General Gregor MacGregor in an oil painting on canvas by Martín Tovar y Tovar, 1874
24 December 1786|
|Died||4 December 1845
Mary or Maria MacGregor, née Mary Bowater (1805–1811)
Josefa MacGregor, née Josefa Antonia Andrea Aristeguieta y Lovera (1812–1838)
Gregor MacGregor (24 December 1786 – 4 December 1845) was a Scottish fraudster, swindler, soldier, adventurer, land speculator, and colonizer who fought in the South American struggle for independence. After his return to Britain in 1820, he claimed to be cacique of Poyais (also known as Principality of Poyais, Territory of Poyais, or Republic of Poyais), a fictional Central American country that MacGregor had invented which, with his promotional efforts, drew investors and eventually colonists.
MacGregor was born in the family house of Glengyle in Stirlingshire, Scotland on Christmas Eve 1786 to Daniel MacGregor, a sea captain with the East India Company, and his wife Ann Austin, a doctor's daughter. Little is known of MacGregor's early life but apparently he had at least one sister.
In 1803, at age 16, he purchased a commission as an ensign in an infantry regiment of the British Army, the 57th Foot. By 1804 he had been promoted as a lieutenant. He married Mary Bowater, an admiral's daughter, in June 1805. They set up house in London, while MacGregor spent much of his time in Gibraltar, where the 57th Foot was training.
In July 1809, MacGregor's regiment was sent to Portugal, as reinforcements for the Duke of Wellington's second peninsular campaign to expel the French from Spain. For a time he was seconded to the Portuguese army with the rank of major, then he sold out of the British Army in May 1810, possibly because of disagreements with superior officers. MacGregor and his wife moved to Edinburgh, where he assumed the title of "Colonel". However, by 1811, they were back in London and MacGregor was calling himself Sir Gregor MacGregor, falsely claiming to have succeeded to the clan chieftainship. In fact, he was a grandson of Gregor MacGregor, who belonged to a junior branch of the Glengyle house and had joined the Black Watch under the name Drummond.
Venezuela and New Granada
In December 1811, Mary MacGregor died. By now, MacGregor had learned of the independence movements in South America and the Captaincy General of Venezuela in particular. He sold his small Scottish estate and sailed for South America, arriving in Caracas in the spring of 1812. He soon met Josefa Antonia Andrea Aristeguieta y Lovera, daughter of a prominent local family and a cousin of Simon Bolívar. They married on 10 June 1812, and eventually had three children: Gregorio, Constantino, and Josefa Anna Gregoria.
Upon his arrival in Caracas, MacGregor talked General Francisco de Miranda, the Commander in Chief of the new Venezuelan Republic's army, into appointing him a colonel, and almost immediately became involved in a series of skirmishes that resulted in his promotion to brigadier-general. A month or so later, when General Miranda was captured and handed over to the royalist forces by Simon Bolívar, MacGregor and his wife fled to Curaçao on a British brig.
From Curaçao, MacGregor decided to go to New Granada (present-day Colombia) and join the liberation forces of General Antonio Nariño. For Josefa's safety, he first took her to the British island of Jamaica and then sailed for Cartagena de Indias, a fortified city on the northern coast of New Granada. From there he made his way south to Tunja, where General Nariño put him in command of the military district of Socorro, near the Venezuelan border. During the year or so he spent here, he earned what became a lifelong reputation as an unreliable braggart. One local official wrote of him: "I am sick and tired of this bluffer, or Quixote, or the devil knows what. This man can hardly serve us in New Granada without heaping ten thousand embarrassments upon us."
In 1814, the Spanish royalist forces routed General Nariño's army and MacGregor took refuge in Cartagena de Indias, where he played a role in organizing the city's defenses. In August 1815, the Spanish troops of General Pablo Morillo attacked the city and began a siege that lasted until December, when disease and starvation forced the city to surrender. On the night of 5 December, MacGregor helped to organize a mass escape aboard gunboats of French privateer Louis-Michel Aury that blasted their way through the Spanish blockade and sailed for Jamaica.
In Jamaica, MacGregor was treated as a hero, but by the spring of 1816 he had moved on with Josefa to the neighboring island of Haiti, where Simon Bolívar was raising a new army. In April, MacGregor sailed with Bolívar's fleet as a brigadier-general to Venezuela, landing on the island of Margarita before crossing to Carupano on the mainland. Both Bolívar and MacGregor ran into trouble after their forces split up, and MacGregor's troops were eventually forced to retreat towards the town of Barcelona, fighting all the way. This difficult, month-long campaign earned MacGregor deserved acclaim and is probably the high point of his military adventures, which were otherwise marred by varying amounts of error, incompetency, and exaggeration on his part.
Green Cross of Florida
MacGregor claimed to be commissioned by representatives of the revolting South American countries to liberate Florida from Spanish rule. Financed by American backers, he led an army of only 150 men including recruits from Charleston and Savannah, some War of 1812 veterans, and 55 musketeers in an assault on Fort San Carlos at Fernandina on Amelia Island, Florida. Through spies within the Spanish garrison, MacGregor had learned that the force there consisted of only 55 regulars and 50 militia men. He spread rumors in the town which eventually reached the ear of the garrison commander that an army of more than 1,000 men was about to attack. On 29 June 1817, he advanced on the fort, deploying his men in small groups coming from various directions to give the impression of a larger force. The commander, Francisco Morales, struck the Spanish flag and fled. MacGregor raised his flag, the "Green Cross of Florida", a green cross on a white ground, over the fort and proclaimed the "Republic of the Floridas".
