Green Party of the United States

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Green Party of the United States
Chairperson Green National Committee
Founded April 2001; 17 years ago (2001-04)
Split from Greens/Green Party USA
Preceded by Citizens Party
Association of State Green Parties
Headquarters 6411 Orchard Avenue, Suite 101, Takoma Park, Maryland 20912
Newspaper Green Pages
Youth wing Young Greens
Women's wing National Women's Caucus
LGBT wing Lavender Greens
Latinx wing Latinx Caucus
Black wing Black Caucus
Ideology Anti-capitalism[1]
Green politics[3]
Political position Left-wing[4][5]
International affiliation Global Greens
Continental affiliation Federation of the Green Parties of the Americas
Colors      Green
Seats in the Senate
0 / 100
Seats in the House
0 / 435
0 / 50
State Upper House Seats
0 / 1,972
State Lower House Seats
2 / 5,411
Territorial Governorships
0 / 6
Territorial Upper Chamber Seats
0 / 97
Territorial Lower Chamber Seats
0 / 91
Other elected offices 156 (2018)[6]

The Green Party of the United States (GPUS) is a green federation of political parties in the United States.[7] The party promotes green politics, specifically environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice, participatory, grassroots democracy, gender equality, LGBT rights, anti-war and anti-racism. On the political spectrum, the party is generally seen as left-wing.[1]

The GPUS was founded in 2001 as the evolution of the Association of State Green Parties (ASGP), which was formed in 1996.[8] After its founding, the GPUS soon became the primary national green organization in the country, eclipsing the Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA), which formed in 1991 out of the Green Committees of Correspondence (CoC), a collection of local green groups active since 1984.[9] The ASGP had increasingly distanced itself from the G/GPUSA in the late 1990s.[10]

The Greens gained widespread public attention during the 2000 presidential election, when the ticket composed of Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke won 2.7% of the popular vote. Nader was vilified by many Democrats and even some Greens, who accused him of spoiling the election for Al Gore, the Democratic candidate.[11] The degree of Nader's impact on the 2000 election remains controversial.[12][13]

The GPUS has had several members elected into state legislatures, including in California, Maine and Arkansas. In September 2017, independent Ralph Chapman, member of the Maine House of Representatives, switched his affiliation to the Green Party.[14] A number of Greens around the United States hold positions on the municipal level, including on school boards, city councils and as mayors.


Early years[edit]

The political movement that began in 1985 as the decentralized Committees of Correspondence[15] evolved into a more centralized structure by 1990, opening a national clearinghouse and forming governing bodies, bylaws and a platform as the Green Committees of Correspondence (GCoC) and by 1990 simply The Greens. The organization conducted grassroots organizing efforts, educational activities and electoral campaigns.

Internal divisions arose between members who saw electoral politics as ultimately corrupting and supported the notion of an "anti-party party" formed by Petra Kelly and other leaders of the Greens in Germany[16] vs. those who saw electoral strategies as a crucial engine of social change. A struggle for the direction of the organization culminated a "compromise agreement", ratified in 1990 at the Greens National Congress in Elkins, West Virginia and in which both strategies would be accommodated within the same 527 political organization renamed the Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA). It was recognized by the FEC as a national political party in 1991.

The compromise agreement subsequently collapsed and two Green party organizations have co-existed in the United States since. The Green Politics Network was organized in 1990 and the National Association of Statewide Green Parties formed by 1994. Divisions between those pressing to break onto the national political stage and those aiming to grow roots at the local level continued to widen during the 1990s. The Association of State Green Parties (ASGP) encouraged and backed Nader's presidential runs in 1996 and 2000. By 2001, the push to separate electoral activity from the G/GPUSA issue-based organizing led to the Boston Proposal and subsequent rise of the Green Party of the United States. The G/GPUSA lost most of its affiliates in the following months and dropped its FEC national party status in 2005.

