List of Greek words with English derivatives

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Greek alphabet
Transliteration schemes
Greek Traditional Classical Modern
Α α a a a
Β β b b v
Γ γ g g gh, y
Δ δ d d dh
Ε ε e e e
Ζ ζ z z, dz z
Η η e ē i
Θ θ th th th
Ι ι i i i
Κ κ c k k
Λ λ l l l
Μ μ m m m
Ν ν n n n
Ξ ξ x x x
Ο ο o o o
Π π p p p
Ρ ρ r r r
Σ σ ς s s s
Τ τ t t t
Υ υ y u i, y
Φ φ ph ph ph, f
Χ χ ch kh kh, h
Ψ ψ ps ps ps
Ω ω o ō o
αι ae, e ai e, ai
αυ au au af, av
ει i ei i
ευ eu eu ef, ev
γγ ng ng ng
γξ nx nx nx
γκ nc nk g, ng
γχ nch nkh nkh
μπ mp mp b, mb
ντ nt nt d, nd
οι oe, e oi i
ου u ou ou, u

This is an incomplete list of Greek words with derivatives in English. There are many English words of Greek origin, with a variety of histories: vernacular borrowing, typically passing through Latin and French; learned borrowing directly from Greek; coinage in post-classical Latin or modern European languages; and direct borrowings from Modern Greek.

The words (or suffixes) are in Greek alphabetic order, with tables for the 24 Greek letters, listing thousands of related English words.



Main article: Romanization of Greek

There are considerable differences between the various transliterations used to represent the Greek alphabet in English. The table in the sidebar shows:

  • The "traditional" transliteration, in other words that used in Latin, representing classical Greek: this is the form in which most Greek words have made their way into English
  • A "classical" transliteration, commonly used to represent more accurately the pronunciation of Ancient Greek, although traditional forms are rarely used.
  • The "modern" transliteration often used for Modern Greek—see transliteration of Greek into English for some variations.

Rough breathing was represented in some Greek dialects by an [h] while in others, the [h] represented the vowel eta (the origin of the sign is thought to be the left-hand half ( ├ ) of the letter H): a rough breathing over an initial vowel or diphthong – ἁ ἑ ἡ ἱ ὁ ὑ ὡ – indicates that the word was pronounced with an initial h, and a smooth breathing – ἀ ἐ ἠ ἰ ὀ ὐ ὠ – indicates the absence of an h, but this has since disappeared in speech, and Modern Greek omits the breathings. An initial upsilon (υ) always had the rough breathing –  – hence hy is very common at the start of words derived from Greek, but no (or very few) such words start with y.

The letter rho (ρ) at the start of a word always had the rough breathing –  – and is transliterated rh. If a rho was geminated within a word, the first ρ always had the smooth breathing and the second the rough breathing – ῤῥ – leading to the transiliteration rrh.

In ancient Greek, gamma was used to represent nu before a khi, ksi, kappa and another gamma. On this list, where this occurs, the word is listed as if the gamma were in fact a nu.

Greek words with modern derivatives[edit]

The citation form shown is the form most commonly shown in dictionaries, but this form is often unrepresentative of the word as used to form a compound word, hence the root form is also shown. In the case of verbs, the citation form is often by convention the first person singular, present indicative, (cf Latin), for instance φάγω (phagō), "I eat", rather than the infinitive ("to eat"). The Greek forms are generally in their true root form; i.e., a noun or verb derived from an earlier form will appear under the earlier form.

The "classical" transliteration as described above is used for both the Citation form and the Root form. Greek entries are in alphabetical order according to the Greek alphabet, English entries by the Roman alphabet.

The Greek words are shown in polytonic orthography, in other words showing the breathings and the fuller range of accents, as used in Ancient Greek and in Modern Greek for those who do not accept the 1982 "monotonic reform".

Note that alpha privatives are addressed under the heading of the positive form of the word whenever possible.



Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
ἀ- a- ἀ-/ἀν- a-/an- without, not abyss, abyssocottidae, abyssopelagic, acatalectic, achromatic, acephaly, achene, aclinic, adamant, adelopod, adelospondyli, adelophagi, adelophryne, adiabatic, adiaphora, adytum, aedes, agnostic, ahistorical, Alexander, alexipharmic, alexithymia, alexiteric, amaranth, ambrosia, ambrotype, amethyst, ametropia, amianthus, amnesia, amoral, amorphous, anaemia, anaesthesia, analcime, analgesia, analphabetic, anarchy, Anarthriaceae, anarthrous, anechoic, anecdote, anergy, anhydrous, anodyne, anomalocarid, anomalopidae, anomalopus, anomaluridae, anomaly, anomic, anonymous, anorexia, anorgasmic, apathy, anopheles, anophelorastia, apatheist, apathy, aphanes, aphaniotis, aphasia, aphasiology, apodidae, Apteryx, Apterygidae, Apteropanorpidae, apus, aporia, arrhythmia, asthenia, asthenopia, asymmetric, asymptote, atonal, atrophic, atropos
ἄβαξ abax ἀβακ- abac- reckoning-board, used for counting votes abacus, abaculus, abax
ἀββάς abbás (title of respect for monks and priests, from Syriac abbā) abbot
ἄγαλμα āgalma ἀγαλματ- agalmat- glory, delight, honour, statue agalmatolite, Agalmatophilia
ἀγαθός agathos ἀγαθ- agath- good Agatha, agathism, agathodaemon, kalokagathia
ἀγάπη agapē ἀγαπ- agap- fraternal love agape, agapanthus, agapanthaceae
ἀγαυός agauos ἀγαυ- agau- illustrious, noble agave, agavaceae
ἀγγαρεία angareiā ἀγγαρει- angarei- impressment for public service angary, angaria, angariate
ἀγγείον angeion ἀγγειο- angeio- vessel angiosperm, angiocardiography, angiodysplasia, angiogenesis, angiogram, angiography, angioma, angiopathy, angioplasty, angiosperma, angiostatin, angiotensin,
ἄγγελος angelos ἀγγελ- angel- messenger angel, archangel, evangelist
ἅγιος hagios ἁγιο- hagio- holy hagiography, hagiology, hagiolotry, hagiocracy, hagiarchy
ἄγκιστρον ankistron ἀγκιστρ- ankistr- hook ancistrocladus, ancistrocactus, ancistrocheirus
ἀγκύλος ankulos ἀγκυλ-
crooked, curved[1] ancylus, angle, ankyloglossia, ancylopoda, ankylosaurid, ankylostomiasis
ἀγκύλωσις ankulōsis ἀγκυλ-ωσι- ankul-οsi- stiffening of the joints ankylosis, ankyloglossia, ankylosaurus
ἄγκυρα ankura ἀγκυρ- ankur- anchor anchoring, anchor, ankyrin
ἀγκών ankōn ἀγκων- ankon- elbow ancona, ancon, anconal
ἀγορά agorá ἀγορ- agor- marketplace agora, agoraphobia, agoranomos
ἄγρα agra -αγρα/ἀγρ- -agra/agr- seizure, trap podagra, pellagra
ἀγρός agrós ἀγρο- agro- tilled land agrobiology, agronomics, agrology
ἄγρωστις agrōstis ἀγρωστιδ- agrostid- a type of grass agrostology, agrostophyllum, agrostistachys
ἄγω, ἀγωγός agō, agōgos ἀγ- ag- I drive, lead; leader agon, anagoge, demagogue, isagoge, mystagogue, pedagogue, synagogue
ἀγών agón ἀγών- agon- contest, struggle antagonistic, agony, protagonist
ἀδελφός adelphos ἀδελφ- adelph- brother adelphopoiesis, adelphous, monadelphous,

