|Part of the Sit-in movement|
in the Civil Rights Movement
|Date||February 1 – July 25, 1960 |
(5 months, 3 weeks and 3 days)
|Parties to the civil conflict|
The Greensboro sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests in February to July 1960, primarily in the Woolworth store—now the International Civil Rights Center and Museum—in Greensboro, North Carolina, which led to the F. W. Woolworth Company department store chain removing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States. While not the first sit-in of the civil rights movement, the Greensboro sit-ins were an instrumental action, and also the best-known sit-ins of the civil rights movement. They are considered a catalyst to the subsequent sit-in movement, in which 70,000 people participated. This sit-in was a contributing factor in the formation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
In August 1939, African-American attorney Samuel Wilbert Tucker organized the Alexandria Library sit-in in Virginia (now the Alexandria Black History Museum). In 1942, the Congress of Racial Equality sponsored sit-ins in Chicago, as they did in St. Louis in 1949 and Baltimore in 1952. The Dockum Drug Store sit-in in 1958 in Wichita, Kansas, was successful in ending segregation at every Dockum Drug Store in Kansas and a sit-in in Oklahoma City the same year led the Katz Drug Stores to end its segregation policy.
The Greensboro Four (as they would soon be known) were Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair Jr., and David Richmond, all young black students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in their freshman year who often met in their dorm rooms to discuss what they could do to stand against segregation. They were inspired by Martin Luther King Jr. and his practice of nonviolent protest, and specifically wanted to change the segregational policies of F. W. Woolworth Company in Greensboro, North Carolina. During Christmas vacation of 1959, McNeil attempted to buy a hot dog at the Greensboro Greyhound Lines bus station, but was refused service. Shortly thereafter, the four men decided that it was time to take action against segregation. They came up with a simple plan: they would occupy seats at the local F. W. Woolworth Company store, ask to be served, and when they were inevitably denied service, they would not leave. They would repeat this process every day for as long as it would take. Their goal was to attract widespread media attention to the issue, forcing Woolworth to implement desegregation.
On February 1, 1960, at 4:30 pm ET, the four sat down at the 66-seat L-shaped stainless steel lunch counter inside the F. W. Woolworth Company store at 132 South Elm Street in Greensboro, North Carolina. The men, Ezell Blair Jr., David Richmond, Franklin McCain and Joseph McNeil, who would become known as the A&T Four or the Greensboro Four, had purchased toothpaste and other products from a desegregated counter at the store with no problems, but were then refused service at the store's lunch counter when they each asked for a cup of coffee and a donut with cream on the side. According to a witness, a white waitress told the boys "We don't serve Negroes here". Blair responded that he was just served 2 feet away, to which the waitress replied "Negroes eat at the other end". An African-American girl who was cleaning behind the counter called them "stupid, ignorant, rabble-rousers, troublemakers". Another African-American told them, "You're just hurting race relations by sitting there". However, an elderly white woman told them, "I am just so proud of you. My only regret is that you didn't do this ten or fifteen years ago". Store manager Clarence Harris asked them to leave, and, when they would not budge, called his supervisor, who told him, "They'll soon give up, leave and be forgotten". Harris allowed the students to stay and did not call police to evict them. The four freshmen stayed until the store closed that night, and then went back to the North Carolina A&T University campus, where they recruited more students to join them the next morning.