In 2016, Mark Salazar set a new record for a Green Party nominee for Congress. Running in the Arizona 8th district against incumbent Republican Congressman Trent Franks, Salazar received 93,954 votes or 31.43%.[17]


Part of a series on
Green politics
Sunflower symbol

The GPUS follows the ideals of green politics, which are based on the Four Pillars, namely ecological wisdom, social justice, grassroots democracy and nonviolence.[18]

The Ten Key Values, which expand upon the Four Pillars, are as follows:

  1. Grassroots democracy
  2. Social justice and equal opportunity
  3. Ecological wisdom
  4. Nonviolence
  5. Decentralization
  6. Community-based economics and economic justice
  7. Feminism and gender equity
  8. Respect for diversity
  9. Personal and global responsibility
  10. Future focus and sustainability

Peter Camejo was quoted in 2002 as claiming that he was a watermelon—green on the outside, but red on the inside.[19] In January 2004, he initiated the Avocado Declaration, which compares Greens to avocados. "An avocado is Green on the outside and Green on the inside".[20] The Declaration goes on to explain that Greens have a vital role in bringing democracy to the otherwise undemocratic two party system of the United States; that the Greens have a unique and independent identity as a third party, which cannot be subsumed into the Republican or Democratic parties; and that they cannot be dismissed by Republican or Democratic critics by implying that they are merely socialists or communists.

The Green Party does not accept donations from corporations, political action committees (PACs), 527(c) organizations or soft money. The party's platforms and rhetoric harshly criticize corporate influence and control over government, media and society at large.[21]

Structure and composition[edit]


The Green Party has two national committees recognized by the Federal Election Commission (FEC):

Green National Committee[edit]

The GNC is composed of delegates elected by affiliated state parties. The state parties also appoint delegates to serve on the various standing committees of the GNC. The National Committee elects a Steering Committee of seven Co-chairs, a Secretary and a Treasurer to oversee daily operations. The National Committee performs most of its business online, but it also holds an Annual National Meeting to conduct business in person.


Five Identity Caucuses have achieved representation on the GNC:

Other caucuses have worked toward formal recognition by the GNC:

  • Disability Caucus[28]
  • Labor Caucus[29]
  • Indigenous Caucus[30]

Geographic distribution[edit]

The Green Party has its strongest popular support on the Pacific Coast, Upper Great Lakes, and Northeast, as reflected in the geographical distribution of Green candidates elected.[31] As of June 2007, Californians have elected 55 of the 226 office-holding Greens nationwide. Other states with high numbers of Green elected officials include Pennsylvania (31), Wisconsin (23), Massachusetts (18) and Maine (17). Maine has the highest per capita number of Green elected officials in the country and the largest Green registration percentage with more than 29,273 Greens comprising 2.95% of the electorate as of November 2006.[32] Madison, Wisconsin is the city with the most Green elected officials (8), followed by Portland, Maine (7).

The 2016 presidential campaign of Jill Stein got substantive support from counties and precincts with a high percentage of Native American population. For instance, in Sioux County (North Dakota, 84,1% Native American), Stein gained her best county-wide result: 10.4% of the votes. In Rolette County (also North Dakota, 77% Native American), she got 4.7% of the votes. Other majority Native American counties where Stein did above state average are Menominee (WI), Roosevelt (MN) and several precincts in Alaska.[33][34]

In 2005, the Green Party had 305,000 registered members in states allowing party registration and tens of thousands of members and contributors in the rest of the country.[35] One challenge that the Green Party (as well as other third parties) faces is the difficulty of overcoming ballot access laws in many states.

State and District of Columbia parties[edit]

The following is a list of accredited state parties which comprise the Green Party of the United States.[36]

In addition, the Green Party has a chapter in the United States Virgin Islands.[37] The Green Party does not currently have active state chapters in The Dakotas, Utah or Vermont.

