Southern California consisting of electrically powered streetcars, interurban cars, and buses and was the largest electric railway system in the world in the 1920s. Organized around the city centers of Los Angeles and San Bernardino, it connected cities in Los Angeles County, Orange County, San Bernardino County and Riverside County.

The system shared dual gauge track with the 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) narrow gauge Los Angeles Railway, "Yellow Car", or "LARy" system on Main Street in downtown Los Angeles (directly in front of the 6th and Main terminal), on 4th Street, and along Hawthorne Boulevard south of downtown Los Angeles toward the cities of Hawthorne, Gardena, and Torrance.

Commercial airports

Airport IATA code County Enplanements (2013)[87]
Los Angeles International Airport LAX Los Angeles 32,425,892
John Wayne Airport SNA Orange County 4,540,628
Ontario International Airport ONT San Bernardino 1,970,538
Hollywood Burbank Airport BUR Los Angeles 1,918,011
Long Beach Airport LGB Los Angeles 1,438,756
San Bernardino International Airport SBD San Bernardino NA

The primary airport serving the LA metro area is Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), one of the busiest airports in the United States. LAX is in southwestern Los Angeles, 16 miles (26 km) from Downtown Los Angeles. LAX is the only airport to serve as a hub for all three U.S. legacy airlines —American, Delta and United.

In addition to LAX, other airports, including Hollywood Burbank Airport, John Wayne Airport, Long Beach Airport, Ontario International Airport, and San Bernardino International Airport also serve the region.



The Los Angeles metropolitan area has only one suspension bridge: Vincent Thomas Bridge in San Pedro, and one cable-stayed bridge: Long Beach International Gateway in Long Beach.

Interstate Highways


U.S. Highways


California State Highways


Los Angeles County Metro

Map of LA County Metro

The Los Angeles Metro Rail is the mass transit rail system of Los Angeles County. It is run by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and its system runs six rail lines throughout Los Angeles County. Metro Rail currently operates four light rail and two rapid transit lines, altogether totaling 115.5 miles (185.9 km) of rail, 101 stations, and over 360,000 daily weekday boardings as of December 2012.[88]

The system's light rail lines are the second busiest LRT system in the United States, after Boston, by number of riders, with 200,300 average weekday boardings during the third quarter of 2012.[89] By 2019, it had become the most heavily ridden light rail system in the country.[90]

Since the region of the city is in close proximity to a major fault area the tunnels were built to resist earthquakes of up to magnitude 7.5. Both subway lines use an electrified third rail to provide power to the trains, rendering these lines unusable on the other three. The Blue and Gold Lines run mostly at grade, with some street-running, elevated, and underground stretches in the more densely populated areas of Los Angeles. The Green Line is entirely grade separated, running in the median of I-105 and then turning southward along an elevated route.

The rail lines run regularly on a 5 am and midnight schedule, seven days a week. Limited service on particular segments is provided after midnight and before 5 am There is no rail service between 2 and 3:30 am Exact times vary from route to route; see individual route articles for more information.

Other authorities


In addition to Metro, other providers provide local service within their jurisdictions. These include the Orange County Transportation Authority, San Bernardino County Transportation Authority, and Riverside Transit Agency.[citation needed]

Regional and commuter rail

Map of Metrolink

There are two providers of heavy rail transportation in the region, Amtrak and Metrolink. Amtrak provides service to San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and points in between on the Pacific Surfliner. It also provides long-distance routes, including the Coast Starlight which goes to the San Francisco Bay Area, Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington; the Southwest Chief which goes to Flagstaff, Arizona, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Kansas City, Missouri and Chicago; and the Sunset Limited which provides limited service (three days a week) to Tucson, El Paso, Houston, and New Orleans.

Metrolink provides service to numerous places within Southern California, including all counties in the region. Metrolink operates to 67 stations on eight lines within Southern California which mostly (except for the Inland Empire–Orange County Line and Arrow) radiate from Los Angeles Union Station.



