This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Publisher||Frank A. Munsey
|First appearance||Double Detective vol. 5, #5 (April 1940)|
|Alter ego||Jethro Dumont|
|Notable aliases||Dr. Charles Pali, Hugh Gilmore|
Super speed and strength
Ability to emit energy beams
The Green Lama is a fictional pulp magazine hero of the 1940s. In many respects a typical costumed crime-fighter of the period, the Green Lama was distinguished by the fact that he was a practicing Buddhist. Slightly different versions of the same character also appeared in comic books and on the radio. The Green Lama character is not in the public domain, as the author "wisely retained all rights to his creation."
- 1 Pulps
- 1.1 Original pulps
- 1.2 Modern Pulps
- 1.3 Airship 27
- 1.4 Moonstone Publishers
- 1.5 Altus Press
- 2 Comic books
- 3 In other media
- 4 Buddhist element
- 5 References
- 6 External links
The Green Lama first appeared in a short novel entitled The Green Lama in the April 1940 issue of Double Detective magazine. The novel was written by Kendell Foster Crossen using the pseudonym of "Richard Foster." Writing in 1976, Crossen recalled that the character was created because the publishers of Double Detective, the Frank Munsey company, wanted a competitor for The Shadow, which was published by their rivals Street & Smith.
The character, partially inspired by explorer Theos "the White Lama" Bernard, was originally conceived as "The Gray Lama," but tests of the cover art proved to be unsatisfactory, so the color was changed to green. The Green Lama proved to be successful (though not as successful as The Shadow), and Crossen continued to produce Green Lama stories for Double Detective regularly up until March 1943, for a total of 14 stories.
Although appearing in a detective fiction magazine, the Green Lama tales can be considered science fiction or supernatural fantasy in that the Green Lama and other characters are possessed of superhuman powers and super-science weapons. The Green Lama is an alias of Jethro Dumont, a rich resident of New York City, born July 25, 1913, to millionaires John Pierre Dumont and Janet Lansing. He received his A.B. from Harvard University, M.A. from Oxford, and Ph.D. from the Sorbonne; he also attended Drepung College in Tibet. He inherited his father’s fortune, estimated at ten million dollars, when his parents were both killed in an accident while he was still at Harvard; he then spent ten years in Tibet studying to be a lama (a Buddhist Spiritual Teacher), acquiring many mystical powers in the process. He returned to America intending to spread the doctrines of Tibetan Buddhism (to relieve suffering by removing ignorance), but realized that he could accomplish more by fighting crime, since Americans were not ready to receive spiritual teachings. He never carried a gun, believing that "this would make me no better than those I fight." Dumont was also endowed with superhuman powers acquired through his scientific knowledge of radioactive salts. Dumont had two main alter egos: the crime-fighting Green Lama and the Buddhist priest Dr. Pali. Additional alter egos included the adventurer "Hugh Gilmore."
Among the Green Lama's associates were a Tibetan lama named Tsarong, the college-educated reformed gangster Gary Brown, the post-debutante Evangl Stewart (who would go on to marry Gary), radiologist Dr. Harrison Valco, New York City police detective John Caraway, actor Ken Clayton, Montana-born actress Jean Farrell, and magician Theodor Harrin. The Green Lama was also frequently assisted by a mysterious woman known as "Magga," whose true identity was never revealed. Crossen's pseudonym "Richard Foster" was also established as a character and friend of Jethro Dumont.
The first six stories have been reprinted in the pulp reprint fanzine High Adventure. Altus Press has reprinted the entire series in three volumes.
Official Continuity of Green Lama pulp stories
1923 – 1933
- "The Case of the Final Column" by Adam Lance Garcia (Flashbacks)
- The Green Lama: Unbound by Adam Lance Garcia (Flashbacks)
- Black Bat / The Green Lama: Homecoming by Adam Lance Garcia
- Eye of the Beholder by Adam Lance Garcia
- “Case of the Crimson Hand” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- “Croesus of Murder” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- “Babies for Sale” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- “Wave of Death” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- “The Man Who Wasn’t There” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- “Death’s Head Face” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- The Green Lama: Horror in Clay by Adam Lance Garcia
- “The Case of the Clown Who Laughed” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- “The Case of the Invisible Enemy” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- “The Case of the Mad Magi” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- “The Case of the Vanishing Ships” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- “The Case of the Fugitive Fingerprints” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- The Green Lama: Scions by Adam Lance Garcia
- “The Case of the Crooked Cane” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- “The Case of the Hollywood Ghost” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- “The Case of the Beardless Corpse” by Kendell Foster Crossen
- “The Case of the Final Column” by Adam Lance Garcia (Altus Press)
- The Green Lama: Unbound by Adam Lance Garcia
- The Green Lama: “Dæmon’s Kiss” by Adam Lance Garcia
- The Green Lama: Crimson Circle by Adam Lance Garcia
In 2009, Airship 27 Productions and publisher Cornerstone Book Publishers began releasing a series of new pulp anthologies and novels. These new stories treat the original pulps as a vague history, though they slightly shift the time period from the early 1940s to the late 1930s and portray the Lama as younger and less experienced.
