|Sir Greg Winter|
CBE FRS FMedSci
Gregory Winter in the Master's Garden
Gregory Paul Winter|
14 April 1951
|Education||Royal Grammar School, Newcastle upon Tyne|
|Alma mater||University of Cambridge (MA, PhD)|
|Thesis||The amino acid sequence of tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (1977)|
Sir Gregory Paul Winter CBE FRS FMedSci (born 14 April 1951) is a British biochemist, a pioneer of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. He invented techniques to both humanise (1986) and, later, to fully humanise using phage display, antibodies for therapeutic uses. Previously, antibodies had been derived from mice, which made them difficult to use in human therapeutics because the human immune system had anti-mouse reactions to them. He is a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge and was appointed Master of Trinity College, Cambridge on 2 October 2012. He was previously Deputy Director of the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Medical Research Council, and Head of the Division of Protein and Nucleic Acids Chemistry.
Winter was educated at the Royal Grammar School, Newcastle upon Tyne. He went on to study Natural Sciences at the University of Cambridge graduating from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1973. He was awarded a PhD for research on the amino acid sequence of tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase from the bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus in 1977 supervised by Brian S. Hartley and George Brownlee.
Career and research
Winter founded Cambridge Antibody Technology in 1989, and Bicycle Therapeutics. He is on the Scientific Advisory Board of Covagen, and is also the chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board for Biosceptre International Limited.
In 1989, Winter was a founder of Cambridge Antibody Technology, one of the early commercial biotech companies involved in antibody engineering. One of the most successful antibody drugs developed was HUMIRA (adalimumab), which was discovered by Cambridge Antibody Technology as D2E7, and developed and marketed by Abbott Laboratories. HUMIRA, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn- see Pharmaceutical drug#Other/related topics. Cambridge Antibody Technology was acquired by Astrazeneca in 2006 for £702m.
In 2000, Winter founded a company called Domantis to pioneer the use of domain antibodies, which use only the active portion of a full-sized antibody. Domantis was acquired by the pharmaceutical GlaxoSmithKline in December 2006 for £230 million.
Winter subsequently founded another company, Bicycle Therapeutics Limited as a start up company which is developing very small protein mimics based on a covalently bonded hydrophobic core.
Awards and honours
Winter was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1990 and awarded the Royal Medal by the society in 2011 "for his pioneering work in protein engineering and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, and his contributions as an inventor and entrepreneur". He was given the Scheele Award in 1994. In 1995, Winter won several international awards including the King Faisal International Prize for Medicine (Molecular Immunology) and in 1999, the Cancer Research Institute William B. Coley Award. Winter was formerly the Joint Head of the Division of Protein and Nucleic acid Chemistry-Biotechnology, and is Deputy Director, at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, an institution funded by the UK Medical Research Council. He was also Deputy Director of the MRC's Centre for Protein Engineering until its absorption into the Laboratory of Molecular Biology. He is a member of the Advisory Council for the Campaign for Science and Engineering. Winter was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1997 and Knight Bachelor in 2004. He has served as Master of Trinity College, Cambridge since 2011.
- WINTER, Sir Gregory (Paul). ukwhoswho.com. Who's Who. 2016 (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. (subscription required)
- The Scientific Founders Archived 13 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. of Bicycle Therapeutics Ltd. – Christian Heinis and Sir Greg Winter, FRS.
- "EMBO MEMBER: Gregory P. Winter". people.embo.org.
- "Announcement of the Prince Mahidol Award 2016". princemahidolaward.org. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- McCafferty, J.; Griffiths, A.; Winter, G.; Chiswell, D. (1990). "Phage antibodies: filamentous phage displaying antibody variable domains". Nature. 348 (6301): 552–554. Bibcode:1990Natur.348..552M. doi:10.1038/348552a0. PMID 2247164.
- www.trin.cam.ac.uk Archived 6 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- Greg Winter's publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database, a service provided by Elsevier. (subscription required)
- Winter, G; Griffiths, A. D.; Hawkins, R. E.; Hoogenboom, H. R. (1994). "Making antibodies by phage display technology". Annual Review of Immunology. 12: 433–55. doi:10.1146/annurev.iy.12.040194.002245. PMID 8011287.