Professional teams


As a whole, the Los Angeles area has more national championships, all sports combined (college and professional), than any other city in the United States, with over four times as many championships as the entire state of Texas, and just over twice that of New York City.[91] It is the only American city to host the summer Olympic games twice: once in 1932, and more recently in 1984 (Lake Placid hosted the winter Olympic games twice: once in 1932 and once in 1980). Los Angeles will also be the host of the 2028 Summer Olympics, becoming the third city to host three Olympic Games, after London and Paris.

Staples Center in Downtown Los Angeles

Table of professional teams and venues

Team Sport League Venue
Los Angeles Rams American football National Football League SoFi Stadium
Los Angeles Chargers
Los Angeles Dodgers Baseball Major League Baseball Dodger Stadium
Los Angeles Angels Angel Stadium
Los Angeles Clippers Basketball National Basketball Association Intuit Dome
Los Angeles Lakers Crypto.com Arena
Los Angeles Sparks Women's National Basketball Association
Los Angeles Kings Ice hockey National Hockey League
Anaheim Ducks Honda Center
LA Galaxy Soccer Major League Soccer Dignity Health Sports Park
Los Angeles FC BMO Stadium
Angel City FC National Women's Soccer League

Other professional venues include:

NCAA Division I college sports

UCLA–USC rivalry; both universities are located in Los Angeles and are members of the Pac-12 Conference, and will move together to the Big Ten Conference in 2024. The rivalry between the two is among the more unusual in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I sports, because the campuses are only 12 miles (19 km) apart, and both are located within the same megacity.

Other sports


The Greater Los Angeles area also has three well-known horse racing facilities: Santa Anita Park, Los Alamitos Race Course and the former Hollywood Park Racetrack and three major motorsport venues: Auto Club Speedway, Long Beach street circuit, and Auto Club Raceway at Pomona. In addition, the city of Los Angeles hosted the Summer Olympics in 1932 and 1984.

For over twenty years the Los Angeles area media market lacked a National Football League team. After the 1994 season, the Los Angeles Rams moved to St. Louis, Missouri, and the Los Angeles Raiders returned to their original home of Oakland, California, due to the lack of an up-to-date NFL stadium. After numerous stadium proposals between 1995 and 2016 in an attempt to bring the NFL back,[92][93][94] the Oakland Raiders, St. Louis Rams, and San Diego Chargers all submitted plans to relocate back to Los Angeles after the 2015 NFL season. On January 12, 2016, the Rams were approved to move to Los Angeles and build the venue eventually known as SoFi Stadium with the Chargers or Raiders given the option to join them. On January 12, 2017, the Chargers announced their move to Los Angeles to join the Rams. Both teams share SoFi Stadium in Inglewood, California.[95]

The Los Angeles Basin, viewed south from Mulholland Drive. From left to right can be seen the Santa Ana Mountains / Saddleback (horizon), downtown L.A., the Hollywood Bowl (foreground), Mid-Wilshire, Long BeachPalos Verdes (background), Catalina Island (horizon), the South Bay and Pacific Ocean.

