Greenhouse gas removal
Greenhouse gas removal projects are a type of climate engineering that seek to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, and thus they tackle the root cause of global warming. These techniques either directly remove greenhouse gases, or alternatively seek to influence natural processes to remove greenhouse gases indirectly. The discipline overlaps with carbon capture and storage and carbon sequestration, and some projects listed may not be considered to be climate engineering by all commentators, instead being described as mitigation.
A wide range of techniques for carbon sequestration exist. These range from ideas to remove CO
2 from the atmosphere (carbon dioxide air capture), flue gases (carbon capture and storage) and by preventing carbon in biomass from re-entering the atmosphere, such as with Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS).
Pyrogenic carbon capture and storage
Pyrogenic carbon capture and storage is discussed as a promising technology of greenhouse gas removal. Pyrolysis is descibed by Werner et al. (2018) as "the thermal treatment of biomass at 350 °C–900 °C in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. Three main carbonaceous products are generated during this process, which can be stored subsequently in different ways to produce [negative emissions]: a solid biochar as soil amendment, a pyrolytic liquid (bio-oil) pumped into depleted fossil oil repositories, and permanent-pyrogas (dominated by the combustible gases CO, H2 and CH4) that may be transferred as CO2 to geological storages after combustion."
Methane potentially poses major challenges for remediation. It is around 20 times as powerful a greenhouse gas as CO
2. Large quantities may be outgassed from permafrost and clathrates as a result of global warming, notably in the Arctic.
- Chemical decomposition — reaction with hydroxyl radicals produced from photochemical decomposition of ozone in the stratosphere.
- Biological decomposition — by methanotrophs in soils and water.
In 2018, the Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change published a report on the costs, potentials and side effects of 7 greenhouse gas removal techniques It revealed that the costs differ between the techniques, but are in the order of 100 to 300 USD per eliminated tonne of CO2.
- Carbon negative fuel
- Solar radiation management
- Climate change mitigation
- Avoiding dangerous climate change
- Wigley TM (October 2006). "A combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to climate stabilization". Science. 314 (5798): 452–4. Bibcode:2006Sci...314..452W. doi:10.1126/science.1131728. PMID 16973840.
- Constanze Werner et al. (2018): Biogeochemical potential of biomass pyrolysis systems for limiting global warming to 1.5° C. Environmental Research Letters, 13(4), 044036. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aabb0e
- Stix, T.H. (7–9 Jun 1993). "Removal of chlorofluorocarbons from the troposphere". 1993 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science. Vancouver, BC, Canada: IEEE. p. 135. doi:10.1109/PLASMA.1993.593398. ISBN 0-7803-1360-7.
- "Methane as a Greenhouse Gas CCSP Research Highlight 1". U.S. Climate Change Science Program. January 2006.
- Buffett, B.; Archer, D. (2005). "Time-dependent response of the marine clathrate reservoir to climatic and anthropogenic forcing". American Geophysical Union. Spring. Meeting 2005: U33A–05. Bibcode:2005AGUSM.U33A..05B. 2005AGUSM.U33A..05B.
- "Methane Release from Arctic Clathrates Could Threaten Global Climate". International Polar Foundation. 4 June 2008.
- Stolaroff, J. K.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Smith, C. A.; Bourcier, W. L.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Aines, R. D. (2012). "Review of Methane Mitigation Technologies with Application to Rapid Release of Methane from the Arctic". Environmental Science & Technology. 46 (12): 6455. Bibcode:2012EnST...46.6455S. doi:10.1021/es204686w. PMID 22594483.
- Lockley, A. (2012). "Comment on "Review of Methane Mitigation Technologies with Application to Rapid Release of Methane from the Arctic"". Environmental Science & Technology. 46 (24): 13552–13553. Bibcode:2012EnST...4613552L. doi:10.1021/es303074j.
- Reeburgh, William S.; David T. Heggie (1977). "Microbial methane consumption reactions and their effect on methane distributions in freshwater and marine environments" (PDF). Limnology and Oceanography. 22 (1): 1–9. Bibcode:1977LimOc..22....1R. doi:10.4319/lo.1977.22.1.0001.
- Negative emissions—Part 2: Costs, potentials and side effects