While the books were produced without the Crossen Estate, neither the authors nor the publisher were aware of the estate's claim at the time. The book was produced in good faith under the belief that the character was in the Public Domain, with no intention to infringe on any unknown rights. One of the stories, set in 1939, sought to portray the origin of the Green Lama. The other stories, while perhaps preceding the pulps in narrative order, would likely be set in the 1940s, possibly preceding the first publication in April 1940.
The first new Green Lama anthology was released on August 14, 2009. The anthology, edited by Ron Fortier, featured three new stories - two short stories, and one novella - written by Kevin Noel Olson, W. Peter Miller, and Adam L. Garcia, respectively. Olson's story, "Shiva Endangered", tells one of the Lama's first adventures in Tibet and introduces the McGuffin known as the Jade Tablet (a copy of the legendary Emerald Tablet) and explains the origins of the Lama's powers. Garcia's novella, "Horror in Clay", is set years later in New York, shortly after Crossen's story "Death's Head Face", and pits the Lama and friends against a golem, as well as continuing the narrative of the Jade Tablet and tying the Green Lama into the Cthulhu mythos. Finally, Miller's short, "The Studio Specter", is set in L.A., soon after the events of "Horror in Clay", and tells the story of a Phantom-like villain terrorizing a film studio.
"Horror in Clay", the cover art by Mike Fyles, and Jay Piscopo's interior artwork from this volume were nominated for 2009 Pulp Factory Awards.
"Horror in Clay" is claimed[by whom?] to be considered canon. All the stories in Volume One have since been republished with the proper copyright specifics.
Volume 2: Green Lama: Unbound
The Green Lama's first full-length novel in nearly 70 years, Green Lama: Unbound, was released July 28, 2010. Written by Adam L. Garcia, it displayed interior and cover art by Mike Fyles. The novel takes place roughly six months after "Studio Specter" and shortly after the last original pulp story, "Beardless Corpse." Continuing the Jade Tablet storyline established in "Shiva Enangered" and "Horror in Clay," Unbound pitted the Green Lama against Lovecraft's Great Old Ones and Cthulhu, as well as featured — for the first time ever — details of Dumont's ten years in Tibet.
In 2011, the book, Garcia, and Fyles were nominated for several awards including Best Novel, Best Interior Art, and Best Exterior Art in the Pulp Factory Awards; as well as Best Book, Best Cover Art, Best Interior, Best Pulp Revival, and Best Author in the 2011 Pulp Ark Awards. It won for Best Pulp Revival in the Pulp Ark Awards, and Best Pulp Novel and Best Interior Art in the Pulp Factory Awards.
Green Lama: Mystic Warrior
Airship 27 released Green Lama-Mystic Warrior in 2013, with two original stories from Volume One and two new stories. A second edition came out in 2014. The authors in this volume are Kevin Noel Olson, Nick Ahlhelm, W Peter Miller, and Robert Craig, with cover art by Isaac L. Nacilla and interior illustrations by Neil Foster.
When it was established that the Green Lama was not in the public domain, Garcia moved his books to Moonstone. Along with new work, Garcia's stories "Horror in Clay" and "Unbound" were authorized to be reissued in expanded releases. Garcia has also produced short stories crossing over the Green Lama with other pulp heroes.
Green Lama: Scions
Taking place shortly after "Horror in Clay," Dumont and his associates fight a malevolent force that arrived in New York aboard a cruise ship filled with people murdered at their own hands.
Green Lama: Daemon's Kiss
A short story featured in Moonstone's "Of Monsters and Men" anthology, the Green Lama and his associates fight a succubus outside a rural hotel. Features original "widescreen" art by Mike Fyles.