adelphogamy, Philadelphia

ἀδήν adēn ἀδενο- adeno- gland adenoma, adenomelablastoma, adenomyosis, adenosine
ᾍδης Hades ᾉδη-/ᾉδο- hade-/hado- god of the underworld hadean, Hades, hadopelagic
ἁδρός hadros ἁδρο- hadro- thick hadron, hadrosaurus
ἀείδω aeidō -ᾠδ- -od-/-ed- to sing, praise or whistle comedian, comedy, melody, ode, parody, palinode, prosody, psalmody, rhapsody, threnody, tragedian, tragedy
ἀέριος aerios ἀέρι- aeri- of the air, aerial aerial
ἀήρ aēr ἀερο- aero-
air air; aerial, aerobic, aerobics, aerobiology, anaerobic, aerodynamics, aerofoil, aeronautics, aerobatics, airplane, aeroplane, airship
ἀθήρα athēra ἀθηρ- ather- gruel atheroma, atherosclerosis
ἆθλος âthlos ἆθλ- athl- contest, prize, struggle athlete, biathlon, decathlon, heptathlon, pentathlon, triathlon
αἰθάλη aithalē αἰθαλ- aithal- soot aethalops, ethallobarbital
αἰθήρ aithēr αἰθερ- aither- massless medium ether, ethereal
αἴγαγρος aigagros αἰγαγρ- aigagr- wild goat aegagrus, aegagropila
αἰγιαλός aigialos αἰγιαλ- aigial- beach, seashore aegialornis, aigialosaur, aegialornithidae
αἰγίς aigis αἰγιδ- aigid- armour of Zeus aegis
αἰκία aikia αἰκι- aiki- torture, suffering aecium, aeciospore
αἴλουρος ailouros αἰλουρo- ailouro- feline ailuromancy, ailurophobia, aelurodon, aeluroscalabotinae
αἳμα haima αἱμο/-αἱματ- haimo-/haimat- blood anemia, anemic, hemoglobin, hemophilia, hemophobia, hemorrhage, hemorrhoid
αἴνιγμα ainigma αἰνιγματ- ainigmat- riddle enigma
Aἴολος Aiolus Aἴολ- Aiol- Keeper of the Winds Gk. Myth Aeolic, Aeolian, Aeolotropy
αἰπεινός aipeinos αἰπειν- aipein- high, lofty aepisaurus,
αἰπύς or αἰπός aipus or aipos αἰπυ- aipu- high and steep, utter aepycamelus, aepyornis, aepyornithidae, aepyceros
αἰσθητικός aisthētikos αἰσθητ-ικ- aisthēt-ik- of sense-perception, sensitive, perceptive aesthetic, aesthetician, aestheticism, aesthete, aesthetics, anesthesia
αἰσχύνω aiskhunō αἰσχύν- aiskhun- I dishonour, shame aeschynanthus, aeschynite
αἰτία aitia αἰτι- aiti- cause etiology
αἰχμή aikhmē αἰχμ- aichm- point of a spear aechmophorus, aechmea
αἰών aiōn αἰων- eon- age eon
αἰώνιος aiōnios αἰώνι- aionι- lasting for an age aeonium, aeonian
Ἀκαδημία Akadēmia Ἀκαδημ- akadēm- the field of Academos academe, academic, academy
ἀκακία akakia ἀκακι- akaki- harmlessness acacia
ἀκαλύφη akaluphē ἀκαλυφ- acalyph- stinging-nettle acalypha, acalyphoideae
ἄκανθος akanthos ἀκανθ- acanth- thorn plant acanthus, acantharea, acanthite, acanthocephala, acanthocercus, acanthodactylus, acanthosaura
ἀκάρι akari ἀκαρ- acar- a kind of mite acarid, acariasis, acarology
ἀκόλουθος akoluthos ἀκόλουθ- akolouth- follower anacoluthon, acolyte
ἀκόνη akonē ἀκον- akon- whetstone aconitum, paragon
ἀκούω akouō ἀκου-στ- acou-st- I hear acoustic, acoustics
ἄκρος akros ἀκρο- acro- highest, topmost, end, outermost, sharp point acme, acne, acrobat, acrocephalus, acrochordidae, acrochordon, acromantula, acronym, acrotomophilia, acrophobia, acropolis, Akron, acrostic
ἀκροστιχίς akrostikhis headline, end-line acrostic
ἀκτίς aktis ἀκτινo- aktino- ray actinium, actinobacteria, actinodine, actinolite, actinometer, actinomorphic, actinomycetes, actinophryid, actinophryids, actinopteri, actinopterygii, actinozoa
ἀλάβαστρος alabastros ἀλαβαστρ- alabastr- a variety of mineral alabaster
ἀλέκτωρ alektór ἀλέκτ- alect- rooster, a cock alectorius, alectryomancy
ἀλλαντοειδής allantoeidēs ἀλλαντο-ειδ- allanto-eid- sausage-shaped allantois, allantoin
ἀλήθεια alētheia ἀληθει- alethei- truth alethiology, dialetheism
ἀλέω aleo ἀλε- ale- to grind (flour), bruise, pound aleurone, aleuromancy
ἄλγος algos ἀλγ- alg- pain -algia, arthralgia, cardialgia, cephalalgia, fibromyalgia, myalgia, neuralgia, nostalgia, odontalgia, otalgia, analgesic
ἀλείφω aleiphō ἀλειφ- aleiph- I anoint with oil aliphatic compound
ἄλκιμος alkimos ἀλκ-ιμ- alc- strong analcime, analcite
ἁλκυών halkuōn ἁλκυον- halkuon- kingfisher Alcyonaria, halcyon, Halcyon, halcyonidae
ἀλληγορῶ allēgorō ἀλληγορ- allēgor- I interpret allegorically allegory
ἄλληλον allēlon ἀλληλο- allēlo- of one another allelomorph, parallelogram
ἄλλος allos ἀλλο- allo-
other, different, strange allegory, allergy, allele, allochthon, allodium, allodontidae, allogenes, allograft, allography, allolactose, allometry, allomorph, allopath, allopatry, allophony, allopoiesis, allopurinol, allosaurus, allotroph, allotropic, allotropy
allergy, parallel, parallax, synallagmatic
ἅλς hals ἁλ- hal- salt
halogen, haloaromatic, halobacteria, halosaur
ἀλλότροπος allotropos ἀλλoτροπ- allotrop- strange allotropy, allotropes, allotropism,
ἄλυσσος alussos ἀλυσσ- alyss- a plant believed to cure rabies alyssum, Alyssa
ἄλφα alpha ἄλφα- alpha- first letter of Greek alphabet, alpha alphabet, alphabetize, alphagram, alphandia, alphanumeric, alpha particle, analphabetic
ἀλώπηξ alōpēx ἀλωπεκ- alopek- fox alopecia
ἅλως halōs ἁλω- halo- round shape, the disk of the sun, circular arcade at Delphi halo
Ἀμαζών Amazōn Ἀμαζον- Amazon- female warriors Gk. Myth. Amazon, Amazonomachy, Amazonite, Amazonia
Ἀμάλθεια Amaltheia Ἀμαλθει- Amalthei- the foster-mother of Zeus (a goat or a nymph) Amalthea
Ἀμανῖται amanitai ἀμανιτ- amanit- a kind of fungus amanita, amanitaceae
Ἀμαρυλλίς amarullis ἀμαρυλλ- amarull- name of a shepherdess Gk. Myth. amaryllis, amaryllidaceae
ἀμαύρωσις amaurōsis ἀμαυρ-ωσι- amaur-osi- blacken amaurosis, amaurobiidae
ἀμβλύς amblus ἀμβλυ- ambly- dim amblygonite, amblyopia, amblypoda
ἄμβυξ ambux ἀμβυκ- ambyk- cup alembic, alembication, alembicated
ἄμβων ambōn ἀμβων- ambon- raised edge ambo
ἄμμος ammos ἀμμο- ammo- sand ammoperdix, ammophila, ammotrechidae
ἀμμωνιακός ammōniakos ἀμμωνι- ammōni- from Ammōn ammonia, ammoniacal
ἀμμωνίς ammōnis ἀμμων- ammon- horn of Ammōn ammonite, ammonoid, ammonoidea
ἀμνός amnos ἀμν- amn- lamb amnion, amniotic, amniocentesis, amnioscope,
ἀμοιβή amoibē ἀμοιβ- amoeb- change amoeba, amoebic
ἄμυλον amulon ἄμυλ- amyl- starch amylin, amyloid, amylose, amylopectin, amylase, amyls, amylophagia, amyl
ἀμυγδαλή amugdalē ἀμυγδ- amygd- almond tree amygdala, amygdalin, amygdule
ἀμφί amphi ἀμφι- amphi- on both sides amphibian, amphibole, amphibrach, amphipoda, amphioxus, amphiglossus, amphitheater, Amphictyony, amphimacer, amphora, ampulla, amphoteric
ἀνά ana ἀνα ana again, backward, upward anabaptist, anabasis, anabatic, anabantidae, anabiosis, anabolic, anabolism, anachronism, anaclitic, anacoluthon, anacrusis, anadem, anadiplosis, anadromous, anaglyph, anagoge, anagram, analects, analemma, analeptic, analogue, analogy, analysis, analytic, anamnesis, anamorphosis, anapest, anaphora, anaphylaxis, anaplasia, anaplastic, anaplerotic, anapnoic, anaptyxis, anastomosis, anastrophe, anatase, anathema, Anatolia, anatropia, anchorite
ἀναπνοή anapnoē ἀναπνο- anapno- respiration, breathing anapnoic, anapnograph
ἄνεμος anemos ἀνεμο- anemo- wind anemometer, anemoscopy, anemoscope, anemophilous
ἀνεμώνη anemōnē ἀνεμων- anemon- lit. daughter of the wind anemone, sea-anemone
ἀνεύρυσμα aneurusma ἀνευρυσμ- aneurusm- dilation aneurysm, microaneurysm
ἀνήρ anēr ἀνδρο- andrο- man (male human) androcentrism, androgen, android, andrologist, andrology, androstephium, androsterone, misandry,

monandry, polyandry

ἀνθολόγιον anthologion ἀνθολoγι- anthologi- collection of extracts anthology, anthologist
ἄνθος anthos ἀνθο- antho- flower anthology, anthophyta, anthostema, anthogonium, Anthozoa, anthocleista, anthotype, anthocyanin, anthocerotophyta
ἀνθρακίτις anthrakitis ἀνθρακιτ- anthracit- kind of coal anthracite, anthracite iron
ἄνθραξ anthrax ἀνθρ- anthr- coal anthrax, anthracotherium, anthracosauria, anthracosis
ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos ἀνθρωπο- anthrōpo- human being anthropology, anthropomorphism, anthropopathy, anthropometrics, anthropomancy, anthropopath, anthropoglot, anthroponyms, anthroposophical, anthroponym, anthropomorphists, anthropocentrism, anthropomorphics, anthropoidea, anthropomorphous, anthroposemiotics, misanthrope, misanthropy, philanthropy, zoanthropy
ἀνιέναι anienai ἀνι- ani- to go up anion, anionic
ἄνισος anisos ἀνισο- aniso- unequal, dissimilar, uneven anisogamous, anisometric, anisometropia, anisotropic
ἄννησον annēson ἄννησ- annes- dill anise, aniseed, anisette
ἄνοδος anodos ἀνοδ- anod- way up anode, anodising
ἄνορθος anorthos ἀνορθο- anortho- sloping anorthosite, anorthoclase, anorthite
ἀντί anti ἀντ- ant- opposite, counter antacid, Antaeus, antagonist, antalgic, antarchy, antarctic, antares, anthem, antibiotic, antibody, antichrist, anticlimax, anticoagulant, anticyclone, antidepressent, antidiabetic, antidote, antifebrile, antigen, Antigone, antihero, antihistamine, antimatter, antinode, antinomy, antinomian, antioxidant, antipathy, antiperspirant, antiphon, antiphrasis, antipodes, antipope, antipyretic, antiscorbutic, antiseptic, antistatic, antistrophe, antitheism, antithesis, antitoxic, antivirus, antonym, antitrust, antitype, antonomasia
ἀνταρκτικός antarktikos ἀνταρκτικ- antarktik- Antarctic, opposite to the Arctic Antarctic, Antarctica
ἀντίφωνα antiphōna sounding in answer, concordant anthem, antiphon
ἄντρον antron ἀντρ- antr- cave, cavity antrum
ἄνυδρος anhudros ἀνυδρ- anhydr- waterless, arid anhydrite, anhydrous, anhydrobiosis
ἄξιος axios ἀξιο- axio- worthy axiological, axiology, axiology, axiom, axiomatic, axiomatisation
ἄξων axōn ἀξον- axon-
axis axoneme, axoplasm, axisymmetric
ἀόριστος aoristos ἀοριστ- aorist- indefinite aorist
ἀορτή aortē ἀορτ- aort- the great artery aortic, aorta
ἃπαξ hapax ἁπαξ- apax once hapax legomenon, hapaxes
ἀπάτη apatē ἀπατ- apat- deceit apatite, apatosaurus
ἁπλούς haplous ἁπλο- haplo- single haplodiploid, haploid, haploidisation, haplorrhini, haplotype
ἀπό apo ἀπο- apo- away from anapodeictic, apheresis, apobiosis, apocalypse, apocarteresis, apocatastisis, apochromatic, apocleisis, apocope, apocrine, apocrustic, apocrypha, apocyneous, apodeme, apodemialgia, apodictic, apodosis, apodyterium, apoenzyme, apoferritin, apogamy, apogee, apogeotropic, apograph, apohyal, apoinducer, apologue, apologetics, apology, apomixis, apomorphine, aponeurectomy, aponeurosis, apopathetic, apopemptic, apophasis, apophlegmatic, apoplexy, apoprotein, aposiopesis, apostasy, apostilb, apostle, apostrophe, apothanasia, apothecary, apothegm, apothem, apotheosis, apotropaic, apoxesis, apozem, hemapheresis
ἀποθήκη apothēkē ἀποθήκ- apothek- any place to store a thing, storehouse apothecary, boutique
ἀπόστολος apóstolos messenger apostle
ἀράχνη arakhnē ἀραχν- arachn- spider arachnid, arachnologist, arachnophobia
ἄργιλλος argillos ἀργιλλ- argill- clay argillite, argillaceous
Ἄρης Arēs ἀρεο- areo- planet Mars areocentric, areology, areography
ἀρθρίτις arthritis ἀρθριτιδ- arthritid- inflammation of joint arthritis, osteoarthritis
ἄρθρον arthron ἀρθρο- arthrο- joint arthropod, arthroscopy, arthropathy
ἄρθρωσις arthrōsis ἀρθρωσι- arthrosi- articulation dysarthria, diarthrosis, anarthrous
ἀριθμός arithmos ἀριθμ- arithm- number arithmetic, arithmocracy, logarithm
ἄριστος aristos ἀριστο- aristo- best aristocracy
Ἀρκαδία Arcadia ἀρκαδι- arcadi- area in Peloponnese, Greece, emblematic of rural peace Acadian
ἄρκτος arktos ἀρκτ- arct- bear, the northern constellation Ursa Major arctic
ἀρκτούρος arktouros ἀρκτουρ- arctur- bearward arcturus, arcturis, arcturian
ἁρμονία harmonia ἁρμονι- harmoni- agreement, harmony harmony, harmonium, harmonica, harmonisation, harmonics, enharmonic
ἁρμός harmos ἀρμ- arm- joint, shoulder harmotome
ἀρτηρία artēria ἀρτηρ- arter- windpipe, artery artery, arterial, arteritis
ἄρτιος artios ἀρτιο- artio- even artiodactyl
ἄρχω archó ἀρχ- arch- begin, first, reign, rule anarchy, antarchy, anthroparchy, archaeology, archbishop, archaic, archdeacon, archdiocese, archidiptera, archduchess, archduke, archenemy, archetype, archigram, archipelago, archrival, architect, architecture, architeuthidae, archon, archosaur, archostemata, aristarchy, autarchy, hagiarchy, heresiarch, hierarchy, matriarch, monarchy, oligarchy, patriarch, plutarchy, squirearchy, synarchy
ἄρωμα arōma ἀρωματ- aromat- spice aroma, aromatic compounds
-ας -as -αδ- suffix(-ad)- suffix Olympiad, Naiad
ἄσθμα asthma ἀσθματ- asthmat- asthma asthmatic
Ἀσία Asia Ἀσια- asia- Mythological daughter of Iapetos Asia, Asian, Asianisation, asiaphile
ἄσις asis ἀσ- as- slime, mud perioxidase, telomerase
ἀσπάραγος asparagos ἀσπαραγ- asparag- asparagus asparagus, asparagine acid, aspartame, aspartate
ἀστήρ astēr ἀστ(ε)ρ- ast(e)r- star asteroid, asterisk
ἀστράγαλος astragalos ἀστράγαλ- astragal- vertebra, knucklebone astragalus
ἄστρον astron ἀστρο- astro- constellation astronomy, astrology, astrophysics, astrodynamics, astronaut, astrolabe
ἄσυλον asulon ἀσυλ- asyl- sanctuary asylum
ἀσφυξία asphuxia ἀσφυξι- asphyxi- stopping of the pulse asphyxia
ἀταξία ataxia ἀταξ- atax- disorder ataxia, ataxy
ἀτμός atmos ἀτμο- atmo- vapor atmosphere, atmospheric
Ἄτλας Atlas ἀτλαντ- atlant- name of a Titan atlas, Atlantic
Ἀττική Attikē Ἀττικ- Attik- A region of east-central Greece attic, atticism
αὐθεντικός authentikos αὐθεντικ- authentik- original authentication, authenticity
αὐστηρός austēros αὐστηρ- auster- harsh, bitter austerity
αὐταρχία autarkhia αὐταρχι- autarchi- absolute governing autarchy, autarchism
αὐτάρκεια autarkeia αὐτάρκ- autark- self-sufficiency autarky
αὐτόχθων autokhthōn αὐτόχθον- autochthon- of the land itself autochthon, autochthon, autochthonous
αὐξάνειν auxanein αὐξ- aux- to increase auxin, auxesis
αὐτός autos αὐτο- aut- self (reflexive pronoun) authentic, autism, autobiography, autochthon, autocracy, autodidactic, autograph, autolatry, automobile, autonomy, automatic, autophobia, autopsy, autotheism
ἀφιέναι aphienai ἀφε- aphe- to let go aphesis, aphetic, aphetism
Ἀφροδίτη Aphroditē ἀφροδιτ- aphrodit- risen from sea-foam, name of a goddess aphrodisiac, aphrodisia,
ἀχάτης achatēs ἀχάτ- akhat- agate agate, agateware
ἀψίνθιον apsinthion ἀψινθι- apsinthi- alcoholic liqueur absinthe
ἁψίς hapsis ἁψιδ- apsid- arch apse, apsis, apsidal, Diapsida