See also



  1. ^ a b "Census Urban Area List". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on November 15, 2018. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  2. ^ a b c "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020–2024". U.S. Census Bureau, California Dept. of Finance. Archived from the original on October 31, 2023. Retrieved November 30, 2023.
  3. ^ a b c d "Total Gross Domestic Product for Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (MSA)". Federal Reserve Economic Data. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  4. ^ a b "Total Gross Domestic Product for Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA (MSA)". Federal Reserve Economic Data. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  5. ^ a b "Total Gross Domestic Product for Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA (MSA)". Federal Reserve Economic Data. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  6. ^ [1] Archived July 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine World's Largest Metropolitan Areas, 2012
  7. ^ "Revealed: Cities that rule the world". CNN. April 10, 2010. Archived from the original on November 24, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  8. ^ a b c d e "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020–2021". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 29, 2022. Retrieved June 19, 2022.
  9. ^ "Current Lists of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas and Definitions". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 23, 2011. Retrieved December 25, 2009.
  10. ^ a b "List of 2020 Census Urban Areas". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 7, 2023.
  11. ^ "On Tovaangar | PRIME". On Tovaangar | PRIME. Retrieved January 6, 2023. Tovaangar, which encompasses all of Gabrielino-Tongva territory, covers the Los Angeles Basin, half of Orange County, parts of Riverside County and San Bernardino County...
  12. ^ Greene, Sean; Curwen, Thomas (May 9, 2019). "Mapping the Tongva villages of L.A.'s past". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 7, 2022.
  13. ^ Berube, Alan (2006). Finding Exurbia: America's Fast-Growing Communities at the Metropolitan Fringe (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 4, 2017. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
  14. ^ American Factfinder, United States Census Bureau, Table: "GCT-PH1-R. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (geographies ranked by total population): 2000" from Data Set: "Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data", accessed October 10, 2007 at: [2] Archived February 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine See also: List of United States urban areas
  15. ^ Haughton, Graham, and Colin Hunter, Sustainable Cities, London: Routledge, 2003: 81.
  16. ^ "Population Density". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 3, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
  17. ^ Bruegmann, Robert. Sprawl: A Compact History. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2005: 65.
  18. ^ Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (1999). New York, Chicago, Los Angeles: America's Global Cities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-3336-4.
  19. ^ Gutierrez, David. The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003: 94.
  20. ^ Curtiss, Aaron. "Bitter Land-Use Fights Seen For 101 Corridor Development." Los Angeles Times November 20, 1993: B1.
  21. ^ Olsen, Andy. "Local Home Prices Soar in May." Los Angeles Times June 23, 2003: B3.
  22. ^ Griggs, Gregory. "Local Homes Get Even Pricier." Los Angeles Times August 21, 2003: B1.
  23. ^ Gerber, Ross (May 28, 2014). "Playing The Surge in California Real Estate". Forbes. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
  24. ^ Hale, David (2003). New York and Los Angeles: Politics, Society, and Culture: A Comparative View. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 181–183, 185. ISBN 978-0-226-31369-6.
  25. ^ Soja, Edward W. (1999). "Taking Los Angeles Apart". Postmodern Geographies:The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory (5th ed.). London: Verso. pp. 224–233. ISBN 978-0-86091-936-0.
  26. ^ "Development". Los Angeles Downtown News – The Voice of Downtown Los Angeles. Archived from the original on June 30, 2019. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  27. ^ Boxall, Bettina; St. John, Paige (November 10, 2018). "California's most destructive wildfire should not have come as a surprise". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 11, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Garreau, Joel (1991). Edge City. Knopf Doubleday Publishing. pp. 262–3. ISBN 9780307801944. Archived from the original on August 2, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  29. ^ Wolch, Jennifer R.; Manuel Pastor; Peter Dreier (2004). Up Against the Sprawl: Public Policy and the Making of Southern California. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4298-4.
  30. ^ "Orange County to County Commuting" (PDF). Labor Market Information Division. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 21, 2011.