- Griffiths, A. D.; Williams, S. C.; Hartley, O; Tomlinson, I. M.; Waterhouse, P; Crosby, W. L.; Kontermann, R. E.; Jones, P. T.; Low, N. M.; Allison, T. J. (1994). "Isolation of high affinity human antibodies directly from large synthetic repertoires". The EMBO Journal. 13 (14): 3245–60. PMC . PMID 8045255.
- Hoogenboom, H. R.; Griffiths, A. D.; Johnson, K. S.; Chiswell, D. J.; Hudson, P; Winter, G (1991). "Multi-subunit proteins on the surface of filamentous phage: Methodologies for displaying antibody (Fab) heavy and light chains". Nucleic Acids Research. 19 (15): 4133–7. doi:10.1093/nar/19.15.4133. PMC . PMID 1908075.
- Anon (2011). "The inventor of humanized monoclonal antibodies and cofounder of Cambridge Antibody Technology, Greg Winter, muses on the future of antibody therapeutics and UK life science innovation". Nature Biotechnology. 29 (3): 190. doi:10.1038/nbt.1815. PMID 21390009.
- Winter, G.; Fields, S.; Brownlee, G. G. (1981). "Nucleotide sequence of the haemagglutinin gene of a human influenza virus H1 subtype". Nature. 292 (5818): 72–5. Bibcode:1981Natur.292...72W. doi:10.1038/292072a0. PMID 7278968.
- Fields, S.; Winter, G.; Brownlee, G. G. (1981). "Structure of the neuraminidase gene in human influenza virus A/PR/8/34". Nature. 290 (5803): 213–7. Bibcode:1981Natur.290..213F. doi:10.1038/290213a0. PMID 7010182.
- Riechmann, L.; Clark, M.; Waldmann, H.; Winter, G. (1988). "Reshaping human antibodies for therapy". Nature. 332 (6162): 323–7. Bibcode:1988Natur.332..323R. doi:10.1038/332323a0. PMID 3127726.
- Marks, J. D.; Hoogenboom, H. R.; Bonnert, T. P.; McCafferty, J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Winter, G. (1991). "By-passing immunization". Journal of Molecular Biology. 222 (3): 581–97. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(91)90498-U. PMID 1748994.
- http://www.takedasf.com/corporate/winter.htm[dead link]
- http://www.f-star.com/scientific_advisors/3/sir-gregory-winter-chairman Archived 29 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- Winter, Gregory Paul (1976). The amino acid sequence of tryptophanyl RNA synthetase from bacillus stearothermophilus (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. OCLC 500591023. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.477727.
- Winter, G.P.; Hartley, B.S. (1977). "The amino acid sequence of tryptophanyl tRNA Synthetase fromBacillus stearothermophilus". FEBS Letters. 80 (2): 340–342. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(77)80471-7. ISSN 0014-5793. PMID 891985.
- "Scientific Advisory Board". Heptares. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Greg Winter publications indexed by Google Scholar
- Gregory Winter CBE, FRS, FMedSci, HonFRCP (8 May 2001). "Gregory Winter: Executive Profile & Biography – Businessweek". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "www.bicycletherapeutics.com". bicycletherapeutics.com. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "Covagen AG | September 2011: Sir Gregory Winter joins Covagen's Scientific Advisory Board". Covagen.com. 20 September 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "Covagen AG | Scientific Advisory Board". Covagen.com. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Lawrence, Stacy (2007). "Billion dollar babies—biotech drugs as blockbusters". Nature Biotechnology. 25 (4): 380–2. doi:10.1038/nbt0407-380. PMID 17420735.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- http://www.astrazeneca.com/media/latest-press-releases/2006/5266?itemId=3891617 Archived 2 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- GSK is to buy Domantis – a company based on discoveries by MRC scientists Archived 16 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. MRC Website
- Heinis, C.; Rutherford, T.; Freund, S.; Winter, G. (2009). "Phage-encoded combinatorial chemical libraries based on bicyclic peptides". Nature Chemical Biology. 5 (7): 502–507. doi:10.1038/nchembio.184.
- "Sir Gregory Winter CBE FMedSci FRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015.
- "Royal Society announces 2011 Copley Medal recipient". Royal Society. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
- LMB Structure Archived 23 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Advisory Council of the Campaign for Science and Engineering". Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- "Sir Gregory Winter CBE FRS appointed Master of Trinity College, Cambridge University". 10 Downing Street. 16 December 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "Master of Trinity College, Cambridge &' events". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
| Master of Trinity College, University of Cambridge