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
βαθύς bathus βαθ- bath-, byss- deep abyss, abyssocottidae, abyssopelagic, bathos, bathybius, bathymetry, bathyscaphe, bathysphere
βαίνω baino βασ-, βατ- bas-, bat- to walk or step acrobat, adiabatic, anabasis, anabatic, basis, diabetes, ecbatic, hyperbaton, katabasis, katabatic
βακτηρία bactērion βακτηρι- bacteri- stick, staff bacteremia, bacteria, bactericide. bacteriocin, bacteriophage, bacteriorhodopsin, bacteriostasis, bacteriuria
βάλλω ballō βαλ- bal- to throw, hit or strike anabolic, astrobleme, balista, ballistics, ballistite, ballistocardiography, ballistospore, belomancy, catabolism, diabolic, discobolus, emblem, hyperbole, metabolism, parable, problem, symbol, symbolic, symbolism
βάλσαμον bálsamon a balsam tree balm, balsam, balsamic
βαπτίζω baptizō βαπτ-ισ- bapt-is- dip, immerse, cleanse anabaptist, baptise, baptism, baptist, baptistery, pedobaptism
βάρβαρος barbaros βαρβαρο- barbaro- stranger, a non-Greek barbarian, barbarism,
βάρος baros βαρο- baro- weight barology, barometer, isobar, millibar
βαρύς barus βαρυ- baru- heavy baryon, baritone
βασιλεύς basileus βασιλ- basil- king basil, basilica, basilicon, basilisk
βάτραχος batrakhos βατραχ- batrakh- frog Batrachia, batrachite, Batrachophagous, Batrachochytrium, Ophidobatrachia
βδέλλα bdella βδελλ- bdell- leech bdelloidea
βήτα beta βήτα- beta- second letter of Greek alphabet, beta alphabet, beta, betamax
βιβλίον biblion βιβλιο- biblio- book bible, bibliography, bibliolatry, bibliomancy, bibliomania, bibliophile, bibliotherapy
βίος bios βιο- bio- life antibiotic, autobiography, biography, biology, biopsy, bios
βλαστός blastos βλαστο- blasto- sprout, germ blastoderm, blastoid, blastoma, blastula
βλάσφημος blasphēmos βλασφημ- blasphem- To speak of God in an irreverent manner blaspheme
βουλή boulē βουλ- boul- will abulia, boule, hyperboulia
βούτυρον boútȳron butter butter, butyric, butyl
βορέας boreas βορε- bore- north, the north wind Aurora Borealis, hyperborean
βόσκω bosko βοs- bot- to feed, to tend botanist, botomancy
βοῦς bous βου- bou- ox boustrophedon, bulimia, bugloss (βούγλωσσος)
βραχύς brakhus βραχυ- brakhu- short brachycephalic
βραδύς bradus βραδύ- bradu- slow bradycardia, bradykinin, bradyphrasia, bracyseism
βρῶμος brōmos βρωμ- brom- stink bromate, bromide, bromidrosis, bromine, bromocriptine, bromargyrite
βρόγχος bronkhos βρογχ- bronkh- windpipe bronchiole, bronchitis, bronchocele, bronchophony, bronchoscopy, bronchotomy, bronchus
βροντή brontē βροντ(ο)- bront(o)- thunder brontology, brontosaurus, brontotheriidae
βρύο bryo βρύο- bryo- to bloom, to teem, moss (in noun form) bryochore, bryology, Bryony, bryophile, bryophyte, embryectomy, embryo, embryogenesis, embryology
βυθός buthos βυθ- byth- the depth bythometer, bythometric, bythometrical



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
γάδος gados γαδ- gad- cod Gadidae
γαῖα, γῆ gaia, gē γη/γεω- ge-/geo- earth apogee, geology, Gaia, geochronology, geometry, geography, perigee, geothermy, georeference, geophysics, geomagnetism, geoscience
γάλα gala γαλακτ(ο)- galact(o)- milk galactose, galactosemia, galactosamine, galax, galaxy
γαλέα galea γαλε- gale- galley galley
γάλιον galion γάλιον- galion bedstraw galium
γάμμα gamma γαμμα gamma gamma gammadion, gamut
γάμος gamos γαμ- gam- marriage agamia, agamidae, bigamy, hierogamy, gamete, monogamy, polygamy
γάγγλιον ganglion γαγγλι- gangli- subcutaneous tumour ganglion, ganglionectomy
γάγγραινα gangraina γάγγραινα gangraina gangrene gangrene
γάνος ganos γανο- gano- bright ganodonta
γαστήρ gastēr γαστ(ε)ρ(ο)- gast(e)r(o)- stomach gasteromycete, gastrectomy, gastritis, gastroenterology, gastrolith, gastromancy, gastronomy, gastropoda
γῆρας gēras γηρατ- gerat- old age geriatric
γέρανος geranos γεραν- geran- crane geranium
γέρων gerōn γεροντ- geront- old man gerontocracy, gerontology, gerousia
γεύειν geuein γευ- geu- to taste ageusia, ageustia, hypergeusia, parageusia
γιγνῶσκω gignōskein γνω- gnō-
to know anagnorisis, agnostic, agnostida, diagnostic, gnomic, gnomon, gnosis, gnostic
γίγας gigas γιγαντ- gigant- huge, enormous giant, gigabyte, gigantic
γίγνομαι gignomai γεν-, γoν- gen-, gon- to come into being or be born angiogenesis, anthropogeny, Antigone, biogenesis, epigone, ethnogenesis, eugenics, genetic, genesis, gene, genocide, genus, gonad, heterogeneous, homogeneous, monogeny, morphogenesis, ontogeny, oogenesis, oogonia, orogeny, parthenogenesis, phylogenesis, polygenesis, psychogenesis, spermatogenesis
γλαυκός glaukos γλαυκ- glauk- blue-green, gray glaucoma, glauconite
γλοιός gloios γλοι(ο)- gloi(o)- gluey glioblastoma, glioma, gliosarcoma, gliosis, gliotoxin, gloeocapsa
tongue anthropoglot, diglossia, epiglottis, epiglottitis, gloss, glossary, glossodynia, glossematics, glossolalia, glossopteris, glottis, glottochronology, idioglossia, isogloss, monoglottism, polyglot, proglottid, xenoglossy
γλουτός gloutos γλουτ- glout- buttock gluteus
γλυφή gluphē γραφ- glyph- carving, carved work glyph, glyptodon, hieroglyphic, petroglyph
γλυκύς glukus γραφ- glyk- sweet glucosamine, glucose, glycemia, glyceria, glyceride, glycerol, glycine, glycolysis
γλῶσσα glōssa γλωσσ-, γλωτ- gloss-, glot- tongue, language epiglottis, glossary, glossolalia, polyglot
γλωχίς glōkhis γλωχιν- glokhin- arrow-head glochidium
γνάθος gnathos γναθ(ο)- gnath(o)- jaw gnathitis, gnathopod, gnathostomata
γοητεία goēteia γοητεία goeteia witchcraft goety
γόμφος gomphos γόμφ- gomph bolt gomphosis
γόνυ, γωνία gonu, gōnia γόν-, γωνι- gon-, goni- knee, angle decagon, diagonal, dodecagon, enneagon, goniolatry, goniometer, gonioscopy, goniotomy, hecatogon, hendecagon, heptagon, hexagon, icosagon, octagon, orthogon, orthogonal, pentagon, polygon, tetragon, trigonometry
γράμμα gramma γραμμ- gram(m)- letter grammar, autogram, grammatic, agrammatism
γράφω graphō γραφ- graph- I write autograph, biography, graphics, geography, xerography, stratigraphy, epigraphy, graphology, pornography, pyropgraphy
γρύψ grups γρυπ- gryp- griffin griffin
γυνή gunē γυναικ- gunaik- woman gynaeceum, gynaecocracy, gynecology, gynocentrism, misogynist, polygyny
γύρος gyros γυρο- gyro- round, ring, circle gyration, gyromancy, gyroscope, gyrostat



Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
δαίμων daimōn δαιμον- daimon- a divine being (in Classical Greek), an evil spirit (in New Testament Greek) daimon, demon, demonology
δάκρυον dakruon δακρυο- dakruo- tear dacryocystitis, dacryon
δάκτυλος daktulos δακτυλ- daktul- finger dactyl, dactyliomancy, dactylosaurus, dactylitis, pterodactyl
δάμαζω damazo δαμα- dama- to tame, to break (in) or conquer adamant, damalis, diamond
δασύς dasus δασυ- dasu- thick, dense dasylirion, dasymeter, dasypeltis
δέκα deka δεκα- deka- ten decade, decagon, decalogue, decameron, decamethonium, decasyllable, decathlon
δέλτα delta δελτ- delt- the letter delta, triangular delta, deltoid
δελτίον deltion δελτιο- deltio- small writing tablet deltiology
δελφίς delphis δελφιν- dolphin- dolphin dolphin, dolphinarium
δέμνιον demnion δεμν- demn- bed didemnum
δένδρον dendron δενδρ(ο)- dendr(o)- tree dendrite, dendrochronology, dendroclimatology, dendrogram, dendrology, liriodendron, Philodendron, rhododendron, Toxicodendron
δέρμα derma δερμ[α]- derm(a)- skin dermatoglyphics, dermatology, dermatome, dermatomyositis, dermatophyte, dermis, epidermis
δεύτερος deuteros δευτερο- deutero- second deuteragonist, deuterium, Deuteronomy
δέω deó δη- de- bind, tie, fasten asyndeton, diadem, syndetic
δῆλος delos δηlo- delo- clear, evident, manifest adelopod, adelospondylus, adelophagi, adelophryne, psychedelic
δῆμος dēmos δημο- demo- people, power demagogy, deme, demiurge, democracy, demographic, demography, demotic, Dimotiki, endemism, epidemic, pandemic
διά dia δια dia through adiabatic, archdeacon, deacon, diabetes, diabolic, diachronic, diacritic, diadem, diagnosis, diagonal, diagram, dialectic, dialogue, dialysis, diaper, diaphanous, diaphragm, diarrhea, diaspora, diastase, diastole, diatessaron, diatom, diameter, diamond, dianetics, diatonic, diatribe
δίαιτα diaita way of life, regimen diet
διάβολος diabolos slanderer, accuser, devil devil, diabolic, diablotin
διάκονος diakonos διάκονος dia temple official, deacon deacon, archdeacon
διάλογος dialogos discussion dialogue
διδάσκω didaskō διδασκ- didask- I teach didactic, Didache
δίδυμος didumos διδυμ- didum- double, twofold, twin didymium, epididymis
δίηγησις diēgēsis διηγησι- diegesi- narration, narrative diegesis
διοίκησις dioikēsis διοικησι- dioikesi housekeeping, management diocese
δίοπτρον dioptron a means of seeing through, various optical instruments dioptre
δίς, δύο dis-, duo- δίς-, δί-, διχο-, δυo- dis-, di-, duo- twice, two diatomic, dichogamy, dichotomy, dicotyledon, dioxide, diphthong, dipolar, dissect, disulfide, disyllable, duo, duopoly
διφθέρα diphthera διφθερ- diphther- skin, hide, piece of leather diphtheria
δοκέω dokeó δοκ-, δόξ- doc-, dox- believe, have an opinion, imagine, understand chionodoxa, docetism, doxology, doxography, heterodoxy, orthodoxy, paradox, paradoxology, paradoxurus, synecdoche
δράκων drákōn snake, dragon dragon, draconian (cf. Draco), dragoon
δράσις drasis δρασι- drasi- action drastic
δρόμος dromos δρομ- drom- racing, running, racecourse, course aerodrome, anadromous, dromaeosauridae, dromedary, dromograph, dromomania, dromometer, dromos, dromotropic, hippodrome, hydrodrome, motordrome, palindrome, prodrome, syndrome
δύναμις dunamis δυν- dun- power, strength, force adynamia, adynamic, aerodynamics, aerodyne, amplidyne, autodyne, dynameter, dynamicism, dynamics, dynamism, dynamite, dynamo, dynamometer, dynamotor, dynasty, dynatron, dyne, electrodynamics, heterodyne, hydrodynamics, isodynamic, magnetohydrodynamics, metadyne, neutrodyne, psychodynamics, superheterodyne, thermodynamics
δυσ- dys- δυσ- dys- English prefix either un- or mis- dysentery, dysfunction, dyslexia, dyspepsia, dysphemism, dysphoria, dysplasia, dysprosium, dystopia, dystrophy



Citation form Root form Meaning English derivatives
ἑβδομάς hebdomas ἑβδομαδ- hebdomad- week hebdomad
ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία[2]
     -  enkuklios paideia
        -   enkuklopaidei-
encyclopedia, lit. circular, general education encyclopedia, encyclopedic
ἑγώ egō ἐγω- ego- I, me, my ego, egocentrism
εἰκών eikōn εἰκoν- eikon- icon, picture, painting, reality, kind icon, iconicity, iconoclast
εἰδῶ eidó εἰδ- eid-, oid- see, behold, perceive adenoid, alkaloid, amyloid, android, aneuploidy, anthropoid, arachnoid, asteroid, carotenoid, celluloid, choroid, colloid, corticosteroid, crinoid, cuboid, deltoid, diploid, droid, eidetic, eidolon, ellipsoid, factoid, fibroid, hemorrhoid, hominoid, humanoid, hyoid, hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, kaleidoscope, keloid, mastoid, meteoroid, mongoloid, negroid, opioid, ovoid, paranoid, polyploidy, rheumatoid, rhizoid, rhomboid, sarcoid, scaphoid, schizoid, sigmoid, sinusoid, solenoid, sphenoid, steroid, tabloid, thyroid, trapezoid, typhoid, xiphoid
εἰρήνη eirēnē εἰρην- eiren- peace, harmony irene
ἔκλειψις ekleipsis ἑκλειψι- ekleipsi- eclipse eclipse, eclipsis, ecliptic
ἔλαιον elaion ἐλαι- elai- oil olive, el(a)eo-, oil, oleo-, vaseline
ἐλαστικός elastikos ἐλαστικ- elastik- elastic elastic, elasticity
ἐλεημοσύνη eleēmosýnē pity, mercy alms, eleemosynary
ἕλιξ helix ἑλικ- helik- helix helix, helicopter, helicity
ἑλλέβορος helléboros hellebore hellebore
ἔλλειψις elleipsis ἐλλειψι- elleipsi- ellipse ellipse, ellipsis, ellipsoid, ellipticity
ἔμφασις emphasis έμφασι- emphasi- emphasis emphasis, emphasize, emphatic
ἔμϕυτος émphytos implanted, engrafted imp
ἐνέργεια energeia ενέργει- energei- energy energetic, energize, energy
ἐγκαυστικός enkaustikós burning in, encaustic encaustic
ἐπί epi επ- ep- upon, above anepigraphic, eparch, epiglottis, epigone, epigraph, episcopacy, epistemology, epistle, epoch, epode, eponym, epoxy
ἐπίσκοπος epískopos overseer, bishop bishop, archbishop
επιστολή epistolē message, letter epistle
ἔργον ergon ἐργ- erg- action, deed, practice, work erg, ergative, ergonomics, parergon, zymurgy
Ἑρμῆς Hermēs Ἑρμ- herm- messenger of the gods Hermeticism, Hermetic, hermeneutics,
ἑρπετόν herpeton ἑρπετό- herpeto- creeping animal herpetology
ἐρυθρός eruthros ἐρυθρ- erythr- red erysipelas, erysipeloid, Erythrina, erythrism, erythrite, erythritol, erythroblast, erythroblastosis, erythrocyte, erythrocytosis, erythrolitmin, erythromycin, erythronium, erythropoiesis, erythropoietin, erythrose
ἑπτά hepta ἑπτα- hepta- seven heptagon, heptameter, heptarchy, heptathlon
ἕτερος heteros ἑτερο- hetero- different heterogeneous, heterogram, heterosexual, heterozygous
ἔτυμος etumos ἔτυμ- etym- true etymology
εὖ eu εὐ- eu- well, good eucharist, eugenics, eukaryote, eulogy, eunomia, euphemism, euphoria, evangelism
εὐρύς eurus ευρυ- eury- wide eurypterid



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ζήλος zēlos ζηλ- zel- zeal, jealousy jealous, overzealous, zeal, zealot, zelotypia
ζημία zémia ζημ- zem- damage, loss zemiology
ζητῶ zētō ζητε- zete- search, inquire zetetic
ζέφυρος zephuros ζεφυρ- zephyr- west wind zephyr
ζίζυφον zizuphon ζίζυφον zizuphon jujube ziziphus
ζόφος zophos ζόφ- zoph- darkness, gloom zophos, zophotermes
ζώννυμι zonnymi ζω- zō- to gird, gird on, put on one's girdle zone, zoster
ζῷον zōon ζῳο- zōo- animal azoospermia, bryozoa, cryptozoa, cryptozoology, Mesozoa, metazoon, placozoa, protozoa, protozoology, spermatozoon, zoantharia, zoanthropy, zoochlorella, zodiac, zoea, zoetrope, zoo, zoogeography, zoography, zoolatry, zoology, zoomorphism, zoophilia, zoophyte, zooplasty, zoopraxiscope, zoospore, zootomy, zooxanthella
ζυγόν zugon ζυγ- zyg- yoke syzygy, zeugma, zygon, zygospore, zygote
ζύμη zumē ζυμ- zym- leaven azyme, enzyme, exoenzyme, isoenzyme, isozyme, lysozyme, pancreozymin, ribozyme, zymase, zymogen, zymology, zymosis, zymurgy



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἡγεμῶν hēgemōn ἡγεμον- hēgemon- leader eisegesis, exegesis, hegemony
ἡδύς hēdus ἡδυ- hēdu- sweet hedychium
ἦθος ēthos ἠθ- ēth- moral ethics, ethos
ἥλιος hēlios ἡλιο- hēlio- sun anthelion, aphelion, helianthus, heliocentric, heliochrome, helion, heliodon, heliograph, heliography, heliometer, helioscope, helioseismology, heliostat, heliotropic, heliotropism, helium, parhelion, perihelion
ἡμέρα hēmera ἡμέρ- hēmer- day ephemeral, ephemeris, ephemeron, hemera, hemeralopia, Hemerobiidae, hemerocallis, nycthemeron
ἠώς ēōs ἠο- ēo- dawn eocene, eolith, eosin, eosinophil, eozoon



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
θάνατος thanatos θανατ- thanat- death euthanasia, thanatology, thanatosis
θεός theos θε- the- a god atheism, theocracy, theology, theism
θέσις thesis θέσ- thes- thesis thesis
θεωρία theōria θεωρι- theori- theory theory, theorem, theoretical
θεράπων therapon θεράπ- therap- waiting man, servant, service to others aromatherapy, bibliotherapy, chemotherapy, cryotherapy, hydrotherapy, hypnotherapy, narcotherapy, physiotherapy, psychotherapy, radiotherapy, therapeutics, therapy
θερμός thermos θερμ- therm- hot endothermic, exothermic, geothermic, hyperthermia, hypothermia, isotherm, thermal, thermochemistry, thermochronology, thermocouple, thermodynamic, thermoelectric, thermography, thermonuclear, thermoplastic, thermos, thermosphere, thermostat
θησαυρός thēsauros θησαυρ- thesaur- storehouse, treasure thesaurus, treasure, treasury
θρηνῳδία threnōĭdia - - a dirge threnody
θρόνος thronos θρον- thron- an elevated seat dethronement, enthronement, throne
θέατρο theatro θέα- thea- building, part of a building, or outdoor structure used for the presentation of plays, films, or other dramatic performances. The act of performing. , theater, theatre
θυρεοειδής thureoeidēs θυρεοειδ- thyr(e)oid, thyr(e)o- oblong shield, Galen calls the thyroid χόνδρος θυρεοειδής (shield-shaped cartilage) thyroid, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism; thyroxine
θύω thuo θυ- thy- to sacrifice or kill thyme



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἰατρός iatros ἰατρ(ο)- iatr(o)- physician, healer psychiatrist, geriatrics
ἴδιος idiοs ἰδιο- idio- one's own, pertaining to oneself, private idiom, idiopathy, idiophone, idiosyncrasy, idiot
ἱερός hieros ἱερο- hiero- sacred hierarchy, hieroglyph, hierocracy
ἴππος hippos ἱππ(ο)- hipp(o)- horse hipparch, hippeastrum, hippocampus, hippodrome, hippogriff, hippology, hippophagy, hippophile, hippopotamus, hippuris, hippus, Phillip, Philippines
ἴσος isos ἱσο- iso- equal to, the same as isobar, isocephalic, isochronous, isocracy, isokinetic, isomer, isometric, isomorphic, isopod, isosceles, isostacy, isothermal, isotonic, isotope, isotropic, anisotropic, pantisocracy
ἵστημι\ἵσταναι histemi/histanai ἵστo-, ἵστa-, sta- histo-, hista-, sta- to stand up or establish anastasia, apostasy, astatic, ecstasy, epistasis, gyrostat, heliostat, histidine, histogram, histology, histone, homeostasis, hydrostatic, metastasis, stater, system, stadium, static, thermostat
ἱστορία historia ἱστορι- histori- history ahistorical, history, historian,
ἰέναι ienai εἰ/οἰ/ἰ/ἰοντ- ei-/oi-/i-/iont- go anion, ion
ἰχθύς ikhthus ἰχθυ- ikhthu- fish ikhthus, ichthyology


