Greenpoint, Brooklyn

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Neighborhood of Brooklyn
Greenpoint streetscape on Manhattan Avenue
Greenpoint streetscape on Manhattan Avenue
Location in New York City
Coordinates: 40°44′N 73°57′W / 40.73°N 73.95°W / 40.73; -73.95Coordinates: 40°44′N 73°57′W / 40.73°N 73.95°W / 40.73; -73.95
Country United States
State New York
City New York City
 • Total2.754 sq mi (7.13 km2)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total34,719
 • Density13,000/sq mi (4,900/km2)
Demographics 2010[3][4]
 • White76.9%
 • Black1.2%
 • Hispanic (of any race)14.7%
 • Asian4.9%
 • Other2.3%
ZIP Codes11211, 11222
Area code(s)718, 347, 929, and 917
Median household income$60,523[5]

Greenpoint is the northernmost neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, in the U.S. state of New York. It is bordered on the southwest by Williamsburg at the Bushwick Inlet, on the southeast by the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway and East Williamsburg, on the north by Newtown Creek and Long Island City, Queens at the Pulaski Bridge, and on the west by the East River.

The neighborhood has a large Polish immigrant and Polish-American community, containing many Polish restaurants, markets, and businesses, and it has often been referred to as Little Poland.

Originally farmland – many of the farm owners' family names, such as Meserole (Messerole) and Calyer, are current street names – the residential core of Greenpoint was built on parcels divided during the 19th century, with rope factories and lumber yards lining the East River to the west, while the northeastern section along the Newtown Creek through East Williamsburg became an industrial maritime area.

Greenpoint has long held a reputation of being a working class and immigrant neighborhood, and it initially attracted families and workers with its abundance of factory jobs and longshoreman or dock work. Since the early 2000s, a building boom in the neighborhood, especially of multifamily dwellings, has made the neighborhood increasingly a center of nightlife and gentrification. There have also been efforts to reclaim the rezoned Greenpoint / Williamsburg East River waterfront for recreational use and also to extend a continuous promenade into the Newtown Creek area.[6]

The neighborhood is part of New York's 12th congressional district, State Senate Districts 18 and 26, State Assembly District 50, City Council District 33, and Brooklyn Community Board 1. The neighborhood is served by the NYPD's 94th Precinct [7][8] and the FDNY Engine 238 and Hook & Ladder 106.


Early colonization and agricultural era[edit]

Landmarked 19th-century rowhouses in the Greenpoint Historic District
Kent Street
Lorimer Street

At the time of European settlement in New York, Greenpoint was inhabited by the Keskachauge[9] (Keshaechqueren) Indians, a sub-tribe of the Lenape.[10] Contemporary accounts describe the area as remarkably verdant and beautiful, with Jack pine and oak forest, meadows, fresh water creeks and briny marshes. Water fowl and fish were abundant. European settlers originally used the "Greenpoint" name to refer to a small bluff of land jutting into the East River at what is now the westernmost end of Freeman Street, but eventually it came to describe the whole peninsula.[11]

In 1638, the Dutch West India Company negotiated the right to settle Brooklyn from the Lenape. The first recorded European settler of what is now Greenpoint was Dirck Volckertsen (Batavianized from Holgerssøn), a Norwegian immigrant who in 1645 built a ​1 12-story farmhouse there with the help of two Dutch carpenters.[12] It was built in the contemporary Dutch style just west of what is now the intersection of Calyer Street and Franklin Street. There he planted orchards and raised crops, sheep and cattle. He was called Dirck de Noorman by the Dutch colonists of the region, Noorman being the Dutch word for "Norseman" or "Northman."[13] The creek that ran by his farmhouse became known as Norman Kill (Creek); it ran into a large salt marsh and was later filled in.