  31. ^ "Riverside County is 'extreme commute' king". North County Times. Archived from the original on September 7, 2008. Retrieved August 17, 2008.
  32. ^ "Newsroom: Population: Census Bureau Releases State and County Data Depicting Nation's Population Ahead of 2010 Census". Census.gov. Archived from the original on August 24, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
  33. ^ Mapping L.A. – Los Angeles Times Archived August 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Projects.latimes.com. Retrieved on July 29, 2013.
  34. ^ "Neighborhoods". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  35. ^ Sharon Bernstein and David Pierson, "L.A. moves toward more N.Y-style downtown Archived October 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine", Los Angeles Times, August 8, 2007.
  36. ^ "San Fernando Valley". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on June 2, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
  37. ^ "Los Angeles city, California". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  38. ^ "The Global Cities Index 2010". Foreign Policy. 2010. Archived from the original on December 2, 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  39. ^ "South Orange County Real Estate foreclosures – South Orange County MLS homes & Condos For sale". Orange Coast Real Estate. Archived from the original on June 22, 2019. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  40. ^ "Vacanies Are Up in South OC Offices". Los Angeles Times. June 1, 2001. Archived from the original on June 24, 2019. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  41. ^ a b Ruther, Walter; Calavan, E. Clair; Carman, Glen E. (1989). "The Origins of Citrus Research in California" (PDF). The Citrus Industry. V (Chapter 5). Oakland: Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2007. Retrieved August 21, 2007.
  42. ^ Petrix, Mark (October 30, 2007). "From two orange trees Sprang an Empire". Inland Valley Daily Bulletin. Archived from the original on March 24, 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2007.
  43. ^ Sorba, Michael (October 30, 2007). "Rails reach the Inland Empire". Inland Valley Daily Bulletin. Archived from the original on December 8, 2007. Retrieved November 27, 2007.
  44. ^ "State of California map of Inland Empire" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 14, 2012.
  45. ^ Robert E. Lang; Jennifer B. LeFurgy (October 1, 2007). Boomburbs: The Rise of America's Accidental Cities. Brookings Institution Press. pp. 169–. ISBN 978-0-8157-5112-0. OCLC 1005941809.
  46. ^ Downey, Dave (March 8, 2011). "REGION: Riverside County's population jumps by 42 percent in last decade". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
    "2000: Temecula's growth hailed, decried". Press-Enterprise. Riverside. March 8, 2011. Archived from the original on November 5, 2021. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  47. ^ Rosenblatt, Susannah (November 27, 2006). "'Inland' for sure, 'Empire' maybe: Where's the boundary?". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  48. ^ "OMB Bulletin No. 10-02: Update of Statistical Area Definitions and Guidance on Their Uses" (PDF). United States Office of Management and Budget. December 1, 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 21, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  49. ^ "Older Suburbs in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area" (PDF). Local Government Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 28, 2008.
  50. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE – 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Los Angeles County, California". United States Census Bureau.
  51. ^ "Orange Count, CA & Los Angeles County, CA". Data USA.
  52. ^ Garcia, Matt (2001). A World of its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900–1970 (2nd ed.). Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-2658-4.
  53. ^ "Magnet in the West". Time. September 2, 1966. Archived from the original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved April 24, 2008. Greater Los Angeles is already the second-most-populous metropolis in the U.S., is almost sure to surpass New York by 1975. Last week alone, some 5,000 people moved into the area. By 1990, such growth will make the city the hub of an uninterrupted urbanized stretch of almost 19 million inhabitants occupying the 175-mile-long, coastal area that runs from Santa Barbara in the north to San Diego in the south.
  54. ^ Reinhold, Robert (August 28, 1989). "No Headline". The New York Times. Retrieved April 24, 2008. [A]nd the region's population will surpass New York's, reaching 18.3 million in 2010
  55. ^ Excerpted from California Department of Finance
  56. ^ "Historical Census 1850–2010 – SDC – Demographic Research – California Department of Finance". Archived from the original on June 28, 2014. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
  57. ^ "Ancestry Los Angeles". United States Census Bureau.
  58. ^ Chan, David R. (May 15, 2017). "How Irvine, CA Became a Chinese Dining Destination". Menuism Dining Blog. Archived from the original on August 15, 2022. Retrieved April 16, 2023.
  59. ^ "O.C.'s Koreatown: Buena Park draws residents and businesses from L.A." Daily Pilot. March 24, 2017.