k, c

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivatives
καθέδρα kathédra chair chair, cathedral, chaise
καίω kaio to light, set on fire see καυστικός, καυστός, ἐγκαυστικός, ὁλόκαυ(σ)τος
κακός kakos κακο- kako- bad, evil cacochymy, cacodemon, cacodyl, cacoethes, cacology, caconym, cacophony, cacotopia, cacoxenite
καλέω kaleo καλ-
kalo-, kalli- to call or summon ecclesiastic, paraclete
καλός kalos καλο-
kalo-, kalli- beautiful calotype, calligraphy, calisthenics, kaleidoscope
καλύπτω kalupto καλυπτ-
I cover apocalypse, apocalypticism, calyptra, calyptrogyne, eucalyptus
κάμηλος < Semitic kámēlos camel camel
κάναστρον kánastron wicker basket canister
κάννα kánna reed cane, cannon
κάνναβις kánnabis hemp cannabis, canvas
κάμμαρος kammaros καμμαρ- kammar- sea-crab, lobster gammaridae
κανών kanōn a rule canon, canonical
καπνός kapnos καπνo- kapno- smoke capnography, capnomancy, capnometer, capnomor, capnophile
καρπός karpos καρπ- carp- fruit, result, profit acarpous, artocarpus, ascocarp, carpel, carpolite, carpology, dipterocarpaceae, discocarpus, endocarp, exocarp, hydnocarpus, lithocarpus, macrocarpa, mericarp, mesocarp, monocarpic, oligocarpus, parthenocarpy, pericarp, physocarpus, pilocarpine, podocarp, polycarpic, schizocarp, sporocarp, stenocarpus, trachycarpus
κάρυον karuon κάρυον karuon nut dikaryon, eukaryotic
κατά kata κατά- kat(a)- downwards, along acatalepsy, autocatalysis, catabolism, catachresis, cataclysm, catadioptrics, catagenesis, cataglottis, catalepsy, catalysis, catalog, cataphora, cataplasm, cataplexy, catapult, cataract, catarrh, catasetum, catastasis, catasterism, catastrophe, catastrophic, catastrophism, catatonia, katabasis, catoptric, catoptromancy, catoptrophobia
καυστικός kaustikós καυστικ- caustic- capable of burning, caustic caustic, encaustic
καυστός kaustós capable of being burnt holocaust
κεντέω kenteo κέντ- cent- to prick (a point), goad, sting amniocentesis, androcentrism, anthropocentrism, center, central
κέρας keras κερατ(ο)- kerat(o)- horn ceratopsid, ceratosaurus, keratin, rhinoceros, triceratops
κεραυνός keraunós κεραυνo- kerauno- a thunderbolt ceraunics, ceraunograph, ceraunomancy, ceraunoscopy, keraunomedicine, keraunoparalysis, keraunopathy
κεφαλή kephalē κεφαλ- cephal- head acanthocephalan, acephaly, acrocephalas, anencephalic, bicephalous, brachycephalic, cephalalgia, cephalomancy, cephalopod, cephalothorax, cephalic, encephalitis, hydrocephalus, isocephalic, macrocephalic, microcephalic
κηρός keros κηρό- kero- bees-wax cere, ceromancy, kerosene
κήτος kētos κητο kēto- sea monster, whale cetacea, cetology
κιθάρα kithara κιθαρ- kithar- lute guitar, zither
κινῆσθαι kinēsthai κινησι- kines- to move, motion kinetic energy, kinesis, psychokinesis
κίνημα kinēma κινηματ- kinemat- movement cinema, cinematic, cinematography
κίρκος, κρίκος kírkos, kríkos ring, circle circus, circle
κίστη kístē a box or chest chest (furniture), cistern
κλάω klaó κλα- cla- to break or break off clastic, iconoclast, pyroclastic
κλέπτω klépto κλέπτ- klept- thief klepto, kleptomania, kleptocracy, kleptarchy
κλῆρος kléros κλῆρ- cler- a lot, portion cleric, clerk, cleromancy
κλίνω klino κλι- kli- to make slope or slant, to bend, to rest aclinic, climate, climatic, climatology, climax, clinic, clinomania, clinotherapy, geosyncline, matroclinous, monoclinic, syncline
κλών klōn κλων- klōn- branch, twig clone, cloning
κόλλα kólla κόλ- col- glue collage, collagen, collin, colloid, protocol
κόκκος kókkos berry coccus, streptococcus, staphylococcus, etc.; sarcococca
κόκκυξ kókkyx cookoo coccyx, coccygo-, coccy-
κολοσσός, κολοττός kolossos, kolottos a statue of a person, especially a large one used in ritual Colossus, colosseum, colossal
κόπρος kopros κόπρο- koprο- dung, manure coprolalia, coprolite, coprology, coprophagy, coprophilia
κόπτω koptō kop- kop- cut, cut off, strike, smite apocope, coppice, copse, syncopate
κόσμος kosmos κοσμ- kosm- order, the universe, jewel cosmetic, cosmography, cosmology, cosmological, cosmic, cosmical, cosmopolitan
κράτος kratos κρα- cra- power, rule androcracy, arithmocracy, aristocracy, autocracy, bureaucracy, democracy, gerontocracy, hagiocracy, hierocracy, isocracy, kleptocracy, meritocracy, mesocracy, mobocracy, moneyocracy, ochlocracy, pedantocracy, pigmentocracy, plutocracy, psephocracy, stratocracy, slavocracy, technocracy, theocracy, timocracy
κρίνω krinō κρίσ-, κρίτ-, κρίν- cris-, crit-, crin- to judge or decide apocrine, crisis, critic, diacritic, endocrine, hypocrite
κριτήριον kritērion a test or standard criterion
κρόκος < Semitic krókos crocus, saffron crocus
κρύος kruos κρυ- cry-, cru- frost, ice, cold cryobiology, cryogenic, cryolite, cryonics, cryophilic, cryopreservation, cryoprobe, cryoprotectant, cryoscope, cryosphere, cryostat, cryosurgery, cryotherapy, crystal
κρύσταλλος krýstallos crystallo- clear ice, rock crystal crystal
κρυπτός kruptos κρυπτ- krupt- hidden apocrypha, cryptology, encryption
κῦδος kūdos κυδ kūd- glory, fame kudos
κύκλος kuklos κυκλ(ο) kukl(o)- ring, circle, round bicycle, cyclamen, cycle, cyclic, cyclomancy, cyclone, cyclops, cyclorama, cyclotron, encyclopedia, motorcycle, recycle, tetracycline, tricycle, unicycle
κῦμα kuma κυματ kumat- wave cymatium, myokymia
κύμβαλον kýmbalon cymbal cymbal, chime (?), cimbalom
κύμῑνον < Semitic? kýmīnon cumin cumin
κυπάρισσος kypárissos cypress cypress
Κύπρος Kýpros Cyprus copper
κυριακός kyriakós κυριακὸν (δῶμα) (house) of the lord church[3]
κύτος kýtos κυτ- kut- hollow, receptacle cyto- (cell): cytology, cytoplasm, cytosine, cytotoxic; -cyte (type of cell): leukocyte, lymphocyte, oocyte, phagocyte, pinocytosis, syncytial
κύων, κυνός kuōn, kunos κυν- kun- dog cynanthropy, cynic, cynicism, cynocephaly, cynodont, cynosure
κύστη kustē κυστ- kust- cyst, bladder cyst, cystectomy, cysteine, cysticercosis
κῶμα kōma κωμ- koma- deep sleep coma
κῶμoς kōmos κωμ- com- village festival, merry-making comedy, comic, encomium



Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
λαμβάνω / λήψω lambanō, lepso λήψ- leps- receive, take, seize epilepsy, narcolepsy
λαός laos λαο- lao/laik- people laic, laicism, laity
λάτρον latron λατρ- latr- pay, hire (a servant) archæolatry, astrolatry, autolatry, bardolatry, basileiolatry, chronolatry, cosmolatry, cynolatry, demonolatry, gastrolatry, goniolatry, hagiolatry, heliolatry, hierolatry, hydrolatry, ichthyolatry, idolatry, litholatry, lordolatry, Mariolatry, martyrolatry, necrolatry, phytolatry, plutolatry, poetolatry, pseudolatry, pyrolatry, theolatry, theriolatry, topolatry, vexillolatry, zoolatry
λέγω legō λεγ/λογ- leg-/log- to say or choose analects, eclectic, dialect, epistemology, phraseology
λήθαργος lēthargos ληθαργ- letharg- forgetful lethargy, Lethe
λείριον leírion lily lily; liriodendron
λέξις lexis λεξι- lexi- word alexia, dyslexia, lexicography, lexicon
λέων léōn λεοντ- leont- lion lion; leontiasis, leontodon
λεόπαρδος leópardos leopard leopard
λευκός leukos λευκο- leuko- white leukemia, leukocyte, leucogranite, leucoma
λήγω lēgo ληγ- leg- to cease or stop acatalectic, catalectic
λἢμμα lēmma λημμα- lemma- assumption, premise dilemma, lemma
λίθος lithos λιθο- litho- stone acrolith, batholith, coccolith, coprolith, cystolith, eolith, gastrolith, laccolith, lithate, lithiasis, lithography, lithology, lithomancy, lopolith, megalith, microlith, monolith, neolithic, otolith, paleolith, Paleolithic, phacolith, phytolith, protolith, regolith, tonsillolith, xenolith
λόγος logos λογο- logo- thought, word analogy, anthology, anthropology, apology, biology, cardiology, catalog, dialogue, epilogue, gemology, geology, horology, logic, logotype, mineralogy, monologue, oncology, oology, ophthalmology, paleontology, pathology, philology, prologue, tetralogy, trilogy, theology, typology, zoology
λύω luō λυ-/λυ-σι- lū-si- break, loosen, dissolve analysis, catalysis, dialysis, electrolysis, hydrolysis, lysis, paralysis, Lysistrata



Citation form Root form Meaning English derivatives
μαθηματικός mathēmatikos μαθηματικ- mathēmatik- fond of learning mathematical, mathematics, polymath
μακρός makros μακρο- makro- long macrobiotic, macroeconomics, macron
μάλαγμα malagma μαλαγματ- amalagmat- that can be softened amalgam, amalgamation
μανία mania μανί- mani- madness, passion, frenzy arithmomania, bibliomania, dipsomania, egomania, erotomania, graphomania, hippomania, hypermania, hypomania, kleptomania, mania, megalomania, micromania, monomania, morphinomania, narcomania, nymphomania, oniomania, plutomania, pyromania, trichotillomania
μανός manos μαν- man- loose, rare manograph, manometer, manoscope
μάντις mantis μαν- man- one who divines, see, prophet ailuromancy, alectryomancy, aleuromancy, amniomancy, anthropomancy, arachnomancy, arithmancy, astromancy, austromancy, belomancy, bibliomancy, botanomancy, capnomancy, cartomancy, catoptromancy, cephalomancy, ceraunomancy, ceromancy, chiromancy, chronomancy, cleromancy, cyclomancy, dactyliomancy, daphnomancy, demonomancy, enoptomancy, felidomancy, geomancy, gastromancy, geomancy, gyromancy, halomancy, heiromancy, hippomancy, hydromancy, ichthyomancy, kephalomancy, lampadomancy, lecanomancy, lithomancy, logomancy, metopomancy, myomancy, necromancy, narcomancy, oenomancy, oneiromancy, onomancy, ophiomancy, orthinomancy, osteomancy, pedomancy, pegomancy, praying mantis, psephomancy, psychomancy, pyromancy, rhabdomancy, rhapsodomancy, scapulimancy, sciomancy, selenomancy, spodomancy, technomancy, tephramancy, tasseomancy, theomancy, zoomancy
Μαραθών Marathōn a place-name, Marathon marathon, the non-Greek back-formation -athon: walkathon
μάρμαρος marmaros μαρμ- marm- crystalline rock marble
μαρτυρία marturia μαρτυρ- martur- testimony martyr
μαστός mastos μαστ- mast- breast mastectomy, mastitis, mastodon, mastoid
μέγας, μέγιστος megas, megistos μεγα-
big, great, large; greatest megabyte, megafauna, megaphone, megalomania, megalopolis; almagest (via Arabic), Hermes Trismegistus
μέθοδος methodos μεθοδ- method- following after, pursuit, method, system method, methodical, Methodist
μέλας melas μελαν- melan- pigmented, black, ink melancholy, melanesia, melanie, melanocyte, melanoma
μέλος melos μέλο- melo- music, song, melody melodrama, melody, melisma
μέσος mesos μέσο- meso- middle, between, in the midst of mesial, Mesoamerica, mesocracy, mesoderm, mesolithic, Meseomorphic, mesosphere, Mesozoic
Μεσσίας Messias Μεσσία- Messia- Messiah, the Anointed One Messiah, messianic
μέταλλον metallon μεταλλ- metal- mine, quarry, metal metal, metallic, metalloid, trimetallic
μετέωρος meteōros μετεωρ- meteor- raised from the ground, hanging meteor, meteorite, meteoroid, meteorology
μετρώ metrō μετρ- metr- I measure diameter, geometry, horometry, metre, metrology, symmetry
μήτηρ meter μήτηρ- matr- mother endometriosis, endometrium, matriarch, matroclinous
μήνη mēnē μήν- mēn- moon meniscoid, meniscus, menispermum
μηχανή mēkhanē μηχαν- mēchan- machine machine, mechanics, mechanism
μικρός mikros μικρο- mikro- small micron, microscope
μῖμος mimos μιμ- mim- imitator mime, mimesis, mimetic, mimic
μῖσος misos μισ- mīs- hatred misandry, misanthrope, misogyny
μίτος mitos μίτ- mit- thread mitochondrion, mitogen, mitogenesis, mitome, mitosis
μνῆμη mnēmē μνη- mne- memory amnesia, amnesty, Mneme, mnemonic
μοναστήριον monastḗrion monk's cell, monastery monastery
μόναρχος mónarkhos absolute ruler monarch
μοναχός monakhós solitary monk
μόνος monos μονο- mon-, mono- alone, only, single monarchy, monastery, monatomic, monk, monoceros, monochromatic, monocle, monoculture, monogamy, monogeny, monogram, monograph, monolith, monologue, monomania, monomer, monometallic, mononuclear, monophysite, monoplane, monopoly, monopsony, monorail, monosyllable, monotheist, monotony, monotype, monoxide
μορφή morphē μορφ- morph- form amorphous, anamorphic, anthropomorphous, biomorphous, dimorphous, ectomorph, endomorph, heteromorphic, isomorphic, mesomorph, metamorphosis, morph, morpheme, Morpheus, morphine, morphology, morphometrics, pleomorphic, polymorphism, pseudomorph
μωρός mōros μωρο- moro- dull moron, oxymoron
Μοῦσα Mousa μουσ- mous- a patron goddess of the arts Muse, museum, music
μῦθος muthos μυθ- myth- word, speech, tale, story myth, mythical, mythography, mythology
μύκης mukēs μυκητ- mukēt- mushroom, fungus classical roots are myces, myceto-, -mycete: actinomycetes, apophysomyces, gasteromycete, oomycete; but the most common form is the non-classical myco-: mycology, mycosis, mycophage; other irregular formations include -mycin: streptomycin, erythromycin, gasteromycete, mycology, mycosis, oomycete
μῦς mus μυο- muo/myo- mouse, muscle myo-, fibromyalgia, muscle, myasthenia, myoblast, myocarditis, myoclonus, myocyte, myoglobin