Volckertsen received title to the land after prevailing in court one year earlier over a Jan De Pree, who had a rival claim. He initially commuted to his farm by boat and may not have moved into the house full time until after 1655, when the small nearby settlement of Boswyck was established, on the charter of which Volckertsen was listed along with 22 other families. Volckertsen's wife, Christine Vigne, was a Walloon. Volckertsen had had periodic conflicts with the Keshaechqueren, who killed two of his sons-in-law and tortured a third in separate incidents throughout the 1650s. Starting in the early 1650s, he began selling and leasing his property to Dutch colonists, among them Jacob Haie (Hay) in 1653, who built a home in northern Greenpoint that was burned down by Indians two years later.[12] Jan Meserole established a farm in 1663; his farmhouse at what is now 723 Manhattan Avenue stood until 1919 and last served as a Young Women’s Hebrew Association.[14]

The Hay property and other holdings came into the possession of Pieter Praa, a captain in the local militia, who established a farm near present day Freeman Street and McGuinness Boulevard, and went on to own most of Greenpoint. Volckertsen died in about 1678 and his grandsons sold the remainder of the homestead to Pieter Praa when their father died in 1718; the name of Norman Avenue remains as testimony to Volckertsen's legacy.[9][15] Praa had no male heirs when he died in 1740, but the farming families of his various daughters formed the core of Greenpoint for the next hundred years or so. By the time of the American Revolutionary War, Greenpoint's population was entirely five related families:

  • Abraham Meserole, a grandson of Pieter Praa, and his family lived on the banks of the East River between the present day India and Java Streets;
  • Jacob Meserole (brother of Abraham) and his family farmed the entire south end of Greenpoint and built a house between present day Manhattan Avenue and Lorimer Street near Norman Avenue;
  • Jacob Bennett, son-in-law of Pieter Praa, and his family farmed the land in the northern portion of Greenpoint and built their house near present day Clay Street roughly between present day Manhattan Avenue and Franklin Street;
  • Jonathan Provoost, son-in-law of Pieter Praa, and his family farmed the eastern portion of Greenpoint, and lived in the house built by Praa;
  • Jacobus Calyer, a grandson-in-law of Pieter Praa, and his family farmed the western portion of Greenpoint, and lived in the house built by Volckertsen.

The British Army had an encampment in Greenpoint during the American Revolution, which caused considerable hardship for the families; Abraham Meserole's son was imprisoned on suspicion of revolutionary sympathies.[15]

Throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries, the farms were quite isolated from the rest of Brooklyn, connected only to one another by farm lanes and to the rest of Bushwick Township by a single road, Wood Point Road (now Bushwick Avenue). The families used long boats to travel to Manhattan to sell their farm produce. Little historical information exists about this period of Greenpoint's history other than the personal papers and recorded oral history of these five families.[15]

19th-century industrialization[edit]

The Greenpoint Wood Exchange, where lumber is processed

Greenpoint first began to change significantly when entrepreneur Neziah Bliss married into the Meserole family in the early 1830s after purchasing land from them. He eventually bought out most of the land in Greenpoint. In 1834 he had the area surveyed, and in 1839 opened a public turnpike along what is now Franklin Street. He established regular ferry service to Manhattan around 1850. All of these initiatives contributed to the rapid and radical transformation of Greenpoint, which was annexed to the City of Brooklyn in 1855.[16]

In the years that followed Greenpoint established itself as a center of shipbuilding and waterborne commerce; its shipbuilding, printing, pottery, glassworks and foundries were staffed by generation after generation of hardworking immigrants. Germans and Irish arrived in the mid-19th century and large numbers of Poles began arriving before the turn of the century. The homes built for the merchants and the buildings erected for their workers sprang up along streets that lead down to the waterfront. Today, this area is on the National Register of Historic Places as the Greenpoint Historic District.

Greenpoint's East River waterfront holds the maritime history of the community. The buildings which formerly manufactured the ropes for the shipbuilding industry are still there. Long a site of shipbuilding, the neighborhood's dockyards harbored the construction of the USS Monitor—the Union's first ironclad fighting ship built during the American Civil War. It was launched on Bushwick Creek. The Monitor, together with seven other ironclads, was built at the Continental Ironworks in Greenpoint. In 1866, the largest wooden ship ever built up to that time, The Great Republic, was built along Newtown Creek.

Charles Pratt's Astral Oil Works also opened on the Greenpoint waterfront in the 1860s. Pratt sold his interest to John D. Rockefeller's recently formed Standard Oil Trust in 1874. The Astral Apartments were built as housing for workers at Astral Oil in 1886.