The next day, on February 2, 1960, more than twenty black students (including four women), recruited from other campus groups, joined the sit-in. This group sat with school work to stay busy from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. The group was again refused service, and were harassed by the white customers at the Woolworth store. However, the sit-ins made local news on the second day, with reporters, a TV cameraman and police officers present throughout the day. Back on campus that night, the Student Executive Committee for Justice was organized, and the committee sent a letter asking the president of F.W. Woolworth to "take a firm stand to eliminate discrimination." Upon hearing of the sit-ins, the president of the college, Warmoth T. Gibbs, remarked that Woolworth's "did not have the reputation for fine food". The students wrote the following letter to the president of Woolworth's:
Dear Mr. President: We the undersigned are students at the Negro college in the city of Greensboro. Time and time again we have gone into Woolworth stores in Greensboro. We have bought thousands of items at the hundreds of counters in your stores. Our money was accepted without rancor or discrimination, and with politeness towards us, when at a long counter just three feet away our money is not acceptable because of the colour of our skins...... We are asking your company to take a firm stand to eliminate discrimination. We firmly believe that God will give you courage and guidance in solving the problem. Sincerely Yours, Student Executive Committee
On February 3, 1960, the number grew to over 60, including students from Dudley High School. An estimated one third of the protesters were women, many of them students from Bennett College, a historically black women's college in Greensboro. White customers heckled the black students, who read books and studied, while the lunch counter staff continued to refuse service. North Carolina's official chaplain of the Ku Klux Klan (Kludd), George Dorsett, as well as other members of the Klan, were present. The F.W. Woolworth national headquarters said that the company would "abide by local custom" and maintain its segregation policy.
On February 4, 1960, more than 300 people took part. The group now included students from North Carolina A&T University, Bennett College, and Dudley High School, and they filled the entire seating area at the lunch counter. Three white female students from the Woman's College of the University of North Carolina (now University of North Carolina at Greensboro), Genie Seaman, Marilyn Lott, and Ann Dearsley, also joined the protest. Organizers agreed to expand the sit-in protests to include the lunch counter at Greensboro's S. H. Kress & Co. store that day. Students, college administrators, and representatives from F.W. Woolworth and Kress met to discuss, but with the stores' refusal to integrate, the meeting was not resolved.
On February 5, 1960, a high tension environment at the Woolworth counter emerged when 50 white men sat at the counter, in opposition to the protesters, which now included white college students. Again, more than 300 were at the store by 3:00 pm, at which time the police removed two young white customers for swearing and yelling, and then police arrested three white patrons before the store closed at 5:30 pm. Another meeting between students, college officials, and store representatives took place, and again there was no resolution. The store representatives were frustrated that only certain segregated stores were being protested, and asked for intervention by the college administrators, while some administrators suggested a temporary closure of the counters.
On Saturday, February 6, 1960, over 1,400 North Carolina A&T students met in the Richard B. Harrison Auditorium on campus. They voted to continue the protests and went to the Woolworth store, filling up the store. More than 1,000 protesters and counter-protesters packed themselves into the store by noon. Around 1 pm, a bomb threat set for 1:30 pm was delivered by call to the store, causing the protesters to head to the Kress store, which immediately closed, along with the Woolworth store.
On March 16, 1960, President Dwight D. Eisenhower expressed his concern for those who were fighting for their human and civil rights, saying that he was "deeply sympathetic with the efforts of any group to enjoy the rights of equality that they are guaranteed by the Constitution."
The sit-in movement then spread to other Southern cities, including Winston-Salem, Durham, Raleigh, Charlotte, Richmond, Virginia, and Lexington, Kentucky. In Nashville, Tennessee, students of the Nashville Student Movement were trained by civil rights activist James Lawson and had already started the sit-in process when Greensboro occurred. The Nashville sit-ins attained desegregation of the downtown department store lunch counters in May 1960. Most of these protests were peaceful, but there were instances of violence. In Chattanooga, Tennessee, tensions rose between blacks and whites and fights broke out. In Jackson, Mississippi, students from Tougaloo College staged a sit-in on May 28, 1963, recounted in the autobiography of Anne Moody, a participant. In Coming of Age in Mississippi, Moody describes their treatment from whites who were at the counter when they sat down, the formation of the mob in the store and how they managed finally to leave. The sit-ins spread to other forms of public accommodation, including transport facilities, swimming pools, lunch counters, libraries, art galleries, parks and beaches and museums, primarily in the South.
