Green Bicycle Case

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The victim, Annie Bella Wright, seen here in a newspaper article published shortly after her murder

The Green Bicycle Case was a murder investigation and subsequent trial pertaining to the fatal shooting of a young woman named Bella Wright near the Leicestershire village of Little Stretton on 5 July 1919. Wright was killed by a single bullet wound to the face,[1][2] and on the evening of her death, she had been seen cycling in the company of an unknown man riding a green bicycle.[3]

Ronald Light, a 33-year-old mathematics teacher,[4] is considered the prime suspect in Wright's murder. Light did not come forward in response to an extensive media appeal to trace a man matching his description seen on a green bicycle riding alongside Wright on the evening she was killed,[5] and he is known to have made attempts to dispose of both his bicycle and revolver holster in a canal following her death. Upon his arrest, Light initially denied, then admitted to being in the company of Wright shortly before her death,[6] although he consistently denied killing her. He was defended in court by Sir Edward Marshall Hall KC, who largely based his defence on the lack of a motive for Wright's death. Marshall Hall obtained Light's acquittal.[7]

The Green Bicycle Case would prove to be one of Britain's most celebrated and controversial murder cases of the 20th century,[8] with opinions varying among authors as to Light's guilt[9] and the actual motive behind the crime,[10] should her death not have been the result of misadventure. The case has been described by one author as "The most fascinating murder mystery of the century."[11]

Bella Wright[edit]

Annie Bella Wright was born on 14 July 1897.[12] She was the eldest of seven children born to an illiterate agricultural labourer and his wife. She lived in a thatched cottage in the village of Stoughton,[13] four miles outside Leicester. Wright had attended school until the age of 12, before beginning work as a domestic servant, subsequently obtaining a factory job at Bates' St Mary's Mills; a rubber factory in Leicester approximately five miles from home, with her work primarily consisting of constructing tyres.[14] As such, she regularly travelled to and from her place of employment on her bicycle.[15] At the time of her death, Wright was working the late shift at the factory and, as such, in the summer of 1919, she is known to have cycled between the villages and hamlets around Little Stretton to perform errands or visit acquaintances in the late afternoon hours.[16]

At the time of her death, Wright—described as a girl with good looks and of good character[17]—was 21-years-old and engaged to be married to a Royal Navy stoker named Archie Ward, who served on HMS Diadem — a training ship in Portsmouth.[18] She is known to have had at least one other suitor,[15] and to have told her mother of an officer who had fallen in love with her. This may have been Ronald Light, although he denied this supposition in court.[15]

Ronald Light[edit]

The accused, Ronald Light, pictured after his 1920 acquittal

Ronald Vivian Light was born on 19 October 1885,[19][20] the son of a wealthy civil engineer who managed a Coalville colliery,[21] and reportedly also an inventor of plumbing devices.[22]

According to a prosecution brief from the murder trial, in 1902, he was expelled from Oakham School, at the age of 17, for "lifting a little girl's clothes over her head". (The same brief states that in his thirties he attempted to seduce a 15-year-old girl, and had admitted to engaging in "improper conduct" with an 8-year-old girl.[23])

Light was a graduate of the University of Birmingham, where he graduated as a civil engineer before gaining employment as a draughtsman at the Midland Railway Works in Derby in November 1906. He would be fired from this firm in August 1914, suspected of setting a fire in a cupboard and of drawing indecent graffiti in a lavatory. He was later dismissed from employment at a farm, accused of setting fire to haystacks.