Office holders[edit]

Musician Jello Biafra ran for several offices with the Green Party, including for President in 2000
Malik Rahim, former Black Panther Party activist, ran for Congress in 2008 with the Green Party
Psychiatrist Joel Kovel ran for the Green Party's presidential nomination in 2000
2012 and 2016 Green Party presidential candidate Jill Stein

As of October 2016, 143 officeholders in the United States were affiliated with the Green Party, the majority of them in California, several in Illinois, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, with five or fewer in ten other states.[38] These included one mayor and one deputy mayor and fourteen county or city commissioners (or equivalent). The remainder were members of school boards, clerks and other local administrative bodies and positions.[38]

Several Green Party members have been elected to state-level office, though not always as affiliates of the party. John Eder was elected to the Maine House of Representatives, re-elected in 2004, but defeated in 2006. Audie Bock was elected to the California State Assembly in 1999, but switched her registration to independent seven months later[39] running as such in the 2000 election.[40] Richard Carroll was elected to the Arkansas House of Representatives in 2008, but switched parties to become a Democrat five months after his election.[41] Fred Smith was elected to the Arkansas House of Representatives in 2012,[42] but re-registered as a Democrat in 2014.[43] In 2010, former Green Party leader Ben Chipman was elected to the Maine House of Representatives as an unenrolled candidate and was re-elected in 2012 and 2014.[44]

Gayle McLaughlin was twice elected mayor of Richmond, California, defeating two Democrats in 2006[45] and then reelected in 2010; and elected to City Council in 2014 after completing her second term as mayor.[46] With a population of over 100,000 people, it was the largest American city with a Green mayor. Fairfax, California; Arcata, California; Sebastopol, California; and New Paltz, New York are the only towns in the United States to have had a Green Party majority in their town councils. Twin Ridges Elementary in Nevada County, California held the first Green Party majority school board in the United States.[47]

On September 21, 2017, Ralph Chapman, a member of the Maine House of Representatives, switched his party registration from unaffiliated to Green, providing the Green Party with their first state-level representative since 2014.[14] Henry John Bear became a member of the Green Party in the same year as Chapman, giving the Maine Green Independent Party and GPUS its second currently-serving state representative.

No nominee of the Green Party has been elected to office in the federal government.

List of national conventions and annual meetings[edit]

The Green National Convention is scheduled in presidential election years and the Annual National Meeting is scheduled in other years. The Green National Committee conducts business online between these in-person meetings.

Presidential ballot access[edit]

2004 2008 2012 2016 2020
Electoral votes 267 (479) 368 (528) 439 (489) 494 (522)[48][49] TBD (+166)[50]
History of ballot access by location:
# Alabama Not on ballot On ballot TBD
# Alaska On ballot Not on ballot On ballot TBD
# Arizona Not on ballot On ballot Thru. 2018
# Arkansas Not on ballot On ballot TBD
# California On ballot
# Colorado On ballot
# Connecticut On ballot (write-in) On ballot
# Delaware On ballot
# Florida On ballot
# Georgia (write-in) TBD
# Hawaii On ballot
# Idaho (write-in) On ballot TBD
# Illinois Not on ballot On ballot TBD
# Indiana (write-in) Not on ballot (write-in) TBD
# Iowa On ballot TBD
# Kansas (write-in) On ballot[51] TBD
# Kentucky Not on ballot On ballot TBD
# Louisiana On ballot
# Maine On ballot
# Maryland On ballot Thru. 2018
# Massachusetts On ballot TBD
# Michigan On ballot Thru. 2018
# Minnesota On ballot TBD
# Mississippi On ballot
# Missouri Not on ballot (write-in) Not on ballot On ballot[52]
# Montana On ballot (write-in) Not on ballot On ballot TBD
# Nebraska Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot TBD
# Nevada On ballot Not on ballot TBD
# New Hampshire Not on ballot On ballot TBD
# New Jersey On ballot[51] TBD
# New Mexico On ballot Thru. 2018
# New York (write-in) On ballot Thru. 2018
# North Carolina Not on ballot (write-in) Not on ballot (write-in) Thru. 2018
# North Dakota Not on ballot On ballot TBD
# Ohio Not on ballot On ballot Thru. 2018
# Oklahoma Not on ballot TBD
# Oregon On ballot
# Pennsylvania On ballot TBD
# Rhode Island On ballot[53] TBD
# South Carolina On ballot
# South Dakota Not on ballot[51] TBD
# Tennessee On ballot TBD
# Texas (write-in) On ballot TBD
# Utah On ballot Thru. 2018
# Vermont Not on ballot On ballot TBD
# Virginia (write-in) Not on ballot[51] On ballot TBD
# Washington On ballot TBD
# West Virginia Not on ballot[51] On ballot
# Wisconsin (write-in) On ballot
# Wyoming Not on ballot On ballot TBD
# District of Columbia Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot[51] On ballot Thru. 2018