As the sit-ins continued, tensions started growing in Greensboro. Students began a far-reaching boycott of stores with segregated lunch counters. Sales at the boycotted stores dropped by a third, leading their owners to abandon segregation policies. On Monday, July 25, 1960, after nearly $200,000 in losses ($1.8 million in 2021 dollars), and a reduction in salary for not meeting sales goals, store manager Clarence Harris asked four black employees, Geneva Tisdale, Susie Morrison, Anetha Jones, and Charles Bess, to change out of their work clothes and order a meal at the counter. They were, quietly, the first to be served at a Woolworth lunch counter. Most stores were soon desegregated, though in Jackson, Tennessee, Woolworth's continued to be segregated until around 1965, despite multiple protests.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 mandated desegregation in public accommodations.
Lunch counter on display
The International Civil Rights Center & Museum in Greensboro contains the lunch counter, except for several seats which the museum donated to the National Museum of African American History and Culture in 2016 and a four-seat portion of the lunch counter acquired by the Smithsonian Institution in 1993, displayed in the National Museum of American History.
In 1990, the street south of the site was renamed February One Place, in commemoration of the date of the first Greensboro sit-in.
In 2002, the February One monument and sculpture by James Barnhill, depicting the Greensboro Four, was erected on North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University's campus.
On February 1, 2020, Google showed a Google Doodle of a diorama made by Karen Collins to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the Greensboro sit-in.
On April 12, 2022, the Guilford County Board of Education voted to rename The Middle College at N.C. A&T, a high school for boys on the N.C. A&T campus, "A&T Four Middle College at North Carolina A&T State University" effective July 1, 2022.
- February One: The Story of the Greensboro Four is a 2003 documentary film shown on PBS.
- Seizing Justice: The Greensboro 4 is a 2010 documentary film for the Smithsonian Channel.
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- ^ a b c "Greensboro Lunch Counter Sit-In". Library of Congress.
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- ^ "First Southern Sit-in, Greensboro NC". Civil Rights Movement Archive.
- ^ "SNCC". History.com. November 12, 2009.
- ^ "Greensboro 1960". History Learning Site.
- ^ "Samuel Tucker: Unsung Hero of the Civil Rights Movement". Alexandria, Virginia.
- ^ "Kansas Sit-In Gets Its Due at Last". NPR. October 21, 2006.
- ^ "60 Years Later, Oklahoma's Sit-In Movement is Remembered". The Oklahoman. August 12, 2018.
- ^ "sit-in movement | history & impact on civil rights movement". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
- ^ McDermott, Nancie (Spring 2007). "Civil Rights Sit-Ins". NCPedia.
- ^ Cannon, Carl M. (February 1, 2016). "When the Greensboro Four Took a Stand by Sitting-In". RealClearPolitics.
- ^ "Greensboro Sit-In". History. A&E Television Networks. February 10, 2020 [February 4, 2010].
- ^ a b Wolff, Miles (1970). Lunch at the Five and Ten. Stein and Day.ISBN 0929587316
- ^ KAUFMAN, MICHAEL T. (July 18, 1999). "CLARENCE HARRIS, 94, ALLOWED LUNCH SIT-IN". Sun-Sentinel. The New York Times.
- ^ a b c Sink, Alice (April 29, 2011). Wicked Greensboro. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9781614234401.
- ^ Plunkett-Powell, Karen (April 8, 2014). Remembering Woolworth's: A Nostalgic History of the World's Most Famous Five-and-Dime. Bedford/St. Martin's. ISBN 9781466867444.
- ^ a b Rothstein, Edward (January 31, 2010). "Four Men, a Counter and Soon, Revolution". The New York Times.
- ^ Weston, Annette (January 29, 2020). "Congressional resolution recognizes Woolworth lunch counter civil rights protests". WCTI-TV.
- ^ Brown, Linda Beatrice (January 27, 2017). "Roots Our History: We Could Not Have Imagined". News & Record.