In May 1910, Light purchased a green BSA folding bicycle from Orton Bros. in Derby.[24] This bicycle was a distinctive green colour, with an uncommon coaster brake.[25] At approximately the same time, he became a member of a Buxton-based Territorial company of the Royal Engineers.[26]

Following the outbreak of the First World War, Light underwent training at Chatham, Newark and Ripon. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in February 1915,[27] before being deployed to the Western Front. He relinquished his commission in the Royal Engineers on 1 July 1916[28] on the suggestion of his commanding officer,[29] returning to the ranks as a gunner in the Honourable Artillery Company.[30] He was court-martialled in 1917 for forging move orders.[29] After three years of active service, Light was classified as suffering from severe shell-shock and partial deafness[15] and sent back to England to undergo psychiatric treatment.[31]

Following recuperation at several Army hospitals in England,[32] Light returned to live with his mother in Highfield Street, Leicester. He was demobilised in January 1919[33] and would later claim to have been "sent home a broken man".[34]

On 21 September 1916, Light's father died in an apparent accident,[35] although his death has been suggested to have been suicide. Light's mother explained that the possible suicide resulted from the father's concern for his son's safety as he served on the Western Front.[36]

5 July 1919[edit]

By all accounts, Wright and Light met by chance on 5 July 1919 at around 6.45 p.m. as she rode her bicycle to the village of Gaulby, where her uncle, George Measures, resided.[37] According to Light's testimony at his trial, as he rode his bicycle towards the cross-roads where Gaulby Lane crosses Houghton Lane, he observed a young woman bending over her bicycle, and she raised her head in his direction as he approached her, asking him if he had a spanner in his possession to help tighten a loose freewheel on her bicycle.[38] He did not have one in his possession, but did what he could to resolve the problem.[39]

Having learned in their brief conversation of Wright's intended destination of Gaulby, Light offered to accompany her on her journey; an offer she accepted.[15] Light accompanied Wright to the cottage of her uncle in nearby Gaulby, before waiting for her outside the premises. En route, the two were observed by several independent witnesses. The uncle later informed officers he liked neither the looks nor the mannerisms of Light, and that his niece had informed him she had only encountered this individual that evening, stating; "Oh him, I don't really know him at all. He's been riding alongside me for a few miles but he isn't bothering me at all. He's just chatting about the weather."[40] Although Wright remarked to her uncle that Light had behaved like a "perfect stranger" in her company,[41] just before leaving his cottage, she jokingly informed him, "I hope he doesn't get too boring",[42] before adding; "I shall try and give him the slip."[43] When Wright exited her uncle's cottage and approached her bicycle, Light was overheard greeting her with the remark: "Bella, you have been a long time. I thought you had gone the other way."[44][n 1]

The two rode away from Measures' cottage at approximately 8.50 p.m.[46] According to Light's subsequent testimony, when the two approached a junction beyond King's Norton,[47] Wright informed him she would have to "bid goodbye" to him at this stage as her intended route was to the left. He then claimed to have proceeded directly back towards Leicester via Stoughton and Evington.[48]

Discovery[edit]

Approximately thirty minutes after Wright and her companion had ridden away from Measures' cottage, Wright's body was found on Gartree Road, part of the Via Devana Roman road, by a farmer named Joseph Cowell.[49] Her body was discovered alongside her bicycle,[50] and her face was extensively bloodied, with deep gouge marks visible on her cheeks and jaw.[51] Surmising the girl may have been run off the road by a motorist, Cowell initially deduced she had fallen from her bicycle and fatally injured herself.[52] Cowell immediately proceeded to nearby Great Glen to report his discovery to the local policeman, Constable Alfred Hall, who phoned a doctor in Billesdon. Dr Williams arrived at Hall's residence and the trio returned to Little Stretton, where the doctor gave instructions that the girl's body be moved to a nearby unoccupied house upon Cowell's trap.[53]

At the scene, Constable Hall found what he later described as "smears of blood on the top bar of the field gate", although he discovered no human footprints on either side of the gate. Nonetheless, a dead carrion crow was discovered in a field close to this gate.[n 2][56]