An American manufacturer of porcelain wares who operated between 1862 to 1922, the Union Porcelain Works had their factory located at 300 Eckford Street in Greenpoint. According to the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission designation report the company was "one of the most famous in the country, both for its innovative approach to the manufacture of porcelain and for the quality of its products which was highly regarded on both sides of the Atlantic" and was "a major force in shaping an American stylistic tradition for ceramics and porcelain".[17]

20th and 21st centuries[edit]

Public library (demolished 2017)

The petroleum industry continued to expand, despite the occasional catastrophe. On September 13, 1919, the Standard Oil refinery caught fire and soon spread flaming liquids into neighboring oil works and Newtown Creek.[18]

In 1933 Greenpoint gained access to the New York City Subway, with the opening of the IND Crosstown Line (currently serving the G train), running under Manhattan Avenue from Nassau Avenue to Queens.[19] In 1937 the line was extended to Downtown Brooklyn, providing direct access from Greenpoint to points south.[20][21]

The manufacturing industry of Greenpoint declined after World War II. The Eberhard Faber Pencil Factory, once the largest manufacturer of lead pencils in the United States, operated on West Street until 1956. The company's former buildings were designated a historic district by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 2007.[22]

The Greenpoint Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983.[23]

Environmental difficulties and litigation[edit]

Aerial picture of Greenpoint's East River waterfront, with Manhattan in background

Greenpoint community residents and activists have periodically banded together, sometimes with the aid of their local representatives, to fight highly polluting facilities and practices in the neighborhood. Such organization led the city to close the huge Greenpoint incinerator in 1994, which was out of compliance with all city, state and federal regulations.[24] In the late-1980s, after an increasing series of highly odorous releases from the Sewage Treatment Plant which served a good portion of Lower Manhattan, a local group formed calling itself GASP (Greenpointers Against Smell Pollution) that compelled the city to control the outflows and to plan a vastly expanded facility that took 20 years to build. The mid 1980s saw a great increase in the number of trucks driving through the neighborhood with municipal waste, often toxic waste, to be held at "transfer stations."

In 1950, in what was then the largest oil spill in United States history, 17 to 30 million gallons of oil spilled into Newtown Creek.[25] Oil is believed to have been seeping into the groundwater since then. Groundwater in this area is not used as drinking water, as all of New York City's drinking water presently comes from upstate reservoirs. However, local activists have been campaigning ever since to clean up the spill.[26] In January 2006, state and oil company officials asserted that to date half of the spill had been cleaned up.[citation needed]

According to an Environmental Protection Agency study, "the American Petroleum Institute (2002) indicates that 40% to 80% of a product spill may be retained in soils as residual product.").[27] The Department of Environmental Conservation's website states that petroleum companies participating in the cleanup have used a Free Product Recovery System for groundwater, rather than the soils.[28]

On October 20, 2005, local residents within the area of the oil recovery operation, which is located in the predominantly commercial/industrial eastern section of Greenpoint near the East Williamsburg Industrial Park, filed a lawsuit against ExxonMobil, BP and Chevron Corporation in Brooklyn State Supreme Court, alleging they have suffered adverse health consequences. Such claims from residents have been resisted by oil industry supporters through references to apparently conflicting data and deferrals of legal responsibility, among other strategies. For example, a New York State Department of Health study, completed in May 2007, was able to find no evidence that vapors were coming from the spill into people's homes.[29] Although ExxonMobil has been slowly removing oil from its former facilities in the area under two 1990 agreements with the state, they have denied liability for the oil leaking into Newtown Creek and suggested fault lies instead with the former Paragon Oil, now Chevron Corporation.[30]

However, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) "Newtown Creek/Greenpoint Oil Spill Study Brooklyn, New York" states that vapor concentrations in "some commercial establishments" were found "above the Upper Explosive Limit" (page 7).[31] Simply put, that means there was so much vapor, no explosion could ignite. In addition, the same EPA study said, "A review of the data collected by the NYSDEC shows that, in general, chemicals were detected at all locations in each home, but not in a pattern that would typically represent a vapor intrusion phenomenon."[27]

A recent Department of Environmental Conservation report that tested residential blocks above the spill area concluded that there is no evidence of either oil or dangerous vapors seeping up into people's homes.[citation needed] Brooklyn Paper columnist Tom Gilbert wrote, "This stands to reason, as the spilled oil tends to lie deep underground, capped by a nearly impermeable layer of clay."[32]

The cancer rates recorded by the NY State Dept of Health in Greenpoint average 10% lower than the rest of the city, along with a 25% and 50% lower asthma rate.[33] Cancer and asthma rates may be dropping as a result of the closure of highly toxic industries such as electroplating.

