GreenNet

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GreenNet is a not-for-profit Internet service provider based in London, England. It was established in 1985 "as an effective and cheap way for environmental activists to communicate".[1] In 1987 the Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust gave GreenNet a grant to enable it to bring a large number of peace groups online, and "After a few years they became one of the first internet service providers in Britain".[2] GreenNet was a founder member of the Association for Progressive Communications, established in 1990. The registered charity GreenNet Charitable Trust was established in 1994 and owns GreenNet.[1]

GreenNet developed a Fido gateway, GnFido, which allowed access to basic internet facilities such as email using a store and forward system.[3] It provided the only available cheap and accessible internet access for thousands of individuals and organisations in Africa, South Asia and Eastern Europe.[4]

2013 DDoS Attack[edit]

Beginning at 10.15 BST on Thursday 1 August 2013 GreenNet and the Association for Progressive Communications (APC) suffered an extensive DDoS attack. The attack was later described as a "DNS reflection attack" also known as a spoofed attack[5] Several sources initially suspected the attack was linked to the Zimbabwean Elections, held a day earlier.[6][7][8] GreenNet's services were not fully operational again until 10.30 BST on Thursday 7 August.[9] On 9 August there was a second attack, which, while affecting some systems, allowed GreenNet to discover the site which was being targeted.[10] In October 2013, the target was revealed to be the site of investigative reporter Andrew Jennings.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "About GreenNet: What is GreenNet". GreenNet. Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  2. ^ Willetts, Peter (2010). "NGOs, networking and the creation of the internet". Non-Governmental Organizations in World Politics: The Construction of Global Governance. Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 9781136848537. 
  3. ^ Allen, Chris (1997). "Introduction: Main communication networks in Africa 2.1 GreenNet". Africa Bibliography 1995. Edinburgh University Press. p. ix. ISBN 9780748608782. 
  4. ^ "Karen Banks: Internet Hall of Fame Global Connector". Inductees 2013. Internet Hall of Fame. Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  5. ^ "Zimbabweans Hit By Cyber Attacks During Election - Slashdot". slashdot.org. 
  6. ^ "Zimbabwe election hit by hacking and DDoS attacks". theinquirer.net. 
  7. ^ Eduard Kovacs (7 August 2013). "Zimbabwe's Presidential Election Accompanied by Cyberattacks". softpedia. 
  8. ^ "Cyber Attacks Strike Zimbabweans Around Controversial Election". TechWeekEurope UK. 
  9. ^ "[Greennet-l] GreenNet service update 7 August 2013". greennet.org.uk. 
  10. ^ "[Greennet-l] GreenNet service update 9 August 2013". greennet.org.uk. 
  11. ^ Dawson, Tim (October–November 2013). "Brand new gag: the hidden war on press freedom". The Journalist. London: National Union of Journalists: 14–16. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 

External links[edit]