Dr Williams had also made a cursory candlelight examination of the scene before ordering the girl's body to be moved to the unoccupied house, having agreed with Cowell's initial assumption that Wright had died in a simple bicycle accident—possibly having lost control of her bicycle and dying from a combination of a loss of blood and a head injury.[57] Not accepting this explanation, PC Hall returned to the scene where the body had been discovered at 6.00 a.m. the following day to search for any signs of foul play. A careful search uncovered a .455-calibre bullet 17 feet (5.2 m) from where Wright's body had lain, slightly embedded in the ground by the imprint of a horse's hoof, which had not yet been removed from the scene. He proceeded to the unoccupied house and washed the congealed blood off the face of the corpse, finding a single entry wound beneath the left eye.[58] Informed of Hall's discovery, Dr Williams and another doctor performed a full post-mortem upon the body, discovering the victim had been shot once beneath the left eye from a distance of approximately six to seven feet,[59] and that the bullet had exited the rear of her skull.[60]

The dead girl was identified by relatives as Bella Wright. An inquest into her death returned a verdict of murder by person or persons unknown.[61]

Investigation[edit]

Police inquiries revealed nobody except Wright and her riding companion had been in the vicinity of Gartree Road at the time of her death.[62] As several people had seen Wright's riding companion, investigators were able to obtain a detailed description of this individual, who was described as being 35 to 40 years of age,[63] with a broad full face, and between 5 ft 7 in and 5 ft 9 in (170 and 175 cm) in height.[64] He had been wearing a grey suit, a grey cap, collar and tie, and black boots. The Chief Constable of Leicestershire Police issued numerous appeals in both the local and national press,[65] urging this man to come forward and assist them with their inquiries. Nonetheless, these appeals proved unsuccessful.[66]

Thorough checks of all premises where bicycles were bought, sold or repaired for the distinctive green bicycle also failed.[67] Nonetheless, on 10 July,[68] a Leicestershire bicycle repairman named Harry Cox informed police that the previous day, he had repaired a bicycle matching this description; Cox also informed police the man riding this bicycle had remarked to him of his intentions to go for "a ride in the country" on that very day.[n 3]

Light would later claim not to have known about Wright's death until he had read a Leicester Mercury account of her death on 8 July. According to his evidence, he realised the dire predicament he was now in,[71] and worried over the matter for "some time" before deciding to do nothing beyond removing his bicycle from where he normally stored it to the attic. He claimed he had failed to come forward in response to the numerous police and media appeals to avoid worrying his ailing mother. However, in October 1919, Light took his bicycle from the attic, before proceeding to file off the serial numbers from the frame. He took the bicycle to the Upperton Road Bridge in Leicester, where he first detached the rear wheel (because the machine had a distinctive back-pedalling brake), then continued dismantling the bicycle. Each section—except the rear wheel with its coaster brake—were thrown into the River Soar; an act witnessed by a labourer named Samuel Holland who had been walking to his night shift at a nearby mill.[72]

Bicycle discovery[edit]

On 23 February 1920, one Enoch Whitehouse was guiding a horse-drawn barge, laden with coal, along the River Soar. The tow-rope[73] of the barge snagged the frame of the green bicycle, bringing it to the surface of the canal. Whitehouse informed the police and a decision was made to drag the canal. Other sections of the bicycle were discovered. Examining the frame of the bicycle, investigators discovered that although the serial number had been filed off both the frame and the seat lug, and the BSA brand name had been filed off the fork, a faint serial number was still visible on the inside of the front fork.[74] Inquiries at businesses which bought, sold or otherwise repaired bicycles revealed this cycle had been bought by Light nine years previously.[58]

Arrest[edit]

Light was arrested on 4 March 1920 at Dean Close School in Cheltenham, where he had secured a position teaching mathematics two months previously.[75] He was brought to Leicestershire to be charged with the murder of Bella Wright.[76]

Initially, Light emphatically denied having ever been in or near Gaulby on 5 July, or to meeting Wright on that date. He also initially claimed to have never owned such a green bicycle, before, upon being informed of the positive link to his having purchased the bicycle via the overlooked serial number on the fork, claiming to have sold the green bicycle to an individual whose name could no longer recall several years previously.[77] Nonetheless, he was identified by eyewitnesses as the individual who had been riding alongside Wright on the evening of her death, including by her uncle.[78] Leicester cycle repairer Harry Cox also identified Light from a police identity parade as being the individual who had had repairs conducted on a distinctive green bicycle on the day of Wright's death.[79] His mother's maid, Mary Elizabeth Webb, informed investigators that on 5 July, Light had not returned home until approximately 10 p.m., claiming his bicycle had broken down, and that he had had to push it home.[80] He had also sold or destroyed all the clothing he had worn that day.[62]

