Green Revolution in India
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The Green Revolution in India was a period when agriculture in India increased its yields due to improved agronomic technology. Green Revolution allowed developing countries, like India, to overcome poor agricultural productivity.
Green Revolution is often criticized for less agricultural productivity in course of time. To overcome decreased productivity and decreased soil health from chemical farming, the recommendations are to use more chemicals. This increased chemical use resulted in increased input costs. Increased cost both in terms of government subsidies and farmers input costs as well. The credit flow of green revolution has turned out to be a debt traps due to increased input costs. Due to increased debts one or two crop-fails are resulting in farmers' suicides. Some critics say that if all the dots are connected an immense increase in farmers' suicide rates in India in the last 60 years can be attributed to Green Revolution. India has been a farming country for thousands of years and no recorded history registered farmers' suicides except the period of Green Revolution. The decrease in food quality, chemical presence in food and market exploitation are other drawbacks of green revolution. The main claim of Green Revolution is to increase production. Most of the grain (corn and soy) coming from increased production is used to fatten cattle for months and years and use them as food for a day.
It started in India in the early 1960s and led to an increase in food grain production, especially in Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh during the early phase. The main development was higher-yielding varieties of wheat, which were developed by many scientists, including American agronomist Dr. Norman Borlaug, Indian geneticist M. S. Swaminathan, and others. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research also claims credit for enabling the Green Revolution, in part by developing rust resistant strains of wheat.
The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the increased use of chemical fertilizers and irrigation led to the increase in production needed to make the country self-sufficient in food grains, thus improving agriculture in India. The methods adopted included the use of high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of seeds with modern farming methods.
The production of wheat has produced the best results in fueling self-sufficiency of India. Along with high-yielding seeds and irrigation facilities, the enthusiasm of farmers mobilised the idea of agricultural revolution. Due to the rise in use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers there was a negative effects on the soil and the land such as land degradation.
- Use of insecticides like herbicide
- Use of pesticides
- Consolidation of holdings
- Land reforms
- Improved rural infrastructure
- Supply of agricultural credit
- Use of chemical or synthetic fertilizers
- Use of sprinklers or drip irrigational systems
- Use of advanced machinery
- Use of vector[disambiguation needed] quantity
Problems that were addressed
Famines in India were very frequent during the period 1940s to 1970s. Due to faulty distribution of food, and because farmers did not receive the true value for their labour, the majority of the population did not get enough food. Malnutrition and starvation was a huge problem.
Lack of finance
Marginal farmers found it very difficult to get finance and credit at economical rate from the government and banks, hence, fell as easy prey to the money lenders. They took loans from zamindars, who charged high rates of interests and also exploited the farmers later on to work in their fields to repay the loans (farm labourers).
Lack of self-sufficiency
Due to traditional agricultural practices, low productivity, and a growing population, often food grains were imported — draining scarce foreign reserves. It was thought that with the increased production due to the Green Revolution, the government could maintain buffer stock and India can achieve self-sufficiency and self-reliability.
Agriculture was basically for subsistence and, therefore, less agricultural product was offered for sale in the market. Hence, the need was felt to encourage the farmers to increase their production and offer a greater portion of their products for sale in the market. The new methods in agriculture increased the yield of rice and wheat, which reduced India's dependence on food imports.
49% of people in India are employed in agriculture.
Indian Economic Sovereignty
A main criticism of the effects of the green revolution is the cost for many small farmers using HYV seeds, with their associated demands of increased irrigation systems and pesticides. A case study is found in India, where farmers are buying Monsanto BT cotton seeds—sold on the idea that these seeds produced 'natural insecticides'. In reality, they need to still pay for expensive pesticides and irrigation systems, which might lead to increased borrowing to finance the change from traditional seed varieties. Many farmers have difficulty in paying for the expensive technologies, especially if they have a bad harvest.
Indian environmentalist Vandana Shiva notes that this is the "second Green Revolution". The first Green Revolution, she suggests, was mostly publicly-funded (by the Indian Government). This new Green Revolution, she says, is driven by private [and foreign] interest - notably MNCs like Monsanto. Ultimately, this is leading to foreign ownership over most of India's farmland. 
- "About IARI". IARI. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- "Rust-resistant Wheat Varieties. Work at Pusa Institute". The Indian Express. 7 February 1950. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "The Green Revolution in India". U.S. Library of Congress (released in public domain). Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
- Rowlatt, Justin (2016-12-01). "IR8: The miracle rice which saved millions of lives". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-12-05.
- Amartya Sen. 1981. Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford University Press.
- Shiva, Vandana. Seeds of Suicide. Navdanya.
- Shiva, V. "Seeds of Suicide". Counter Currents., originally in Asian Age 5 April 2013