Electoral results[edit]

President and Vice President[edit]

Year Presidential nominee Home state Previous positions Vice presidential nominee Home state Previous positions Votes Notes
1996 Naderspeak (cropped).JPG
Ralph Nader
 Connecticut Lawyer, activist Reception (4099192018) (cropped).jpg
Winona LaDuke
 Minnesota Environmentalist 685,297 (0.7%)
0 EV
2000 Naderspeak (cropped).JPG
Ralph Nader
 Connecticut Nominee for President of the United States (1996) Reception (4099192018) (cropped).jpg
Winona LaDuke
 Minnesota Nominee for Vice President of the United States (1996) 2,882,955 (2.7%)
0 EV
2004 David Cobb at Oct 2016 Berkeley rally for Jill Stein - 3 (cropped3).jpg
David Cobb
 Texas Lawyer
Nominee for Attorney General of Texas
Pat LaMarche  Maine Nominee for Governor of Maine
119,859 (0.1%)
0 EV
2008 Cynthia McKinney.jpg
Cynthia McKinney
 Georgia Member of the Georgia House of Representatives
Member of the United States House of Representatives from Georgia's 11th district
Member of the United States House of Representatives from Georgia's 4th district
(1997–2003; 2005–2007)
NLN Rosa Clemente.jpg
Rosa Clemente
 New York Community organizer 161,797 (0.1%)
0 EV
2012 Jill Stein by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Jill Stein
 Massachusetts Nominee for Governor of Massachusetts
(2002; 2010)
Nominee for Massachusetts's 9th Middlesex State House of Representatives district
Member of the Lexington Town Meeting (2005–2011)
Nominee for Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth
Cheri Honkala.jpg
Cheri Honkala
 Pennsylvania Activist
Nominee for Sheriff of Philadelphia
469,627 (0.4%)
0 EV
2016 Jill Stein by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Jill Stein
 Massachusetts (see above for previous positions)
Nominee for President of the United States
Ajamu Baraka at Oct 2016 Berkeley rally for Jill Stein - 4 (cropped) (cropped).jpg
Ajamu Baraka
 Illinois Activist 1,457,216 (1.1%)
0 EV


House of Representatives[edit]

Election year No. of overall votes % of overall vote No. of overall seats won +/-
1992 134,072 0.14
0 / 435
1994 52,096 0.07
0 / 435
1996 42,510 0.05
0 / 435
1998 70,932 0.11
0 / 435
2000 260,087 0.26
0 / 435
2002 297,187 0.40
0 / 435
2004 344,549 0.30
0 / 435
2006 243,391 0.29
0 / 435
2008 580,263 0.47
0 / 435
2010 252,688 0.29
0 / 435
2012 372,996 0.30
0 / 435
2014 246,567 0.30
0 / 435
2016 515,263[59] 0.42?
0 / 435


Election year No. of overall votes % of overall vote No. of overall seats won +/-
2000 685,289 0.90
0 / 34
2002 94,702 0.20
0 / 34
2004 157,671 0.20
0 / 34
2006 295,935 0.50
0 / 33
2008 427,427 0.70
0 / 33
2010 516,517 0.80
0 / 37
2012 212,103 0.20
0 / 33
2014 152,555 0.32
0 / 33
2016 695,604[60] 0.97?
0 / 33

Fundraising and position on Super PACs[edit]

In the early decades of Green organizing in the United States, the prevailing American system of money-dominated elections was universally rejected by Greens, so that some Greens were reluctant to have Greens participate in the election system at all because they deemed the campaign finance system inherently corrupt. Other Greens felt strongly that the Green Party should develop in the electoral arena and many of these Greens felt that adopting an alternative model of campaign finance, emphasizing self-imposed contribution limits, would present a wholesome and attractive contrast to the odious campaign finance practices of the money-dominated major parties.