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
νάνος nanos νανο- nano- dwarf nanometry, nanosecond, nanotechnology
νάρκισσος nárkissos Narcissus narcissus
νάρθηξ narthēx ναρθηκ- narthek giant fennel narthex
νάρκη narkē νάρκ- narc- numbness, deadness narcoanalysis, narcodiagnosis, narcodollar, narcohypnosis, narcolepsy, narcology, narcomancy, narcomania, narcosis, narcosynthesis, narcoterrorism, narcotherapy, narcotic
ναυτικός nautikos ναυτ- naut- sailor, ship aeronautics, astronaut, astronautics, naumachia, nausea, nautical, nautilus
νεκρός nekros νεκρο- nekro- dead, a corpse necromancy, necrophilia, necrophobia, necropolis, necrosis, nectar
νέος neos νεο- neo- new, young neon, neologism, neolithic, neopaganism, neophyte, neo-
νεῦρον neuron νευρ(ο)- neur(o)- nerve, sinew neuralgia, neurapraxia, neurasthenia, neurectomy, neurine, neuritis, neurobiology, neurochemistry, neurogenesis, neurolemma, neurolinguistics, neurology, neuron neuropathy, neurosis
νεφρός nephros νεφρ(ο)- nephr(o)- kidney nephrectomy, nephritis, nephrology, nephron, nephropathy, nephrosis, nephrotomy
νίκη nikē νικ- nik- victory Berenice, Veronica, Nike
νόος noos νοο- noo- mind noosphere, nootropic, paranoia, paranoid
νόσος nosos νοσο- noso- disease nosology
νόστος nostos νοστ- nost- return home nostalgia, nostalgic, nostos
νύμφη numphē νύμφ- nymph- a bride, daughter-in-law nymph, nymphette nympholepsy, nymphomania



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ξανθός xanthos ξανθ- xanth- yellow Xanthippe, xanthene, xanthine, xanthophyll, xanthosis, xanthous
ξένος xenos ξενο- xeno- strange, stranger, guest xenia, xenon, xenophobia, xenophobic, xenopus
ξηρός xēros ξηρο- xer(o)- dry xeric, xerography, xerophyte, xerophthalmia, xerox
ξίφος xiphos ξιφ- xiph- sword xiphias, xiphoid
ξύλον xulon ξυλ- xul- wood xylan, xylem, saproxylic, xylene, xylitol, xylography, xylophone, xylyl
ξύω xuo ξυ- xy- scrape xyster, xyston, xystus


"homo-" redirects here. For the organic chemistry prefix, see Homologous series.


Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
ὅδύνη odyne ὅδύν- odyn- pain of body or mind anodyne, omodynia, otodynia
ὅγκος onkos ογκο- onko- mass, bulk oncogene, oncogenesis, oncology
ὀδούς odous ὀδοντ- odont- tooth acrodont, aerodontics, endodontist, exodontist, mastodon, orthodontia, periodontist
οἷκος oikos οἰκο- oiko- house androecium, ecocentrism, ecology, ecomuseum, econometrics, economics, economism, economy, ecophysiology, ecopoiesis, ecoregion, ecosphere, ecosystem, ecotechnology, ecotone, ecotourism, ecotoxicity, ecotoxicology, ecotype, ecozone, macroeconomics, microeconomics, oeconomus, parish, synoecism
οἶνος oinos οἰνο- oino- wine oenology, oenomel, oenophile, oinomancy
οκτώ oktō οκτ- okt- eight octagon, octopus
ὀλίγος oligos ὀλιγο- oligo- few, little oligarchy, Oligocene, oligomer, oligopoly, oligotroph
ὅλο(ς) holos ὁλ(o)- hol(o)- whole, total, entire holistic, holocaust, holocene, hologram, holograph, holomorphic, holophrastic
ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos burnt whole (of a sacrifice) holocaust
ὅμο- homo- ὁμο- homo- same homogeneity, homology, homomorphism, homophone, homosexuality
ὅμοιος homoios ὁμοιο- homoio- similar homeomorphism, homeopathy, homeoptoton, homeosis, homeostasis, homeoteleuton, homeothermic
ὄνομα onoma ονομ- onom- name, character, fame acronym, allonym, anonymous, anthroponym, antonomasia, antonym, aptronym, autonym, backronym, basionym, capitonym, charactonym, consonym, contronym, cryptonym, demonym, endonym, eponym, ethnonym, exonym, geonym, heteronym, holonym, homonym, hydronym, hypernym, isonym, meronym, metonymy, mononym, necronym, numeronym, odonym, onomancy, onomastic, onomatechny, onomatopoeia, orthonym, paranomasia, patronym, phytonym, pseudonym, retronym, synonym, tautonym, textonym, theonym, toponym, troponym
ὀξύς oxus ὀξυ- oxu- sharp, acid, sour hyperoxaluria, oxalis, oxamide, oxidation, oxide, oxoacid, oxycephaly, oxycodone, oxygen, oxygenation, oxymoron
ὄπιον opion poppy juice, opium opium
ὀπτός optos οπτ- opt- visible catoptric, catoptromancy, catoptrophobiaoptic, optical, dioptre, panoptic
ὄραμα orama ὄραματ- oramat- a sight diorama, panorama
Ὁρμή Horme Ὁρμ- horm- god of impulse, effort, eagerness, setting oneself in motion hormone, pheromone
ὄργανον organon ὀργαν- organ- organ, instrument, tool organ, organic, organism, organization, organize
ὄρεξις oreksis ὀρεξ- orex- appetite, mood anorexia
ὀρθός orthos ὀρθ- orth- straight, correct, normal orthography, orthogonal, orthodoxy
ὄρνις ornis ὀρνιθ- ornith- bird Ornithodelphia, ornithology, ornithomancy
ὅρος horos ὂρο- hor- limit, boundary aphorism, horizon, horizontal, horopter
ὀρφανός orphanos ὀρφαν- orphan- bereaved, an orphan orphan, orphanage
ὀστέον osteon ὀστεο- osteo- bone osteoarthritis, osteology, osteopathy, osteoporosis
ὄστρακον ostrakon ὀστρακ- ostrac- tile, shell ostracism, ostracize, ostracon
ὄστρεον ostreon ὀστρεο- ostreo- oyster ostreophagist, oyster
οὐ ou οὐ- ou- not utopia
οὖς ous ὠτο- ot- ear aotus, myosotis, otalgia, otic, otolith, otology, otophyma, otoplasty, otosclerosis, otoscope, parotid, periotic
ὄφις ophis ὄφι- ophi- snake, serpent ophicleide, ophidian, ophiomancy, ophidiophobia, ophiolatry, Ophisaurus, Ophiuchus
ὀφρῦς ophrys ὄφρῦ- ophry- eyebrow, ridge Actinophrys, ophryitis, Ophryocystis, Ophryotrocha
ὀφθαλμός ophthalmos οφθαλμ- ophthalm- eye ophthalmia, ophthalmic, ophthalmology