- ^ ANNAS, TERESA (February 4, 2001). "WOMAN HONORED AS UNSUNG HERO DURING SIT-INS\ ANN DEARSLEY-VERNON IS THE FIRST WHITE PERSON HONORED BY SIT-IN MOVEMENT, WHICH IS RAISING FUNDS TO BUILD A CIVIL RIGHTS MUSEUM". News & Record.
- ^ Abel, Elizabeth (May 6, 2010). Signs of the Times: The Visual Politics of Jim Crow. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520261839.
- ^ Wilkinson, Doris Yvonne (1969). Black Revolt: Strategies of Protest. Berkeley: McCutchan. ISBN 9780821122211.
- ^ Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1961). "93 The President's News Conference of March 16, 1960.". The Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States. Dwight D. Eisenhower. January 1, 1960, to January 20, 1961. University of Michigan. p. 294.
- ^ Fosl, Catherine; K'Meyer, Tracy E. (December 23, 2009). "Freedom on the Border: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky". University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0813139012.
- ^ "Civil rights movement in Nashville". The Tennessean. March 2, 2017.
- ^ Moody, Anne (1968). "23". Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Bantam Books.
- ^ Sit-ins Spread Across the South, Civil Rights Movement Archive
- ^ "The Man Behind the Counter". THE BITTER SOUTHERNER. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
- ^ "Civil Rights Greensboro". University of North Carolina Greensboro.
- ^ "Timeline of civil rights in Tennessee". The Jackson Sun.
- ^ "Civil Rights in Public Accommodations and Facilities: Law and History". FindLaw.
- ^ McLaughlin, Nancy (September 15, 2016). "Smithsonian's African American Museum opens with lunch counter display from Greensboro". News & Record.
- ^ "Collections: Greensboro Lunch Counter: Catalog No. 1994.0156.01". National Museum of American History.
- ^ Loman, Cindy (January 30, 2020). "The story behind the iconic photo of Greensboro sit-ins that the world almost didn't see". News & Record.
- ^ "FEBRUARY ONE MONUMENT TO BE UNVEILED". News & Record. January 29, 2002.
- ^ "60th Anniversary of the Greensboro Sit-in". Google Doodle. February 1, 2020.
- ^ Crowley, James (February 1, 2020). "Google Doodle Honors 60th Anniversary of Greensboro Sit-In". Newsweek.
- ^ Pounds, Jessie (April 13, 2022). "Middle College at N.C. A&T renamed for A&T Four to honor sit-in movement". News & Record.
- Chafe, William Henry (1981). Civilities and Civil Rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black Struggle for Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195029192.
- Kowal, Rebekah J. (Winter 2004). "Staging the Greensboro Sit-Ins". TDR. 48 (4): 135–154. doi:10.1162/1054204042442008. S2CID 57564786.
- Pollitt, Daniel H. (Summer 1960). "Dime Store Demonstrations: Events and Legal Problems of First Sixty Days, 1960". Duke Law Journal. 9 (1): 315–365. doi:10.2307/1371082. JSTOR 1371082.
- Walzer, Michael (Spring 1960). "A Cup of Coffee and a Seat". Dissent. 7: 111–120.
- Civil Rights Greensboro: Greensboro sit-ins, University of North Carolina at Greensboro.
- Object of History: The Lunch Counter.
- Greensboro Sit-Ins (timeline), CRMVet.
- Greensboro 1960, History Learning Site.
- Making Equality a Reality – History of Sit ins, Core online.
- International Civil Rights Center & Museum, International Civil Rights Center & Museum.
- Guide to the Edward Raymond Zane Letters, Duke University.
- 1960 in North Carolina
- 1960 protests
- Civil disobedience
- Civil rights movement
- Civil rights protests in the United States
- F. W. Woolworth Company
- History of African-American civil rights
- History of Greensboro, North Carolina
- History of racism in North Carolina
- North Carolina A&T State University
- Riots and civil disorder in North Carolina