Over the years, some state Green parties have come to place less emphasis on the principle of self-imposed limits than they did in the past. Nevertheless, it is safe to say that Green Party fundraising (for candidates' campaigns and for the party itself) still tends to rely on relatively small contributions and that Greens generally decry not only the rise of the Super PACs, but also the big-money system, which some Greens criticize as plutocracy.

Some Greens feel that the Green Party's position should be simply to follow the laws and regulations of campaign finance.[61] Other Greens argue that it would injure the Green Party not to practice a principled stand against the anti-democratic influence of money in the political process. Candidates for office, like Jill Stein, the 2012 and 2016 Green Party nominee for the President of the United States, typically rely on smaller donations to fund their campaigns.[62]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Green Party of the United States – National Committee Voting – Proposal Details". Retrieved 27 July 2016. 
  2. ^ "Green Party of the United States - National Committee Voting - Proposal Deatils".
  3. ^ "Ten Key Values".
  4. ^ "Presidential Hopefuls Meet in Third Party Debate". PBS. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2015. 
  5. ^ Resnikoff, Ned (23 June 2015). "Green Party's Jill Stein Running for President". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 25 December 2015. 
  6. ^ "Officeholders". The Green Party of the United States. Retrieved 12 April 2018. 
  7. ^ "Green Party". Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  9. ^ "ADVISORY OPINION 2001–13" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. Retrieved 5 September 2016. 
  11. ^ "THE 2000 ELECTIONS: THE GREEN PARTY; Angry Democrats, Fearing Nader Cost Them Presidential Race, Threaten to Retaliate". The New York Times. 9 November 2000. Retrieved 27 February 2016. 
  12. ^ Nader, Ralph (2 June 2016). "Ralph Nader: I was not a 'spoiler' in 2000. Jill Stein doesn't deserve that insulting label, either". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 September 2016. 
  13. ^ Moser, Richard (6 June 2016). "The Myth of the Spoiler: Why the Machine Elites Fear Democracy". CounterPunch. Retrieved 3 September 2016. 
  14. ^ a b "Lawmaker's party switch gives Greens a seat in the Maine House".
  15. ^ Marks, Jodean (1997). "A Historical Look at Green Structure: 1984 to 1992". Synthesis/Regeneration. 14. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
  16. ^ Kelly, Petra (2002). "On Morality and Human Dignity (excerpts)". Synthesis/Regeneration. 28. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
  17. ^ Winger, Richard. "Green Party Nominee for U.S. House in Arizona Sets a New Record for Green Candidates for Congress – Ballot Access News". 
  18. ^ "Green Party – 10 Key Values". 2015. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  19. ^ Herel, Suzanne. "Multimedia (image)". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 15 November 2005. Retrieved 1 January 2011. 
  20. ^ "The Avocado Declaration, a statement by Peter Camejo and the Avocado Education Project". Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  21. ^ "Why Register as a Green – Green Party Website". Green Party. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014. 
  22. ^ "The Green Senatorial Campaign Committee". Retrieved 1 January 2011. 
  23. ^ Grigsby, Karen (21 October 2010). "Green Party Black Caucus Journal". Retrieved 1 January 2011. 
  24. ^ "Latinx Caucus of The Green Party of the United States". 2018. 
  25. ^ "Lavender Green Caucus". Retrieved 1 January 2011. 
  26. ^ "National Women's Caucus: Green Party". Retrieved 16 March 2015. 
  27. ^ "About - Young Greens". 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  28. ^ "Disability Caucus of the USGP". Retrieved 1 January 2011. 
  29. ^ "Green Labor Network". Green Party of The United States. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. 
  30. ^ "Indigenous Caucus – Green Party Watch". Retrieved 16 December 2017. 
  31. ^ "2010 Election Database". Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2010. 
  32. ^ "Maine Green Registration Rises Again". Ballot Access News. 26 March 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