2005 rezoning[edit]

Condominiums being built in Greenpoint

On May 11, 2005, New York City's Department of City Planning approved a rezoning of 175 blocks in Greenpoint and Williamsburg.[34] According to the project's Environmental Impact Statement, the rezoning is expected to bring approximately 16,700 new residents to the neighborhood by 2013 in 7,300 new units of housing. 250,000 square feet (23,000 m2) of new retail space are projected, along with a corresponding loss of just over 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m2) of existing industrial capacity.[35] The rezoning also includes a 28-acre (110,000 m2) waterfront park. Included in its requirements are provisions for a promenade along the East River, built piecemeal by the developers of existing waterfront lots.[6]

An inclusionary housing plan was included in the resolution and provides height bonuses along the waterfront and in Northside Williamsburg for developers providing apartments at rates considered affordable for low-income households (below 80% of the area's median income); on the waterfront, these bonuses could allow for up to seven-story height increases.[36]

The rezoning was a dramatic change in scale to a previously low-slung, industrial neighborhood. The proposed changes were the subject of much debate, including a letter written by Jane Jacobs to Michael Bloomberg criticizing the proposed development.[37]

The community's plan does not cheat the future by neglecting to provide provisions for schools, daycare, recreational outdoor sports, and pleasant facilities for those things. The community's plan does not promote new housing at the expense of both existing housing and imaginative and economical new shelter that residents can afford. The community's plan does not violate the existing scale of the community, nor does it insult the visual and economic advantages of neighborhoods that are precisely of the kind that demonstrably attract artists and other live-work craftsmen... [but] the proposal put before you by city staff is an ambush containing all those destructive consequences.

Other organizations, including the city government and various developer-friendly advocacy groups such as the conservative Manhattan Institute, argued that residential construction in underused manufacturing zones is essential to meet growing housing demand.[38] Rezoning promised double-digit percentage growth in the number of housing units, leading these groups to claim that it would help to alleviate the city's housing shortage and possibly slow rent increases. Critics argued that the existing community's character would be changed as existing residents were forced to move, and, further, that public transportation and public safety infrastructure would be unable to accommodate the projected 40,000 new residents.[39]

A boom in construction followed the rezoning, leading to complaints from neighborhood residents and their elected representatives.[40] The zoning plan was modified on March 2, 2006, to include anti-harassment provisions for tenants and add height limits in portions of upland Williamsburg. Neighborhood organizations made differing opinions known: the Greenpoint-Williamsburg Association for Parks and Planning expressed approval of the proposal (with reservations),[41] but many neighborhood residents and members of Community Board 1 continue to voice their objections.[42]

Greenpoint Landing, a project which includes ten residential towers containing 5,500 units, a public elementary and middle school, and 4 acres (1.6 ha) of parkland, began construction in 2015 and is expected to be completed before 2027. By spring 2017, one building had opened.[43]

View of Manhattan from Greenpoint, with Green Street Pier in foreground


Polish bakery in Greenpoint.

Greenpoint's population is largely working class and multi-generational; it is common to find three generations of family members living in the community. The neighborhood is sometimes referred to as "Little Poland" due to its large population of Polish immigrants, reportedly the second largest concentration in the United States after Chicago.[44][45][46] Although Polish immigrants and people of Polish descent are present in force, there is a significant Latino population living mostly north of Greenpoint Avenue, and Greenpoint has a significant number of South Asian and North African residents.

Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Greenpoint was 34,719, a decrease of 3,102 (8.2%) from the 37,821 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 809.13 acres (327.44 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 42.9 inhabitants per acre (27,500/sq mi; 10,600/km2).[2]

The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 76.9% (26,691) White and 14.7% (5,099) Hispanic or Latino. Other ethicities include 1.2% (433) African American, 0.1% (48) Native American, 4.9% (1,689) Asian, 0.0% (10) Pacific Islander, 0.5% (161) from other races, and 1.7% (588) from two or more races.[4]

The median income for a household in the neighborhood was $33,578 as compared to Williamsburg's median household income of $23,567. Males had a median income of $32,019 versus $26,183 for females. About 17.7% of the population were below the poverty line, as compared to Williamsburg's 41.4% and Kings county's 22.4% below poverty.[47]


Greenpoint is served by the Greenpoint Avenue and Nassau Avenue stations on the IND Crosstown Line (G train) of the New York City Subway.[48] It is served by the B24, B32, B43, B48, B62 New York City Bus routes.[49]

In June 2011, NY Waterway started service to points along the East River.[50] On May 1, 2017, that route became part of the NYC Ferry's East River route, which runs between Pier 11/Wall Street in Manhattan's Financial District and the East 34th Street Ferry Landing in Murray Hill, Manhattan, with five intermediate stops in Brooklyn and Queens.[51][52] One of the East River Ferry's stops is at India Street.[53]

Landmarks and attractions[edit]

St Anthony of Padua Church

Parks include McCarren Park (formerly known as Greenpoint Park), the neighborhood's largest green space, and the smaller McGolrick Park (formerly known as Winthrop Park), which contains both the landmarked Shelter Pavilion (1910) and an allegorical monument to the ironclad ship USS Monitor (1938). On the East River, WNYC Transmitter Park opened in 2012 on the site of a former radio transmission antenna. A small playground called "Right Angle Park" is located at Commercial, Dupont, and Franklin Streets, so named because the park is located on a city block that is shaped like a right triangle.[54]

The Greenpoint Historic District is roughly bounded by Kent, Calyer, Noble, and Franklin Streets, Clifford Place, Lorimer Street and Manhattan Avenue.

When Neziah Bliss created Greenpoint, he named the east-west streets in alphabetical order from north to south. Originally, these streets were simply given lettered names such as "A Street" and "B Street", but in the mid-19th century, the streets were given longer names.[55][54] This system persists today with a few exceptions: Ash, Box, Clay, Dupont, Eagle, Freeman, Greene, Huron, India, Java, Kent, Greenpoint (Avenue), Milton, Noble, Oak, Calyer, and Quay Streets.[56] Greenpoint Avenue was formerly named Lincoln Street. There would have been a street starting with the letter "P" between Oak and Quay Streets, but it was named Calyer Street early in Greenpoint's history, after the patriarch of a nearby family.[55][54]

Church of the Ascension, built in 1853
P.S. 34

Of architectural interest in Greenpoint are: the Episcopal Church of the Ascension[57] (1853), the oldest church in Greenpoint on Kent Street; the Astral Apartments (1885) on Franklin Street; the Saint Anthony of Padua Roman Catholic Church (1875) on Manhattan Avenue; the Eberhard-Faber Pencil Factory on Greenpoint Avenue at Franklin Street; the Russian Orthodox Cathedral of the Transfiguration of Our Lord (1921) on North 12th Street; PS 34, the Oliver H. Perry School[58] (1867) on Norman Avenue (the oldest continuously operating public school building in New York City); the Capital One (formerly Green Point) Savings Bank (1908); the Saint Stanislaus Kostka Roman Catholic Church (1896)[59] on Humboldt Street, which serves as a Catholic shrine for the Polish community; and the synagogue building of Congregation Ahavas Israel (1903) on Noble Street[60] (the sanctuary, with stained glass windows and a Torah ark with turn of the century wood carvings, is currently open only during services on Saturday mornings).

A commercial building called Keramos Hall, on Manhattan Avenue, was restored and won a Lucy G. Moses Preservation Award in 2013. The New York Landmarks Conservancy wrote: "Picturesque features had been hidden under asbestos shingles for decades, but when owners discovered a vintage photograph, they began putting funds aside for this work. Now, the revelation of the Stick Style façade, Italianate roof tower, and Swiss Chalet brackets stops passersby in their tracks."[61]

Additionally, St. Cecilia's Roman Catholic Church and School, on Monitor Street between Richardson and Herbert Streets, has served the community since 1871. The school, which dates to 1906, was closed in June 2008. The current church building dates to 1891.