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
παιδεία paideia -παιδεια/παιδει- -paideia/paidei- education, culture encyclop(a)edia, Wikipedia
παιωνία paiōnia peony < physician < healing peony
παῖς pais παιδ- ped- boy, child encyclopedia, hypnopedia, orthopedic, pediatrician, pedagogue, pedant, pederast, pedophilia, pederast, posturpedic
πάθος pathos παθ- path- that which happens, incident, accident, passion, emotion, feeling apathy, anthropopathy, antipathy, empathy, idiopathy, osteopathy, pathos, pathology, pathetic, pathogen, psychopath, empathy, sympathy
παλαιός palaios παλαι(ο)- palai(o)- ancient, old paleoanthropology, paleobiology, paleobotany, Paleocene, paleoecology, paleogeology, paleography, paleolithic, paleontology, Paleozoic, paleoseismology, paleogeography
πάλιν palin πάλιν- palin- back, backwards, again palimpsest, palindrome, palinode
πάνθειος pantheios relating to all the gods pantheon
πάνθηρ panthēr large spotted cat panther
παπᾶς, πάππας papás, páppas daddy, bishop pope
παρά para παρ(α)- par(a)- alongside of, by, past, beyond, against parable, paracentesis, paraclete, paradigm, paradox, paraesthesia, paragon, paragraph, paralanguage, paralegal, parallax, parallel, paralipsis, paralysis, paramagnetic, paramecium, paramedic, parameter, paramilitary, paranoia, paranormal, paraphernalia, paraphilia, paraphrase, paraplegia, paraprofessional, parapsychology, paraquat, parasite, parasympathetic, parataxis, paregoric, parenchyma, parenthesis, paresis, parhelion, parish, paronchyia, parody, paronomasia, paronym, parotid, parousia, paroxysm
παράδεισος (< Persian) parádeisos a Persian park, heaven, where souls await resurrection paradise, parvis
παραμετρέω parametrēō παραμετ- paramet- measure one thing by another, compare parameter, parametrise
πᾶς pas παν-, παντο- pan-, panto- all, complete pantheism, pantomime, panacea, pandemic
πατήρ patēr πατρ- patr- father patriarch
πάτριος patriοs πατρι- patr- fatherland, country patriot, patriotic, patriotism
πεῖρα peira πειρα- peira- trial, attempt, attack pirate, piracy
πείρα peira πειρ- peir- experience empirical, empiricism
πέλαγος pelagos πέλαγο- pelago- the sea, the deep abyssopelagic, archipelago, hadopelagic, pelagic
πέμπω pempo πεμπ- pemp- to send or dispatch apopemptic, hypnopompic, pomp, pompous
πεντείκοντα penteíkonta πεντείκo- penteco- fifty pentecost, pentecostal
περί peri περι peri around perimeter, period, periphrasis, peridotite
πέτρα petra πετρ- petr- rock petrify, petroleum, petrology, petrography, petrophysics
πετροσέλινον petrosélinon parsley parsley
πλαστός plastós πλάστ- plast- formed or molded abdominoplasty, angioplasty, arthroplasty, blepharoplasty, cheiloplasty, galvanoplasty, genitoplasty, homeoplasty, homoplasty, kleptoplasty, mastoplasty, neoplasty, neuroplasty, otoplasty, osteoplasty, palatoplasty, plastic, plasma, plaster, rhinoplasty, septoplasty, strictureplasty, thoracoplasty, thyroplasty, vaginoplasty, zooplasty
πλατύπους plātýpous platy- flat-footed platypus
πλατύς/-εῖα plātýs πλατυ- platy- wide, flat place, plaza, piazza; platy-; possibly plat, plate[4]
πλείων pleiōn πλειω-/πλεο- pleio/-pleo more, abundance, to be full pleiotropy, pleochroism, pleocytosis, pleomorphism, pleonasm, pleonaste, pleonexia, plethora, Pliocene
πληγή plēgē πληγ- pleg- stroke diplegia, paraplegia, plague
πλοῦτος ploutos πλοῦτο- pluto- riches, wealth, abundance, Pluto (god of underworld) plutarchy, plutocracy, plutolatry, plutomania, plutonic, plutonium, plutonomic
ποιέω poieō ποιε- poie-/poe- make, do, create poem, poet
πόλεμος polemos πολεμ- polem- war polemic, polemical
πόλις polis πολ- pol- city megalopolis, metropolis, polis, political, police, polity, politics
πόλος polοs πολ- pol- axis, sky pole (in the geographic, scientific, and mathematical senses), polar, bipolar, Polaris, polarity, polarization
πολύς polus πολυ- polu- many, much hoi polloi, polygamy, polyglot, Polynesia, polyphony, polytechnic, polytonic
πόρνη porne πόρν- porn- prostitute pornography
πορϕύρα porphýra Murex snails producing Tyrian purple purple, porphyry, porphyr-
ποταμός potamos ποταμ- potam- river hippopotamus, Mesopotamia, Potamogalinae
ποῦς pous ποδ- pod foot amblypoda, amphipod, arthropod, bipod, brachiopod, branchiopod, cephalopod, chenopod, decapod, gastropod, gnathopod, heteropoda, isopod, lagopus, macropod, myriapod, octopus, Oedipus, ornithopod, pauropod, podiatrist, platypoda, platypus, prosauropod, pseudopod, sauropod, tetrapod, theropod, tripod, xenopus
ποδάγρα podágra foot trap, foot disease, gout podagra
πρᾶγμα pragma πρᾶγμα pragma thing done, fact pragmatic, pragmatism
πράσσω prasso πραγ- prag- to do, to act praxis, chiropractor, impractical, malpractice, practical, practice, practitioner,
πρεσβύτερος presbuteros πρεσβυτερ- presbuter- elder, older priest, presbyopia, presbyter, presbytery
πρό pro προ- pro- before problem, proboscis, proclitic, procrustean, procyon, prodrome, proem, progeria, prognosis, program, prokaryote, prolegomenon, prolepsis, prologue, Prometheus, promnesia, propaedeutic, propane, prophylactic, prophet, proscenium, prostate, prostomium
πρός pros προs- pros- to, towards, with proselyte, prosody, prosopopeia, prosthesis,
πρῶτος prōtos πρωτ(ο)-/πρωθ- proto-/proth- first hysteron proteron, protagonist, prothonotary, protocell, protocol, protoconch, protocone, protolith, proton, protonema, protoplanet, protoplasm, protoplast, protosome, protostar, prototheria, prototype, protozoa
πτερόν pteron πτερ(ο)- pter(o)- wing helicopter, Lepidoptera, ornithopter, pteranodon, Pterichthyodes, pterodactyl, pterosaurus
πύξις, πύξος pýxis, pýxos boxwood, box box, pyx, pyxis
πῦρ pyr πυρ(ο)- pyr(o)- fire antipyretic, chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyroclastic, pyrography, pyrokinesis, pyrology, pyrolysis, pyromancy, pyromania, pyrotechnics
πύργος pýrgos πυργ- pyrg- tower, castle, fortress pyrgoidal, burgh (perhaps)



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ῥάβδος rhabdos ῥαβδ- rhabd- rod rhabdite, rhabditida, rhabdology, rhabdomancy, rhabdovirus
ῥαψῳδός rhapsōdos ῥαψῳδ- rhapsod- reciter of Epic poetry rhapsode, rhapsody
ῥέω rheó ῥέ- rrhea-, rhe-, rheum- flow catarrh, gonorrhea, hemorrhoid, leukorrhea, logorrhoea, rheum, rheumatoid
ῥῆον βάρβαρον rēon bárbaron barbarian rhubarb rhubarb
ῥητορεία rhētoreia ῥητορ- rhetor- oratory rhetoric
ῥίζα rhiza ῥίζ(ο)- rhiz(o)- root corallorhiza, rhizobium, rhizome, rhizophagy, rhizophora
ῥίς rhis ῥιν- rhin- nose rhinencephalon, rhinitis, rhinoceros, rhinolith, rhinoplasty
ῥόδον rhodon ῥοδο- rhodo- rose, red rhododendron, rhodium
ῥόμβος rhombos ῥομβ(ο)- rhomb(o)- rhombus rhombus
ῥυθμός rhythmos ῥυθμ- rhythm- measured flow or movement, rhythm arrhythmia, biorhythm, polyrhythm, rhythm
ῥῶ rhō ῥῶ/ῥωτ- rho-/rhot the letter rho rhotacism



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
σάββατον sabbaton σάββατ- sabbat- sabbath sabbat, sabbatarian, sabbath, sabbatical
σαγήνη sagene fishing dragnet seine (via Latin and Germanic)
σάκκος sakkos σάκκ- sack- sackcloth sack, sackcloth, sarcoidosis, sarcoma
σάλπίζω salpizo σάλπ- salp- to sound a trumpet hydrosalpinx, salpinx
σανδάλον sandalon σανδάλ- sandal- wooden sole bound by straps around ankle sandal
σανίς sanis σανί- sani- board, plank sanidine
σάρξ sarx σαρκο- sarko- flesh sarcophagus, sarcasm, sarcoidosis, sarcoma
σαῦρος sauros σαυρο- sauro- lizard ankylosaurus, brachiosaurus, brontosaurus, ceratosaurus, dinosaur, elasmosaurus, mosasaurus, plesiosaurus, Saurida, stegosaurus, tyrannosaurus
σείω seió σεί- sei- to shake or move back and forth aseismic, bradyseism, cryoseism, microseism, seismic, seismocardiography, seismogram, seismograph, seismology, seismometer
σήπω sepo σήπω- sapro- to make rotten or putrid saprophagy, saprophyte, saprozoic
σθένος sthenos σθέν- sthen- strength asthenia, asthenosphere, calisthenics, myasthenia, neurasthenia
σκέλλω skello σκελ-, σκληρ- skel-, scler- to dry, dry up, harden arteriosclerosis, endoskeleton, exoskeleton, sclera, sclerosis, scleroderma, skeleton
σκέλος skelos σκελ- scel-, skel- leg isosceles, triskelion
σκεῦος skeuos σκευ- skeu- vessel, implement skeuomorph
σκέπτομαι skeptomai σκέπ-, σκοπ- skep-, scop- view, examine, consider bronchoscopy, colonoscopy, colposcopy, cystoscopy, fluoroscopy, geloscopy, gyroscope, horoscope, hygroscopic, kaleidoscope, microscope, periscope, ophthalmoscope, oscilloscope, scope, skeptic, stethoscope, stereoscope, stroboscope, telescope
σκηνή skéné σκην- sken- a tent, tabernacle, a wooden acting stage parascenium, proscenium, scenario, scene, scenic
σκολιός skolios σκολι- skoli- crooked, perverse, unfair, curved, tortuous scolex, scoliosis
σκιά skia σκι- sci- a shadow, thick darkness, an outline sciomancy, sciaphobia
σοφία sophia σοφι- sophi- knowledge, wisdom philosophy, sophisticate, sophistry, sophomore
σπείρω, σπέρμα, σπορά speiro, sperma σπείρ-, σπέρματ- spor- sow (seed), spread, scatter diaspora, spore, sporophyte, sperm (angiosperm), sperm(at)- (spermicide, spermaticide)
σπογγιά spoggiá spongio- sponge sponge
στέλλω stélló στελ- stle-, stol- put, place, equip, arrange, send apostle, diastole, diastolic, epistle, hypodiastole, systole, systolic
στῆθος stéthos στῆθος- stethos- breast, chest stethoscope
στήλη stēlē στηλ- stel- block of stone stele, stolon
στίγμα stigma στιγματ- stigmat- point stigma, astigmatism
στρέφω strepho στροφ- stroph- to turn or twist anastrophe, antistrophe, apostrophe,[3] boustrophedon, catastrophe, epistrophe, strophe
σύν sún συν- syn-, sys- with, in company with, together with asynchronous, asyndetic, asystole, chemosynthesis, ecosystem, geosyncline, idiosyncrasy, photosynthesis, polysynthesis, synagogue, synallagmatic, synapse, sync, syncretism, synchronize, syncline, syncopate, syncytial, syndetic, syndicate, syndrome, synecdoche, synechia, synergy, synesthesia, synod, synonym, synopsis, syntax, synthesis, systaltic, system, systolic
σφήν sphēn σφήν(ο)- sphēn(o)- wedge disphenoid, sphene, sphenocrates, sphenodontia, sphenoid
σφήξ sphēx σφηκ- sphēk- wasp sphecidae, sphex
σχήμα skhēma σχηματ- skhēmat- shape, form scheme, schematic
σχίσμα schisma σχί- schi- division, a cleaving schism, schist, schistosomiasis, schizophrenia
σχολή skholē σχολ- skhol- leisure, school school, scholar, scholium, scholastic



Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
τάλαντον tálanton balance, weight, sum of money talent
τάξις, τακτική < τάσσειν taxis, taktikē ταξι- taxi-, -tactic arrangement parataxis, phototaxis/phototactic, syntax, taxidermy, taxon, taxonomy, thermotaxis, tactics
ταχύς takhus ταχυ- tachy- quick, swift, fast tachometer, tachycardia, tachygraphy, tachylite, tachyon
τελώνιον telṓnion toll-house toll
τέλος telos τελεσ-/τελε(ο)- teles-/tele(o)- end teleology, teleonomy, teleostome
τέμνω temnō τεμ-, τομ- tem-, tom- cut, incision anatomic, anatomist, anatomy, atomic, atomizer, cholecystectomy, corectomy, craniotomy, cystotomy, dichotomy, entomology, entomophagous, episiotomy, lithotomy, lobotomy, mastectomy, oophorectomy, tomography, tonsillectomy, tracheotomy, vasectomy
τῆλε tēle τηλε- tele- afar, far off telegram, telegraph, telemetry, telepathy, telephone, telescope, telethon, television
τηλεσκόπος tēleskópos far-seeing (of an eye) telescope
τέτταρες tettares τετρα- tetra- four oxytetracycline, pentylenetetrazol, tetracaine, Tetragrammaton, tetrahedron, tetralogy, tetrapod, tetrarchy
τίθημι tithémi θη- the- put, place, set down hypothesis, parenthesis, prosthesis, synthesis, theme, thesaurus, thesis
τίκτω tiktó τέκ- tec-, tech- to bear, to bring forth, to produce architect, biotechnology, nanotechnology, polytechnic, pyrotechnic, technician, technetium, technical, technicality, technicolor, technique, technocrat, technology, technophile, technophobe, tectonic
τόνος < τείνω tonos τεν-, τoν- ton- stretch, extend, spread atonal, dystonia, intonate, isotonic, monotone, semitone, tone, tune, undertone; hypotenuse; -tenic, -teny: neoteny
τοξικόν toxikon τοξικ- toxik- poison toxic, toxicology, toxicosis toxin, toxoplasma
τόπος topos τοπ(ο)- top(o)- place atopy, cacotopia, dystopia, ectopic, isotope, topiary, topic, topography, topology, toponym, utopia
τραγάκανθα tragákantha Astragalus shrub tragacanth
τρεισκαίδεκα treiskaídeka τρεισκαίδεκα- treiskaídeka- thirteen triskaidekaphobia
τρέπω trepo τρεπ- trep-, trop- to turn allotrope, apotrope, atropos, entropy, geotropism, heliotrope, isotrope, phototrope, pleiotropy, psychotrope, subtropic, thigmotropism, thixotropy, trope, tropic, zoetrope
τρόπαιον tropaion τροπαι- tropai- monument of an enemy's defeat trophy
τροπικός tropikos τροπικ- tropik- of the turning of the sun, tropical tropicamide, tropics
τροφή trophē τροφικ- trophik- nourishment, food (genitive form) amyotrophy, atrophy, auxotrophy, chemotroph, dystrophy, heterotrophy, psychotropic[3]
τρώγω trogo τρώγ- trog-, trag- to gnaw (like a goat), munch, crunch tragedy, tragophonia, tragus
τύμβος tumbos τυμβ- tomb- sepulchral mound, cairn, barrow tomb, tombstone
τύπτω tuptō τυπ- typ- beat, strike, wound type, typology, typography
τύραννος tyrranos τύραν- tyran- an absolute ruler tyrannosaurus, tyrant
τύρος turos τυρο- turo-, tyro- cheese turophile, tyroglyphus, tyrosine