On 19 March, additional pieces of evidence were found: an Army pistol holster—conclusively identified as having been issued to Light—and a dozen live .455-calibre bullets were also dredged from the same canal in which the sections of bicycle had been retrieved. The bullets were found to precisely[81] match the spent bullet found at the crime scene.[82]

Trial[edit]

The trial of Ronald Light for the murder of Annie Bella Wright opened in Leicester Castle on 8 June 1920. He was tried before Judge Thomas Gardner Horridge and entered a plea of not guilty.[82] The prosecution team consisted of Norman Birkett, Attorney General, Gordon Hewart and Henry Maddocks. He was defended by Sir Edward Marshall Hall.

The prosecution's contention was that a mile west of Gaulby, for unknown reasons, Wright had fled from Light, panicked, and headed south on an inferior road that was a possible route home, but not the shortest one. Light took an alternate route with intentions to ambush her and had lain in wait at a gate where he shot her once before fleeing from the scene.[49] To support this contention, numerous eyewitnesses and other individuals were introduced to testify as to having seen Light in the company of Wright on the evening of her murder, to his ownership of the bicycle, and his later efforts to both remove identifying marks on the bicycle, and dispose of the bicycle, the revolver holster, and unspent bullets of the same calibre as the bullet used to kill Wight in the River Soar in an obvious effort to conceal physical evidence linking him to the murder.[83] Furthermore, upon his arrest, Light had proceeded to tell the police numerous lies until confronted with either proof or inconsistencies in his claims.[84]

Two girls, Muriel Nunney (14) and Valeria Caven (12),[85] would also testify for the prosecution that approximately three hours[86] before Light had encountered Wright, he had pestered them as they rode their bicycles close to where Wright's body was subsequently found.[87][n 4]

"When Bella Wright was murdered, I knew from newspaper reports the next day that she was the girl I had been with just before she died. I knew the police wanted to question me. I became a coward again ... I never told a living soul what I knew. I got rid of everything that could have connected me with her [because] I was afraid ... I see now, of course, that I did the wrong thing."[89][90]
Ronald Light testifying confessing in his own defence at his trial for the murder of Wright

Both at his own insistence and on the advice of his barrister, Light opted to testify in his own defence.[91] In his testimony, Light conveyed himself in a well-spoken demeanour.[15] He readily admitted to having lied to the police upon his arrest, before essentially admitting to everything testified to by other witnesses presented at his trial but his possession of the service revolver, and Wright's killing, claiming they had parted company at a junction close to King's Norton soon after she had left her uncle's cottage in his company.[92]

On cross-examination, Light admitted that the holster, bullets and bicycle recovered from the canal were indeed his, but claimed he had disposed of these items in a "panic",[93] having read the press coverage surrounding Wright's murder,[94] and noting the general public and media consensus that the man seen riding alongside her on a green bicycle had been responsible for her death. He admitted that, as an officer in the Army, he had owned a Webley Scott service revolver; however, he claimed that when posted overseas, he had taken the revolver with him but not the holster,[95] and that when he had become a casualty, all of his belongings had been left in a casualty clearing station in France in 1918.[96]

Overall, Light's version of events, as he presented them to the court, could not be contradicted or disproved in any detail. Despite being subjected to five hours of cross-examination, he did not contradict himself on a single occasion.[97][n 5]

Despite conceding that the prosecution had produced ample circumstantial evidence proving Light had indeed been in Wright's company shortly before her death, Marshall Hall stressed to the jury his client freely admitted the truth of their testimony, before emphasising the lack of a motive for his client to have killed Wright, adding the two had not known each other before their chance encounter on the evening of her death and she had not been robbed, attacked, or subjected to any form of sexual assault.[98]