  60. ^ "A Vibrant Korean Community is Thriving in North O.C." August 26, 2022.
  61. ^ "Buena Park unveils first Koreatown sign near the entrance of the Source mall". October 13, 2023.
  62. ^ Blackmore, Willy. "Top 10: Japanese Noodles Shops in Torrance." L.A. Weekly. Retrieved on May 10, 2013.
  63. ^ "Japanese Costa Mesans, 1920-1942". Costa Mesa Historical Society. May 7, 2019.
  64. ^ "Japanese-American History at Terminal Island". Los Angeles Conservancy.
  65. ^ "Anaheim's Little Arabia district gets official recognition after years of trying". August 25, 2022.
  66. ^ "A Multimedia Journey Through 'The Persian Square'". NPR. August 25, 2022.
  67. ^ "LILAA – Little Italy of Los Angeles Association". lilaa.org.
  68. ^ "A 'New, Old' Little Italy in los Angeles' San Pedro".
  69. ^ "Little Bit of Holland is Mostly Memories". Los Angeles Times. April 26, 1987.
  70. ^ "Terner Center". ternercenter.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on November 15, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  71. ^ "California's High Housing Costs: Causes and Consequences". lao.ca.gov. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  72. ^ Horovitz, Bruce (March 18, 1986). "Auto Makers From Asia Flock to Orange County". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 6, 2023.
  73. ^ Gnerre, Sam (November 29, 2021). "South Bay History: Nissan's American headquarters stayed for nearly half a century". Daily Breeze. Retrieved December 9, 2023.
  74. ^ "DeviantArt, Inc. Archived December 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine" Businessweek Investing. Accessed November 9, 2008.
  75. ^ "Contact Info Archived December 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine". Korean Air. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
  76. ^ "World Port Rankings – 2005" Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine – Port Industry Statistics – American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA) – Updated May 1, 2007 – (Microsoft Excel *.XLS document)
  77. ^ "North American Port Container Traffic – 2006" Archived December 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine – Port Industry Statistics – American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA) – Updated May 14, 2007 – (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document)
  78. ^ FAQ # 22 Archived June 13, 2010, at the Wayback Machine at the Port of Los Angeles.org
  79. ^ "Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA MSA Situation & Outlook Report". proximityone.com. Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
  80. ^ "Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA MSA Situation & Outlook Report". proximityone.com. Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
  81. ^ "Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA ---MARKET REPORT---" (PDF). Zonda. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 5, 2022. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  82. ^ "QCEW Establishment Size Classes (For NAICS-Based Data)". bls.gov. Archived from the original on November 14, 2020. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
  83. ^ a b "Medical Services Division". per.lacity.org. Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  84. ^ "Events in California". visitcalifornia.com. August 20, 2018. Archived from the original on September 2, 2020. Retrieved December 3, 2020.
  85. ^ White, Ronald D. (August 7, 2011). "Long Beach port chief's long voyage nears an end". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved June 15, 2012.
  86. ^ World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
  87. ^ "Commercial Service Airports based on Calendar Year 2013 Enplanements" (PDF). FAA. January 26, 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 7, 2021. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
  88. ^ "Facts at a Glance". LACMTA. January 15, 2013. Archived from the original on August 20, 2019. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
  89. ^ Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority, Facts at a Glance Archived August 20, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, January 15, 2013.
  90. ^ "Transit Ridership Report Fourth Quarter 2018" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. February 27, 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved April 4, 2020.
  91. ^ "Los Angeles Sports Travel". Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
  92. ^ "L.A. council approves framework to build NFL stadium". CBSSports.com. August 9, 2011. Archived from the original on October 17, 2012. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
  93. ^ "Industry Council Approves Pro Football Stadium". nbcla.com. KNBC. July 17, 2009. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
  94. ^ Adams, John (October 22, 2009). "Los Angeles, Are You Ready For Some NFL Football?". nbcla.com. KNBC. Archived from the original on August 12, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
  95. ^ Zahniser, David & Farmer, Sam (August 10, 2011). "Next challenge for Farmers Field: Finding an NFL team for L.A." L.A. Now. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2016.