Notable people[edit]

Notable individuals who were born in or lived in Greenpoint include:

In popular culture[edit]

Greenpoint is a popular filming location for New York TV and film productions due to its varied architecture, waterfront access, mixed zoning and relatively low street traffic, and because it is also the primary home of two of New York's film and TV stage companies, Broadway Stages,[62] and CineMagic Studios.[63] Several TV shows house their permanent soundstages in the neighborhood's industrial area between Greenpoint Ave and Norman Ave east of McGuinness Blvd.



Music videos


  • The lead singer of Franz Ferdinand, Alex Kapranos, lived for a time in Greenpoint, and the neighborhood is mentioned in the song "Eleanor Put Your Boots On".[65]
  • Greenpoint hosts New York City's Nuit Blanche festival. The first two festivals were held along the neighborhood's waterfront in 2010 and 2011, and it was held in a Greenpoint event space in 2012.
  • The book series The Mortal Instruments has a main character named Magnus Bane who resides there.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Census data". Greenpoint Languages Spoken
  2. ^ a b Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
  3. ^ "Greenpoint Demographics Data". Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  4. ^ a b Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
  5. ^ "Greenpoint Income in 2011". Retrieved 2011. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  6. ^ a b "Greenpoint-Williamsburg Land Use and Waterfront Plan - New York City Department of City Planning". Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  7. ^ "NYPD Precinct Finder". City of New York. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  8. ^ "NYPD - Precincts". Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  9. ^ a b "[]". Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  10. ^ "A Brief History of Newtown Creek" by Phoebe Neidl. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, published online 10-19-2006
  11. ^ Felter, William L., Historic Green Point, Green Point Savings Bank: 1918. pg. 14. Cited in "A Greenpoint Perspective" Archived 2011-10-03 at the Wayback Machine. by Frank J. Dmuchowski
  12. ^ a b "{} Dirck Volckertszen De Noorman". Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  13. ^ "The History Of Greenpoint". The New York Times. September 17, 1995. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
  14. ^ "Building of the Day: 723 Manhattan Avenue" by Montrose Morris, in Brownstoner, 2014-07-30.
  15. ^ a b c Felter, William L., Historic Green Point, Green Point Savings Bank: 1918. pg. 19. Cited in "A Greenpoint Perspective" Archived 2011-10-03 at the Wayback Machine. by Frank J. Dmuchowski
  16. ^ Gentrification and Inequality in Brooklyn: The New Kids on the Block, by Judith N. DeSena Pg 21, Google Books
  17. ^ "Greenpoint Historic District Designation Report" (PDF). NYC Landmarks Preservation Commission. 1982. p. 6. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  18. ^ Hashagen, Paul (2002-01-01). Fire Department, City of New York. Turner Publishing Company. ISBN 9781563118326.
  19. ^ Staff (August 18, 1933). "Two Subway Units Open at Midnight". The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  20. ^ "New Crosstown Subway Line Is Opened". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 1, 1937. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  21. ^ Staff (June 27, 1937). "City Subway Link in Kings is Tested". The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  22. ^ Presa, D.G. (October 30, 2007). "Eberhard Faber Pencil Company Historic District Designation Report" (PDF). City of New York: 14–15. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  23. ^ National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  24. ^ Yardley, Jim (18 April 1998). "Garbage In . . . and In . . . and In; Greenpoint Residents Unite to Fight Influx of Trash". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  25. ^ Prud’homme, Alex (7 June 2011). "The Fate Of Fresh Water In The 21st Century?". The Huffington Post., Inc. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  26. ^ "Newtown Creek Alliance » ExxonMobil Oil Spill". Newtown Creek Alliance. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  27. ^ a b "Newtown Creek/Greenpoint Oil Spill Study Brooklyn, New York", U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, September 12, 2007
  28. ^ "Remediation/Recovery History", D.E.C., October 16, 2007