Green Lama: Crimson Circle
A second novel, Green Lama: Crimson Circle, also by Garcia and Fyles, came out in 2015. The story is a sequel to the very first Green Lama pulp story, "Case of the Crimson Hand", while continuing the plot threads left hanging at the end of Unbound. The upcoming comic short "Green Lama and the Death Dealers" by Garcia and Fyles, will bridge the gap between Unbound and Crimson Circle. A third novel is also planned, currently entitled Green Lama: Redemption.
In addition to reprinting the original pulp stories in 2011 and 2012, Altus Press included a new short story in their third volume, "Green Lama and the Case of the Final Column", by Garcia and Fyles that will tie the original pulps and new pulps stories together. "The Final Column" will be set immediately after "The Case of the Beardless Corpse," shortly before the events of Green Lama: Unbound, and lays the groundwork for several plot points in Unbound and the upcoming Crimson Circle. It also features Crossen's pseudonym "Richard Foster" as a principal character.
Golden Age comics
The Green Lama's first comic book appearance was in issue #7 of Crestwood Publications' Prize Comics (December 1940). The character continued to appear in the title for 27 issues (through 1943). All stories were written by Ken Crossen, with art by Mac Raboy and others. In Prize Comics #24, he teamed up with Black Owl, Dr. Frost, and Yank and Doodle to take down Frankenstein's Monster.
This version of the character bears considerable similarities to his pulp counterpart, most notably his costume design. However, this version was more of a sorcerer with the ability to travel through time, resurrect the dead and often battled Lucifer's minions. There were also minor changes to his supporting cast such as Jean "Parker" and the inclusion of a character known as Tashi Shog (a Tibetan liturgic wish meaning "May prosperity be").
He then moved to his own title, The Green Lama (Spark Publications), published by Kendell Foster Crossen, which lasted for eight issues from December 1944 to March 1946. This iteration character of the Green Lama was somewhat different from his previous versions (for example, having the power of flight and wearing a skin-tight costume), although the scripts were still written by Kendell Foster Crossen, who had created the earlier pulp version of the character.
Reprints of the Green Lama stories from the eight-issue Spark series are available in two hardcover archive volumes produced by Dark Horse Comics in 2008.
Over the last 20 years, the publisher AC Comics has been virtually the only source for the original Golden Age material featuring the Green Lama, and intermittently used the character in their long-running, original series Femforce. In 2004, writer/artist James Ritchey III started production on a two-part graphic novella, entitled Green Lama: Man of Strength, revamping the version from the Spark Publications era. Billing the story in interviews as a "Superhero Mystical Murder Mystery involving Reincarnation", Ritchey never completed the art for part two, due to illness — so it was shelved for three years.
Green Lama: Man of Strength #1 shipped through Diamond Distributors on April 5, 2008, after a requested a one-month delay from Diamond, due to their frowning upon smaller independents having two similar titles shipped simultaneously. The second issue came out in 2009.
The Green Lama is currently one of several Golden Age characters appearing in the Dynamite Entertainment comic book series Project Superpowers, by writer Jim Krueger and artist Alex Ross. This version of the Green Lama is vaguely a continuation of his Spark Publications iteration, though his powers have evolved to be more nature-based. The character has been used without authorization of the Crossen Estate.
Moonstone Publishers will be releasing new back-up comic stories based on the pulp version of the character under its upcoming "Return of the Originals" banner. These shorts will be written by Mike W. Barr. Moonstone has released in 2013 a new novel of the character, "The Green Lama: Scions", written by Adam Lance Garcia
The Green Lama will be featured in Airship 27 and Redbud Studio's comic book anthology All Star Pulp Comics. The eight-page comic is entitled Green Lama and the Dealers of Death by Garcia and Fyles, with writing and lettering assistance from Ben Granoff. It will also feature the return of Gary Brown and Evangl Stewart, as well as continue the "Fifth Column" plot from the original pulps.
In other media
Web comics and fiction
Green Lama is one of several Golden Age comic characters to make an appearance in Tales of the Living Legends, a webcomic featuring Golden Age art and rewritten stories.
The Green Lama plays a key role as a supporting character in the fiction blog, Flyover City.
More than three years after the demise of his comic book, the Green Lama was resurrected for a short-lived CBS radio series that ran for 11 episodes from June 5 to August 20, 1949, with the character's voice provided by Paul Frees. This version of the Green Lama was also written by creator Kendell Foster Crossen, along with several co-writers.