  33. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  34. ^ "Creating a National Precinct Map – Decision Desk HQ". Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  35. ^ "Green Party Ballot Status and Voter Registration Totals (United States)". Green Party of California. May 2005. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
  36. ^ "Green Party – State Parties". 2015. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  37. ^ "Vote Green Party in Virgin Islands – Towards a Green Tomorrow". Retrieved 16 March 2015. 
  38. ^ a b "Officeholders". Green Party of the United States. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  39. ^ "Sole Green Party Legislator Makes Switch". RAND California Policy Bulletin. 18 October 1999. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
  40. ^ "Ca 2000 Election Night Returns" (PDF). The Capital Connection. 8 November 2000. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
  41. ^ "Nation's highest-ranking Green switching parties". San Francisco Chronicle. 29 April 2009. Retrieved 6 July 2009. [dead link]
  42. ^ Hardy, Ronald. "Fred Smith Elected to Arkansas State House on Green Party Ticket". Green Party Watch. Retrieved 29 October 2013. 
  43. ^ Winger, Richard (26 February 2014). "Arkansas Representative Fred Smith, Elected as a Green Party Nominee in 2012, Files for Re-Election as a Democrat". Ballot Access News. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  44. ^ Hardy, Ronald. "Maine Greens Elect Three; Plus Independent to State Assembly". Green Party Watch. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  45. ^ "Official Results of the 2006 Municipal Election Held on November 7, 2006". Richmond City Clerk's Office. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  46. ^ "Results of 2010 midterm elections are mixed bag for Mayor Bloomberg". Daily News. New York. 7 November 2010. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  47. ^ "Most Greens holding elected office at the same time on a single legislative body". Green Party of the United States. 12 September 2012. Archived from the original on 16 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  48. ^ "Ballot Access". Retrieved June 19, 2016. 
  49. ^ "Four Statewide Petitions Filed in Pennsylvania". Ballot Access News. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  50. ^ "Ballot Access". Retrieved July 11, 2018. 
  51. ^ a b c d e f "As of August 1". Retrieved 4 August 2016. 
  52. ^ "Green Party Missouri Petition Approved". Ballot Access News. 23 August 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  53. ^ "Rhode Island Secretary of State Says Three Independent Presidential Petitions Have Enough Valid Signatures". Ballot Access News. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  54. ^ Nader was not formally nominated by the party itself, but he did receive the endorsement of a large number of state parties and is considered as the de facto Green Party candidate.
  55. ^ In Iowa and Vermont, Anne Goeke was Nader's running mate, in New Jersey it was Madelyn Hoffman and in New York it was Muriel Tillinghast.
  56. ^ Ralph Nader and Peter Camejo, a Green, ran an independent campaign and received 0.4% of the vote; however, they were not affiliated with the Green Party.
  57. ^ Ralph Nader and Matt Gonzalez, a Green, ran an independent campaign and received 0.6% of the vote, but they were not affiliated with the Green Party.
  58. ^ While Stein and Baraka did not receive any electoral votes, Green Winona LaDuke received one vote for Vice President from a Washington faithless elector; the presidential vote went to Faith Spotted Eagle, a Democrat.
  59. ^ "U.S. House National Totals by Party, 2016". Ballot Access News. 25 December 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017. 
  60. ^ "Democrats Outpoll Republicans in U.S. Senate Races by 10,512,669 Votes, but Republicans Win 22 of the 34 Seats". Ballot Access News. 22 December 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017. 
  61. ^ Garecht, Joe (8 December 2011). "7 Creative Political Fundraising Ideas". Retrieved 16 March 2015. 
  62. ^ "Long Shots". The Huffington Post. 9 February 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2015. 

External links[edit]