Marshall Hall restricted his own examination of Light largely to technical matters. He also questioned the testimony of the prosecution's ballistics "expert witness" the Leicester gunsmith and gunmaker Henry Clarke, who had earlier testified that the bullet which killed Wright had sustained damage which may have been caused by a ricochet[99] and that the bullet could easily have sourced from a rifle as a revolver, thereby introducing the possibility that a stray shot fired from a distance by another individual could have inadvertently killed Wright and that as such, her death may have been the result of misadventure.[100] Marshall Hall also contended that a person shot at close range from a service revolver would have sustained much greater damage to their face, whereas Wright had only a small entry wound beneath her left eye and a larger exit wound on the right side of her head. To this contention, Clarke replied, "It depends on the velocity."[101] Marshall Hall argued that this alternative scenario was a more likely explanation for Wright's death. This theory, and Light's courtroom demeanour, were apparently enough to instill sufficient reasonable doubt within the minds of the jurors, and earn Light's acquittal,[82] as they deliberated for three hours before returning with a verdict of not guilty. This verdict on 11 June was cheered by many spectators present within the courtroom.[102]

Aftermath[edit]

Bella Wright was buried in the churchyard of St Mary and All Saints, Stoughton on 11 July 1919. In a ceremony conducted before several hundred mourners, the vicar of Stoughton, W. N. Westmore, asked all present to reflect on "this poor girl" who had been taken away from them. Several wreaths and flowers were placed on her coffin by her family, friends, neighbours and work colleagues.[103]

Following his acquittal, Light returned to live with his mother in Leicester, where he initially maintained a somewhat reclusive lifestyle.[104] For a time, he assumed the name "Leonard Estelle".[105] He was fined in December 1920 for registering under a false name at a hotel where had been staying with a woman.[106] By 1928 he was living in Leysdown-on-Sea on the Isle of Sheppey in Kent. In 1934, he married widow Lilian Lester.[n 6]

Ronald Light died on 15 May 1975 at the age of 89.[9] His body was cremated at Charing Crematorium, near Ashford, and his ashes were scattered in the crematorium's Garden of Remembrance.[107] Light had no children of his own and his stepdaughter had no notion of Light's trial and acquittal until after his death.[82]

With support from British Cycling, Leicester City Council organises an annual guided cycle ride[108] which re-enacts the case.[109] Participants visit significant locations pertinent to the events of 5 July 1919 and the police investigation before progressing to Leicester Castle, where segments of Light's trial are re-enacted.[110]

For several decades following Light's acquittal, his green bicycle hung on the wall of an Evington cycle shop, although its current whereabouts are unknown. In a Christie's auction held in 1987, an anonymous bidder purchased the bullets and holster recovered from the River Soar and presented as evidence at Light's trial for $6,000.[82]

Opinions among criminologists and authors alike vary as to both Light's guilt or innocence of Wright's murder, and the actual circumstances surrounding her death. For example, in his 1930 book, The Green Bicycle Case, author Herbert R. Wakefield contends Light had been innocent of Wright's death,[10] whereas author Christine Wendy East concludes in her 1993 book The Green Bicycle Murder that Light was guilty as charged, adding that contemporary class structure—plus a degree of sympathy Light had extracted from the jury in his trial testimony—had played a significant role in his acquittal.[9]

