Green New Deal

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The term Green New Deal (also New New Deal)[1][2] is used to describe any stimulus package that aims to address both financial crises and environmental issues such as climate change. The term references the New Deal, the social and economic stimulus package undertaken by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in response to the Great Depression.[3] Supporters of a Green New Deal most likely advocate for a combination of Roosevelt's fiscal ideals with more contemporary approaches such as investment in renewable energies and the promotion of greater resource efficiency.[4]

History of the concept[edit]

New Deal - use of synthetic fertilizers to boost agricultural production
Green New Deal - Sustainable agriculture combined with the generation of renewable energy

An early influential use of the term Green New Deal, which gave it prominence in the US and well beyond, was by journalist Thomas L. Friedman.[5] He argued in favor of such concepts in two pieces that appeared in the New York Times and The New York Times Magazine.[6][7] In January 2007 Friedman wrote:

If you have put a windmill in your yard or some solar panels on your roof, bless your heart. But we will only green the world when we change the very nature of the electricity grid -- moving it away from dirty coal or oil to clean coal and renewables. And that is a huge industrial project -- much bigger than anyone has told you. Finally, like the New Deal, if we undertake the green version, it has the potential to create a whole new clean power industry to spur our economy into the 21st century.[8]

This approach was subsequently taken up by the Green New Deal Group,[9] which published its eponymous report on July 21, 2008.[10] The concept was further popularized and put on a wider footing when the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) began to promote it. On October 22, 2008 UNEP's Executive Director Achim Steiner unveiled the Global Green New Deal initiative that aims to create jobs in "green" industries, thus boosting the world economy and curbing climate change at the same time.[11]

General proposals[edit]

Broadly, the proposals for a Green New Deal echo the recommendations of UN-mandated organizations such as ICLEI or the TEEB, of global NGOs, and of the Basel II and related monetary accords, especially as these relate to reforms to measurement of fundamental ecosystem risk and financial liabilities. The reinsurance industry has also expressed support for the general principles of global carbon and emissions charges, for metrics of ecosystem destabilization risk, and for raising the price companies and individuals have to pay when using nature's services and natural resources.

Several measures proposed as part of a Green New Deal have already been implemented in one or more G8 or G20 countries including Norway, South Korea, the UK, Germany, and the US. The financial proposals echo some of the programs already underway at the IMF, World Bank, BIS and ECB that aim to better reflect the value of ecosystems and reduce systematic incentives to invest in "dirty" or destructive industries.

Actual measures[edit]

  • Government-led investment in energy and resource efficiency, as well as reusable energies and microgeneration;
  • Low-carbon infrastructure redevelopment in order to create jobs;
  • A directed tax on the profits of oil and gas companies with proceeds being invested in renewable energy and energy efficiency;
  • Financial incentives for green investment and reduced energy usage, including low interest rates for green investment;
  • Re-regulation of international finance, including capital controls, and increased scrutiny of financial derivatives - likely along the lines of Basel II;
  • Curbing corporate tax evasion through compulsory financial reporting and by clamping down on tax havens;
  • A Global Marshall Plan Initiative using "green quantitative easing" to create money to fund the "great transition" to a society free of fossil fuels and other measures that aim to preserve the biosphere.

Notable proponents[edit]

United States[edit]

In the United States, a "Green New Deal" wing began to emerge in the Democratic Party after the November 2018 elections.[28][29]

The Green Party of the United States had suggested a Green New Deal earlier that year in its rebuttal to the 2018 State of the Union speech.[30]

A possible program in 2018 for a "Green New Deal" assembled by the think tank Data for Progress was described as "pairing labor programs with measures to combat the climate crisis."[31][32]

A November 2018 article in Vogue stated, "There isn’t just one Green New Deal yet. For now, it’s a platform position that some candidates are taking to indicate that they want the American government to devote the country to preparing for climate change as fully as Franklin Delano Roosevelt once did to reinvigorating the economy after the Great Depression."[27]

Several candidates supporting a "Green New Deal" and/or phasing out fossil fuels won seats in the House of Representatives in 2018, including Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, Deb Haaland, Rashida Tlaib, Ilhan Omar, and Antonio Delgado.[33]


Some developing countries have argued that a global Green New Deal may undermine national sovereignty regarding a country's control over its natural resources. Brazil, Mexico, and India have emphasized national sovereignty when discussing the Green New Deal, with India also expressing fears of a green "economic straitjacket". Bolivia, on its part, has argued that a Green New Deal may signal the "privatization and commodification of nature".[34] China, while voicing some support for a Green New Deal, also pointed out that it may result in "trade protectionism under the pretext of environmental protection".