  29. ^ Dept of Health Study confirms no vapors from 50 Year Old Oil Spill., Newswire, May 30, 2007
  30. ^ Berman, Russell (November 18, 2005). "Greenpoint, Maspeth Residents Lobby To Get 55-Year-Old Oil Spill Cleaned Up". The New York Sun. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
  31. ^ EPA study finds vapor in Greenpoint businesses "above Upper Explosive Limit." [sic], U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, September 12, 2007
  32. ^ Is G'point good for you?, The Brooklyn Paper, October 27, 2007
  33. ^ New York State Department of Health, New York State Cancer Registry,, 2009
  34. ^ Greenpoint/Williamsburg Rezoning Overview Archived 2005-11-24 at the Wayback Machine.. New York City Department of City Planning.
  35. ^ Greenpoint/Williamsburg Rezoning EIS Archived 2009-03-20 at the Wayback Machine.. New York City Department of City Planning.
  36. ^ Greenpoint/Williamsburg Inclusionary Housing Program Archived 2008-04-08 at the Wayback Machine.. New York City Department of City Planning.
  37. ^ "Letter to Mayor Bloomberg and the City Council". Jane Jacobs, The Brooklyn Rail, April 15, 2005.
  38. ^ "Up From the Ruins: Why Rezoning New York City's Manufacturing Areas for Housing Makes Sense", The Manhattan Institute, June 2, 2005.
  39. ^ "New York Architecture Images- Williamsburg, Brooklyn-History". Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  40. ^ Cave, Damien (November 6, 2006). "City Sees Growth; Residents Call It Out of Control". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
  41. ^ "Summary of Approved Zoning Changes for Greenpoint/Williamsburg." Greenpoint/Williamsburg Association for Parks and Planning.
  42. ^ "Proposed Grand St. Rezoning, a Step in the Right Direction for Williamsburg." Block Magazine, February 1, 2008.
  43. ^ Garfield, Leanna (April 6, 2017) "11 billion-dollar mega-projects that will transform New York City by 2035" Business Insider
  44. ^ Lorch, Donatella (August 22, 1989). "Polish Expatriates Torn by 2 Dreams". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
  45. ^ Block magazine, "The Poland Extension Everything's Here: Apteka, Obiady and Ksiegarnia"
  46. ^ Howe, Marvine. " POLISH NEWCOMERS REVIVE DYING GREENPOINT CUSTOMS", The New York Times, June 22, 1984, accessed April 28, 2007. "Manhattan Avenue is the heart of what residents call Little Poland. There are Polish meat stores with strings of kielbasa, bakeries with Polish bread and babkas, supermarkets with Polish pickles, jams, dried soups and sauerkraut."
  47. ^ "Census data". City-Data.
  48. ^ "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. January 18, 2018. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  49. ^ "Brooklyn Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. November 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  50. ^ Grynbaum, Michael M.; Quinlan, Adriane (June 13, 2011). "East River Ferry Service Begins". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  51. ^ "NYC launches ferry service with Queens, East River routes". NY Daily News. Associated Press. 2017-05-01. Archived from the original on 2017-05-01. Retrieved 2017-05-01.
  52. ^ Levine, Alexandra S.; Wolfe, Jonathan (2017-05-01). "New York Today: Our City's New Ferry". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-01.
  53. ^ "Routes and Schedules: East River". NYC Ferry.
  54. ^ a b c "Greenpoint Playground Highlights : NYC Parks". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  55. ^ a b "LOST STREETS OF GREENPOINT". Forgotten New York. 2012-12-17. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  56. ^ Jackson, Kenneth T.; Manbeck, John B., eds. (2004), The Neighborhoods of Brooklyn (2nd ed.), New Haven, Connecticut: Citizens for NYC and Yale University Press, p. 144, ISBN 0-300-10310-7 (map)
  57. ^ "パインの精油について". Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  58. ^ "Welcome to Our School/Witamy W Naszej Szkole/Bienvenidos A Nuestra Escuela". 17 July 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^ "Lucy G. Moses Preservation Awards". New York Landmarks Conservancy. Archived from the original on 11 March 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
  62. ^ Putzier, Konrad (10 January 2018). "Broadway Stages is expanding its Greenpoint film studio". The Real Deal New York.
  63. ^ Stremple, Paul (16 October 2018). "Flying High Over Greenpoint in a New Music Video - BKLYNER". BKLYNER.
  64. ^ "Going in Style (1979)". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
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