CBS Television considered producing a television version of the Green Lama for the 1950 season. The proposal never got the green light.
On January 6, 2012, the Green Lama came to life in an aerial performance at the Rubin Museum of Art as part of its "Hero, Villain, Yeti" exhibit. It was written by Adam Lance Garcia, based on his short story "Case of the Final Column," and performed by New-York-based Cirquetacular.
The Green Lama stories display a sympathetic and relatively knowledgeable portrayal of Buddhism, both in the text of the stories and in numerous footnotes. From Crossen's own comments, in his foreword to Robert Weinberg's 1976 reprint of the first Green Lama story, it is clear that this was not proselytism on his part, but simply because he wanted to create a Tibetan Buddhist character and then read everything he could find on the subject.
The most frequent reference to Buddhism in the stories is the use of the Sanskrit mantra "Om mani padme hum" (usually translated as "Om, the jewel on the lotus"), which would indeed be used by Tibetan monks. However, the majority of other references to Buddhism in the stories, while accurate, relate to the Theravada form of Buddhism rather than the Tibetan form, with frequent use of Pali words such as "Magga", "Nibbana", and "Dhamma", rather than the Sanskrit equivalents that would be used in Tibetan Buddhism.
- Will Murray, "Introduction," The Green Lama, vol. 1 (Altus Press, 2011), p. xvii (unpaginated). The copyright is owned by Kendra Crossen Burroughs (see http://cocatalog.loc.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&PAGE=First). Even though there was a loss of protection for the authorized derivative works (the Green Lama comic books of 1944-1946) due to nonrenewal, it is well established that where an underlying published work (the Green Lama pulp stories of 1940-1943) is still in copyright, it is copyright infringement to market any derivative work based thereon (such as new comic book stories) without the copyright owner’s permission. Filmvideo Releasing Corp. v. Hastings, 668 F.2d 91 (2d Cir. 1981); Russell v. Price, 612 F.2d 1123 (9th Cir. 1979).
- Weinberg, Robert (1976). Pulp Classics. Robert Weinberg (14): 3. Missing or empty
- "The Green Lama, Master of the Mystics Arts". Comic Related.
- "Pulp Factory Awards Announces Nominees". Broken Frontier.
- "A Hero Unbound". Comic Related.
- "All Pulp Newsstand Bulldog Edition". All Pulp. February 2, 2011.
- "Pulp Ark Awards 2011 Nominations". Pulp Machine.
- "Pulp Ark 2011 Award Winners Announced". All Pulp. February 2011.
- "2011 Pulp Factory Awards Given Winners". All Pulp. April 2011.
- Nash, Bobby (2013-08-16). "ALL PULP: GREEN LAMA - MYSTIC WARRIOR TAKES FLIGHT AT AIRSHIP 27, with the copyright issues corrected.". ALL PULP. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- "Author Spotlight: Adam L. Garcia". Savage Tales. July 2010.
- "Prize Comics". Digital Comic Museum.
- David-Néel, Alexandra (1967). Magic and Mystery in Tibet. Souvenir Press Ltd. (Originally published as Mystiques et magiciens du Thibet, Plon: Paris, 1929; English translation Claude Kendall, New York, 1932)
- "The Green Lama". Don Markstein's Toonopedia.
- 'Green Lama: Man of Strength, Part 1' at the Comic Book DB
- Brady, Matt (July 18, 2007). "Ross and Krueger on Superpowers". Newsarama.
- "Pulp's Originals Return at Moonstone". Comic Book Resources.
- "Airship27 Flight Log".
- "Audio Classic Archive: Green Lama".
- "The Definitive Green Lama Radio Article and Log with Paul Frees and Ben Wright".
- "Rubin Museum of Art: Cirquetacular: The Green Lama". Rmanyc.org. 2012-01-06. Retrieved 2013-06-23.
- Official Green Lama Website
- A Hero History of the Green Lama
- Double Detective cover scans
- The Green Lama radio programs in the public domain at Archive.org
- Green Lama serial at Tales of the Living Legends
- Green Lama (Jethro Dumont) at the Comic Book DB
- Green Lama (Gordon Dumont) at the Comic Book DB
- Green Lama (Jethro Dumont II) at the Comic Book DB
- The Green Lama radio programs at Outlaws Old Time Radio Corner