Numerous other writers have put forth views and conjecture regarding Wright's death, including the possibility that Light killed Wright accidentally by showing her his service revolver which inadvertently discharged, or that she was killed by someone else entirely.[111] This accidental killing theory is backed by a note supposedly written by the Leicester superintendent of police, Levi Bowley,[112] three days after Light's acquittal. Bowley's note claims that while in prison awaiting trial, Light confessed the accidental death scenario to him. The authenticity of this note has been questioned.[113][114]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to Light, immediately prior to Wright entering her uncle's cottage, she had said to him: "I shall only be ten minutes or a quarter of an hour." He had taken this comment as "a sort of suggestion that I should wait and we should ride back together". Thus, he had opted to wait for Wright outside Measures' cottage.[45]
  2. ^ PC Alfred Hall would testify at Light's trial that the blood he had found on this gate came from a dead carrion crow that had "gorg[ed] itself on [Wright's] blood", with this crow apparently making six separate journeys from the gate to the corpse.[54] However, at the initial inquest, ballistics expert Robert Churchill stated that this crow had also been shot, leaving a possibility that whoever had shot the bird had also shot Wright. This evidence was never presented to the jury at Light's trial.[55]
  3. ^ The description compiled by Leicestershire Police of the distinctive green bicycle and circulated via the local and national press described the bicycle as a gent's B.S.A. 3-speed model bicycle with a green enamelled frame, black mudguards, an up-turned handlebar, a braking system that involved pedalling backwards,[69] and a Brooks saddle.[70]
  4. ^ When questioned by Norman Birkett as to the girls' claims, Light simply replied, "They are lying."[62] Judge Horridge would instruct the jury to disregard the testimony of Nunney and Caven in his final instructions to the jury at the closure of Light's trial.[88]
  5. ^ Light's prior offences went unreported by the newspapers of the time. Generally, press coverage of Light was sympathetic to an individual they portrayed as an "engineer, teacher and ex-Army officer" who stood accused of the murder of a simple "factory girl".[82]
  6. ^ Her first husband, Sgt Ernest Lester, also of the Royal Engineers, had been killed in action in 1917. The widow had abandoned her two sons in a Wolverhampton orphanage, fearful of destitution, but kept a younger daughter.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Still Unsolved ISBN 1-85-480030-2 p. 32
  2. ^ "Bella Wright 'Green Bicycle' Murder Recreated in Leicestershire". BBC News. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  3. ^ Donahue (2007), passim.
  4. ^ Still Unsolved ISBN 1-85-480030-2 p. 35
  5. ^ On Trial for Murder ISBN 978-0-330-33947-6 p. 209
  6. ^ On Trial for Murder ISBN 978-0-330-33947-6 p. 209
  7. ^ Donahue (2007), p. 68–69.
  8. ^ Chronicle of 20th Century Murder ISBN 978-0-425-14649-1 p. 83
  9. ^ a b c Donahue (2007), p. 70.
  10. ^ a b Donahue (2007), pp. 73–74.
  11. ^ Still Unsolved ISBN 1-85-480030-2 p. 35
  12. ^ The Murder Guide to Great Britain ISBN 1-854-87083-1 p. 158
  13. ^ "The Mystery of The Green Bicycle Murder will be Retold this Bank Holiday Weekend on Free Guided Cycle Ride". Leicester Mercury. 26 August 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  14. ^ "Who Murdered Bella Wright? Class Matters in Case of the Green Bicycle". New York Daily News. 11 July 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Donahue (2007), p. 71.
  16. ^ Still Unsolved ISBN 1-85-480030-2 p. 31
  17. ^ Still Unsolved ISBN 1-85-480030-2 p. 29
  18. ^ The World's Greatest Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-600-57231-2 p. 22
  19. ^ The Murder Guide to Great Britain ISBN 1-854-87083-1 p. 158
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  21. ^ The Murder Guide to Great Britain ISBN 1-854-87083-1 p. 158
  22. ^ Chronicle of 20th Century Murder ISBN 978-0-425-14649-1 p. 84