(h)u, (h)y

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ὕδνον hudnon ὕδνο- hydno- truffle hydnocarpus
ὕδωρ hudōr ὑδρο- hydro- water achlorhydria, anhydrous, dehydration, hydrodynamics, hydrogen, hydrolysis, hydroponics, hydrophobic, hydrophilic
ὕδροψ hudrops ὕδροπ- hydrop- dropsy dropsy
ὑγιεινή hugieinē ὑγιειν- hygiein- soundness, health hygiene
ὑγρός hugros ὑγρ/ὑγρο- hygr/hygro- moist hygrine, hygrometer, hygroscopy
ὕλη hulē ὕλη/ὕλ- hylē/hul- wood, forest hyla, hyle, hylodes, hylozoism
ὑμήν humēn ὕμεν- hymen- thin skin, membrane, caul hymen, hymenoptera
ὕμνος humnos ὕμν- hymn- hymn, ode hymn, hymnody, hymnography
ὕπέρ huper ὑπέρ- hyper- super-, pro-, trans-, over- hyperactive, hyperbaton, hyperbaric, hyperbole, hyperborean, hypercritical, hyperdrive, hyperextend, hyperglycemia, hyperinflation, hyperkinetic, hyperlink, hyperopia, hyperplasia, hypersensitivity, hyperspace, hypertasis, hypertension, hypertext, hyperthyroid, hypertonic, hypertrophy, hyperventilate
ὕπνος hupnos ὑπνο- hypno- sleep hypnopedia, hypnopompic, hypnotherapy, hypnotism, hypnotic, narcohypnosis
ὕπο hupo ὕπ(ο)- hyp(o)- sub-, under hypoallergenic, hypoblast, hypochlorite, hypochondria, hypodermic, hypocrisy, hypodermic, hypoglycemia, hypomania, hypotenuse, hypothalamus, hypothecate, hypothesis, hypothermia, hypotonic, hypoxia
ὑστέρα hystéra ὑστέρ- hystér- (2nd syllable accent) womb hysterectomy, hysteria
ὕστερος husteros ὕστερο- hyster- (1st syllable accent) later, latter, last hysteresis, hysteron proteron



Citation form Root form Meaning English derivatives
φάγω phagō φαγ- phag- I eat anthropophagy, bacteriophage, entomophagous, esophagus, geophagy, hippophagy, macrophage, omophagous, phagocyte, phyllophagous, polyphagia, rhizophagous, sarcophagus, xerophagy, xylophagous, zoophagous
φαίνω phainō φαιν- phan-, fan- shine, be seen cellophane, epiphany, fantastic, fantasy, hierophany, phantasm, phantom, phenomenon, sycophant, theophany, tryptophan
φέρω pherō φερ- pher- bear, bring amphora, anaphora, chromatophore, euphoria, metaphor, oophorectomy, paraphernalia, periphery, pheromone, phoresy, phosphorus, pyrophoric, semaphore
φημί phémi φημ- phem- say, declare aphasia, blasphemy, dysphemism, euphemism, heterophemy, phatic, prophet
ϕιάλη phiálē a shallow drinking vessel, phiale phial
φιλία/φίλος philia/philos -φιλια/φιλο- -philia/philo- friend, friendship pedophilia, Philadelphia, philanthropy, philosophy, zoophilia
φέβομαι phebomai φέβο- phob- to be put to flight, flee in terror acrophobia, agoraphobia, ailurophobia, androphobia, arachnophobia, autophobia, chaetophobia, claustrophobia, coulrophobia, ergophobia, hemophobia, homophobia, hydrophobia, necrophobia, negrophobia, nyctophobia, ophidiophobia, philophobia, phobophobia, phobia, Phobos, phonophobia, photophobia, psychrophobia, pyrophobia, satanophobia, sciophobia, sinophobia, sitophobia, symmetrophobia, technophobia, triskaidekaphobia, xenophobia, zoophobia
ϕοῖνιξ phoinix dark red, phoenix (mythical bird) phoenix, Phoenecia
φωνή phōnē φωνη- phōn- voice antiphon, aphonia, cacophony, cellphone, diaphone, dictaphone, earphone, euphony, gramaphone, homophone, megaphone, microphone, monophonic, phonathon, phone, phoneme, phonetic, phonograph, phonology, picturephone, polyphone, symphony, telephone, vibraphone, xylophone
φραζό phrazo φραζ- phras- to indicate plainly, to explain antiphrasis, holophrastic, metaphrastic, paraphrase, periphrastic, phrase, phraseology, rephrase
φρήν phrēn φρεν- phren- heart, mind frantic, paraphrenia, phrenitis, phrenology, schizophrenia
φυλακή phulaké φυλακ- phulak- watch, guard, ward anaphylactic, phylactery, prophylactic
φύλλον phullon φύλλο- phullo- leaf chlorophyll, phyllotaxis
φύω phyo φυ- phy- to bring forth, beget or produce naturally apophysis, apophysomyces, astrophysics, geophysics, monophysite, physical, physician, physics, physiognomy, physiotherapy, physocarpus, psychophysics, psychophysiology, zygapophysis
φυτόν phuton φυτο- phuto- plant archaeophyte, autophyte, bryophyte, dermatophyte, embryophyte, endophyte, entophyte, epiphyte, epiphytic, exophytic, gametophyte, geophyte, gnetophyte, hematophyte, hemiepiphyte, hydrophyte, macrophyte, microphyte, neophyte, oophyte, periphyton, phytic acid, phytochemical, phytogeography, phytology, phytomer, phytopathology, phytoplankton, phytotomy, saprophyte, schizophyte, spermatophyte, sporophyte, thallophyte, zoophyte
φῶς phōs φωσ-/φα-/φωσ-/φωτ- pha-/phōs-/phōt- light aphotic, euphotic, phosphor, phosphorus, photic, photochromism, photograph, photography, photogenic, photon, photoperiod, photophone, photophore


k(h), c(h)

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivatives
χαίτη khaitē χαιτη- khaitē- loose flowing hair, mane, chaetophobia, polychaete
χαλκός chalkos χαλκo- chalco- copper, brass, money chalcocite, chalcography, chalcolithic, chalcopyrite, chalcosis
χαμαιλέων khamailéōn chameleon chameleon
χάσκω chaskó χάσ- khas- yawning, hollow, to stand agape with mouth wide open achene, chasm, chasmogamy
χάος khaos χαοσ- khaos- primal emptiness chaos, gas
χαράσσω kharássō χαρ- char-, car- to scratch or inscribe card, cartogram, cartography, cartomancy, carton, cartoon, cartouche, cartridge,

character, characteristic, characterology, chart

χάρις charis χάρις- charis- grace, favor, kindness charisma, eucharist
χεῖλος cheilos χεῖλ- cheil- a lip, mouth, shore cheiloplasty, cheilophagia
χείρ kheir χειρ- kheir- hand chiral, chirograph, chiromancy, Chironomidae, chironomy, chiropodist, Chiroptera, chiropractor, enchiridion
χερουβ cheroub χερουβ- cherub- cherub cherub, cherubic, cherubim
χημία , χημεία , χυμεία khēmía (via Arabic al-kīmiyā' alchemy) alchemy, chemist, chemistry
χίλιοι chilioi χίλ- kil- a thousand kilobase, kilobyte, kilolitre, kilogram, kilojoule, kilometer, kilowatt
χιών khiōn χιον- khion- snow chionanthus, chionablepsia, chiolite, chionodoxa, chionophobia
χολή kholē χολ- chol- bile cholera, melancholia
χορεία khoreia χορει- chorei- dance choreography
χορός khoros χορο- choro- dance choir, chorale, chorus
χρηστομάθεια khrēstomatheia useful for learning chrestomathy
χρίω khriō χρι- khri- anoint chrism, chrismation, chrismarium, Christ, Christmas
χρῶμα khrōma χρωματ- khromat- colour achromatic, apochromatic, chromate, chromaticism, chrome, chromosome, chromatophore, heliochrome, monochrome, photochromism
χρόνος khronos χρον- khron- time anachronism, chronic, chronicle, chronology, chronomancy, chronometer, diachronic, isochronous, synchronous
χρυσός khrusos χρυσ- khrys- gold chrysalis, chrysanthemum, chrysene, chrysoberyl, chrysocolla



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ψάλλω psallō ψάλ- psal- to play, twang psalmodicon, psalm, psalter, psaltery
ψάμμος psammos ψαμμο- psammo- sand psammoma, Psammophis
ψῆφος psēphos ψηφ(ο)- pseph(o)- pebble isopsephy, psephite, psephology, psephomancy
ψεῦδος pseudos ψευδο/ψευδ- pseud(o)- false, a falsity pseudechis, pseudepigrapha, pseudobranch, pseudonym, pseudopod, pseudoscience, pseudomorph, pseudotachylite, pseudoephedrine
ψηλαφάω psēlaphaō ψηλαφ- pselaph- to grope about pselaphinae
ψιθός psithos ψιθ- psith- whisper psithurism
ψιλός psilos ψιλο- psilo- mere, bare, smooth psilanthropism, psilocybin, psilomelane, psilotopsida
ψίξ psix ψίξ- psikh- bit, crumb psikharpax
ψόα psoa ψοα- psoa- muscles of the loin psoas
ψυχή psukhē ψυχ- psych- spirit, soul neuropsychology, psionics, psychasthenia, psyche, psychedelic, psychiatry, psychic, psychoacoustics, psychoanalysis, psychobabble, psychodrama, psychogenesis, psychographic, psychohistory, psychokinesis, psycholinguistics, psychology, psychometrics, psychometry, psychoneuroendocrinology, psychoneuroimmunology, psychopathy, psychopharmacology, psychophysics, psychophysiology, psychosis, psychosomatic, psychosurgery, psychotherapy, psychotropic
ψύλλα psylla ψυλλ- psyll- flea psylla
ψυχρός psuchros ψυχρο- psychro- cold psychrolutidae, psychrometer, psychrometrics, psychrophile
ψώρα psora ψωρ- psor- itch, scab psoriasis



Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ὠδίν ódin ὠδίν- odin- pain of childbirth, severe agony odinagogue, odinopoeia
ὠμέγα omega ὠμεγα omega large o, last letter of Greek alphabet omega
ὦμος ómos ὦμο- omo- the shoulder omitis, omodynia, omohyoid muscle
ὤνος onos ὤν- on- price, purchase oniomania
ᾠόν ōon ᾠο- ōo- egg oocyte, oogenesis, oology, oomycete, oogonia, oolite, oophorectomy
ὥρα hōra ὡρ- hōr- season, hour horology, horometry, horoscope
ὠψ ops ὠψ- ops- eye, countenance aethalops, autopsy, biopsy, cyclops, necropsy, synopsis

See also[edit]


  1. ^ ἀγκύλος
  2. ^ The word ἐγκυκλοπαιδεία is a contraction of ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία. The phrase was reduced to a single word (ἐγκυκλοπαιδεία) due to an erroneous reading. Medieval copyists of Latin manuscripts took this phrase to be a single Greek word.
  3. ^ a b c OED second edition 1989
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary s.v.


External links[edit]