In the US, Robert Pollin characterized the concept of a "Green New Deal" as "egalitarian green growth", indicating that the seriousness of concerns about climate is also giving rise to alternative "degrowth" proposals, which are not based on on economic growth.[35]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jepps, Jim; Read, Rupert (21 January 2009). "A Green New Deal". Red Pepper (magazine). Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  2. ^ "How new a deal?". 20 November 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  3. ^ Jeremy Lovell (July 21, 2008) "Climate report calls for green 'New Deal'", Reuters.
  4. ^ Hilary French, Michael Renner and Gary Gardner: Toward a Transatlantic Green New Deal The authors state: "Support is growing around the world for an integrated response to the current economic and environmental crises, increasingly referred to as the "Green New Deal". The term is a modern-day variation of the U.S. New Deal, an ambitious effort launched by President Franklin Roosevelt to lift the United States out of the Great Depression. The New Deal of that era entailed a strong government role in economic planning and a series of stimulus packages launched between 1933 and 1938 that created jobs through ambitious governmental programs, including the construction of roads, trails, dams, and schools. Today's Green New Deal proposals are also premised on the importance of decisive governmental action, but incorporate policies to respond to pressing environmental challenges through a new paradigm of sustainable economic progress."
  5. ^ Kaufman, Alexander C (2018-06-30). "What's the 'Green New Deal'? The surprising origins behind a progressive rallying cry". Grist. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  6. ^ Thomas L. Friedman, The Power of Green. The New York Times Magazine, April 15, 2007
  7. ^ Thomas L. Friedman, A Warning From The Garden, The New York Times, January 19, 2007
  8. ^ Thomas L. Friedman: A Warning From The Garden, The New York Times. January 19, 2007.
  9. ^ Mark Lynas: A Green New Deal, New Statesman, July 17, 2008
  10. ^ Larry Elliott, Colin Hines, Tony Juniper, Jeremy Leggett, Caroline Lucas, Richard Murphy, Ann Pettifor, Charles Secrett & Andrew Simms, A Green New Deal: Joined-up policies to solve the triple crunch of the credit crisis, climate change and high oil prices. new economics foundation, July 2008
  11. ^ Paul Eccleston, UN announces green "New Deal" plan to rescue world economies, The Daily Telegraph, October 22, 2008
  12. ^ "Randy Bryce's Environmental Plan". Randy Bryce for Congress. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  13. ^ Eric Levitz, Voters Are Ready for a Green New Deal. Are Democrats?, Daily Intelligencer, September 18, 2018
  14. ^ Thomas L. Friedman, The Power of Green, The New York Times Magazine, April 15, 2007
  15. ^ Thomas L. Friedman, "A Warning From The Garden" The New York Times, January 19, 2007
  16. ^ Hilary French, Michael Renner and Gary Gardner, Toward a Transatlantic Green New Deal, PDF, 2009
  17. ^ "Protests for Social Justice: A Green New Deal for Israel? - Heinrich Böll Foundation". Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  18. ^ "Green New Deal in Ukraine? The Energy Sector and modernizing a National Economy - Heinrich Böll Foundation". Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  19. ^ Van Jones (October 7, 2008) The Green Collar Economy: How One Solution Can Fix Our Two Biggest Problems, HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-165075-7
  20. ^ Mariana Mazzucato, Toward a Green New Deal, Project Syndicate, December 14, 2015
  21. ^ "Search". Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  22. ^ Schlanger, Zoë. "Ocasio-Cortez's climate plan is the only one that matches scientific consensus on the environment". Quartz. Retrieved 2018-07-03.
  23. ^ "How are we doing on a 'Green New Deal?'". Open Democracy. 2018-10-07. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  24. ^ Jill Stein, Campaign Platform - Green New Deal, October 24, 2011
  25. ^ Ponsot, Elisabeth (November 5, 2012). "The green new deal". Need to Know (TV program), PBS. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  26. ^ Paul Eccleston, UN announces green 'New Deal' plan to rescue world economies The Daily Telegraph, October 22, 2008
  27. ^ a b Read, Bridget (November 2, 2018). "Watch Bria Vinaite Explain the Green New Deal". Vogue (magazine). Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  28. ^ Kaufman, Alexander C. (2018-11-07). "Democrats' Green New Deal Wing Takes Shape Amid Wave Of Progressive Climate Hawk Wins". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  29. ^ Carlock, Greg; McElwee, Sean. "Why the Best New Deal Is a Green New Deal". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  30. ^ "Green Party Rebuttal to President Trump's 2018 State of the Union Address". Common Dreams. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  31. ^ Kahn, Brian. "Most Americans Think We Can Save the Planet and Create Jobs at the Same Time". Earther. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  32. ^ "Green New Deal Report". Data For Progress. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  33. ^ Corbett, Jessica (November 7, 2018). "Saving Planet With 'Green New Deal' Proves Popular as Climate Hawks Celebrate Midterm Victories". Common Dreams. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  34. ^ Vedeld, Trond (2011): Grønn økonomi og Rio 20+. "Business as usual" eller nytt paradigme? (NIBR Notat 2011:118); Vedeld, Trond (2012): Developing Countries say no to green economy, yes to sustainable development Archived 2011-04-30 at the Wayback Machine. (NIBR International Blog 31.01.12)
  35. ^ Pollin, Robert (July–August 2018). "De-Growth vs a Green New Deal". New Left Review 112. Retrieved 2018-11-13.

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