  23. ^ The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-816-07819-6 p. 146
  24. ^ The Murder Guide to Great Britain ISBN 1-854-87083-1 p. 158
  25. ^ The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-816-07819-6 p. 146
  26. ^ The Murder Guide to Great Britain ISBN 1-854-87083-1 p. 158
  27. ^ "No. 29084". The London Gazette. 26 February 1915. p. 199.
  28. ^ "No. 29691". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 August 1916. p. 7636.
  29. ^ a b "HAC Gunner Court-Martialled". Derby Daily Telegraph. 28 July 1917.
  30. ^ Chronicle of 20th Century Murder ISBN 978-0-425-14649-1 p. 85
  31. ^ The World's Greatest Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-600-57231-2 pp. 23-24
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  33. ^ Chronicle of 20th Century Murder ISBN 978-0-425-14649-1 p. 85
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  35. ^ Chronicle of 20th Century Murder ISBN 978-0-425-14649-1 p. 85
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  37. ^ Almanac of World Crime ISBN 978-1-461-74768-0 p. 308
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  39. ^ The Murder Guide to Great Britain ISBN 1-854-87083-1 p. 157
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  45. ^ Still Unsolved ISBN 1-85-480030-2 p. 37
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  50. ^ On Trial for Murder ISBN 978-0-330-33947-6 p. 209
  51. ^ The World's Greatest Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-600-57231-2 p. 21
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  53. ^ Chronicle of 20th Century Murder ISBN 978-0-425-14649-1 p. 84
  54. ^ Still Unsolved ISBN 1-85-480030-2 p. 32
  55. ^ Chronicle of 20th Century Murder ISBN 978-0-425-14649-1 p. 86
  56. ^ The World's Greatest Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-600-57231-2 p. 24
  57. ^ The World's Greatest Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-600-57231-2 p. 21
  58. ^ a b Donahue (2007), p. 73.
  59. ^ The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-816-07819-6 p. 146
  60. ^ On Trial for Murder ISBN 978-0-330-33947-6 p. 209
  61. ^ The World's Greatest Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-600-57231-2 p. 22
  62. ^ a b c Real-Life Crimes (1993), p. 1438.
  63. ^ Real-Life Crimes (1993), p. 1435.
  64. ^ The Murder Guide to Great Britain ISBN 1-854-87083-1 p. 159
  65. ^ "Re-enactment of Famous Mysterious Murder Taking place". itv.com. 18 May 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  66. ^ On Trial for Murder ISBN 978-0-330-33947-6 p. 209
  67. ^ The Murder Guide to Great Britain ISBN 1-854-87083-1 p. 159
  68. ^ The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-816-07819-6 p. 146
  69. ^ The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-816-07819-6 p. 146
  70. ^ The Murder Guide to Great Britain ISBN 1-854-87083-1 p. 159
  71. ^ Chronicle of 20th Century Murder ISBN 978-0-425-14649-1 p. 85
  72. ^ Donahue (2007), p. 69.
  73. ^ The Murder Guide to Great Britain ISBN 1-854-87083-1 p. 159
  74. ^ Chronicle of 20th Century Murder ISBN 978-0-425-14649-1 p. 86
  75. ^ Chronicle of 20th Century Murder ISBN 978-0-425-14649-1 p. 86
  76. ^ The World's Greatest Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-600-57231-2 p. 23
  77. ^ Almanac of World Crime ISBN 978-1-461-74768-0 p. 308
  78. ^ Still Unsolved ISBN 1-85-480030-2 p. 35
  79. ^ On Trial for Murder ISBN 978-0-330-33947-6 p. 209
  80. ^ Real-Life Crimes (1993), p. 1436.
  81. ^ The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-816-07819-6 p. 146
  82. ^ a b c d e f Donahue (2007), p. 74.
  83. ^ The World's Greatest Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-600-57231-2 p. 23
  84. ^ Still Unsolved ISBN 1-85-480030-2 p. 36
  85. ^ Still Unsolved ISBN 1-85-480030-2 pp. 35-36
  86. ^ Still Unsolved ISBN 1-85-480030-2 p. 35
  87. ^ Donahue (2007), p. 70–71.
  88. ^ The World's Greatest Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-600-57231-2 p. 36
  89. ^ The World's Greatest Unsolved Crimes ISBN 978-0-600-57231-2 p. 23
  90. ^ Still Unsolved ISBN 1-85-480030-2 p. 38
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Cited works and further reading[edit]

External links[edit]