Now in possession of the town, and seeing the need to make the appearance of a legitimate government, MacGregor quickly formed a committee to draft a constitution, and appointed Ruggles Hubbard, the former high sheriff of New York City, as unofficial civil governor, and Jared Irwin, an adventurer and former Pennsylvania Congressman, as his treasurer. MacGregor then opened a post office, ordered a printing press to publish a newspaper, and issued currency to pay his troops and to settle government debts. Expecting reinforcements for a raid against the Castillo de San Marcos in St. Augustine, MacGregor intended to subdue all of Spanish East Florida. His plan was doomed to fail, however, as President James Monroe was in sensitive negotiations with Spain to acquire all of Florida.
Soon MacGregor's reserves were depleted, and the Republic needed revenue. He commissioned privateers to seize Spanish ships and set up an admiralty court which levied a customs duty on their sales. They began selling captured prizes and their cargoes, which often included slaves. When about 28 August fellow conspirator Ruggles Hubbard sailed into the harbor aboard his own brig Morgiana, flying the flag of Buenos Ayres, but without the needed men, guns, and money, MacGregor announced his departure. On 4 September, faced with the threat of a Spanish reprisal, and still lacking money and adequate reinforcements, he abandoned his plans to conquer Florida and departed Fernandina with most of his officers, leaving a small detachment of men at Fort San Carlos to defend the island. After his withdrawal, these and a force of American irregulars organized by Hubbard and Irwin repelled the Spanish attempt to reassert authority. The French privateer Louis Aury sailed from Galveston to the port of Fernandina on 17 September 1817. Following negotiations with Hubbard and Irwin, Amelia Island was dubiously annexed to the Republic of Mexico on 21 September 1817, and its flag raised over Fort San Carlos. Aury surrendered the island to U.S. forces on 23 December 1817.
Cacique of Poyais
MacGregor returned to London in 1820, where he announced that he had been created cacique (highest authority or prince) of the Principality of Poyais, an independent nation on the Bay of Honduras. He claimed that native chieftain King George Frederic Augustus I of the Mosquito Shore and Nation had granted him the territory of Poyais, 76,000 mi (122,000 km) of fertile land with untapped resources, a small number of settlers of British origin, and cooperative natives eager to please. He painted the picture of a country with a civil service, an army and a democratic government, which needed English settlers and investors.
At the time, British merchants were all too eager to enter the South American market that Spain had denied to them. In the wake of wars for South American independence, the new governments of Colombia, Chile and Peru had issued bonds in the London Royal Exchange to raise money.
London high society welcomed MacGregor's colourful figure, and he and his Spanish-American wife received many invitations. The Lord Mayor of London Christopher Magnay even organized an official reception in London Guildhall. MacGregor claimed descent of clan MacGregor and that Rob Roy MacGregor had been his direct ancestor. MacGregor also claimed that one of his ancestors was a rare survivor of the Darien Scheme, a failed Scottish attempt of colonization in Panama in the 1690s. In order to compensate for this, he said, he had decided to draw most of the settlers from Scotland. For this purpose, he established offices in Edinburgh and Glasgow. He also enhanced his allure by embellishing his exploits in the Venezuelan War of Independence in the service of Francisco de Miranda and Simon Bolivar.
MacGregor was also reunited with Major William John Richardson, an old comrade-in-arms from the revolutionary wars in Venezuela, and by the winter of 1821 he had made Richardson legate of Poyais. He moved to Oak Hall in Richardson's estate in Essex, as befitted his station as a prince, so-called. An office for the Legation of the Territory of Poyais was opened at 1 Dowgate Hill in London. MacGregor threw elaborate banquets in Oak Hall and invited dignitaries, foreign ambassadors, government ministers and senior military officers.
In Edinburgh in 1822, MacGregor began to sell land rights for 3 shillings and 3 pence per acre (a worker's weekly wage at the time was about 1 shilling). The price steadily rose to 4 shillings. Many people willing to help colonize the new land signed on with their families. By October 23, 1822, MacGregor had secured a £200,000 loan on behalf of the Poyais government, in the form of 2,000 bearer bonds worth £100 each. No dividend was ever paid to the bondholders, and the bonds became unsaleable. The "Republic of Poyais" offered the bondholders land in exchange for these obligations, but the offer was accepted by none of them.
That same year, "Sketch of the Mosquito Shore," including the Territory of Poyais, supposedly written by Captain Thomas Strangeways, was published. It described the Poyais in glowing terms and boasted of the profit one could gain from the country's ample resources. Poyais was described as a very anglophilic region with existing infrastructure, untapped gold and silver mines, and large areas of land with fertile soil ready to be settled. MacGregor had pamphlets printed and distributed that described Poyais as a rich country with opportunities to easily acquire wealth. Its supposed capital, the long-abandoned British settlement of St. Joseph, was depicted as having wide avenues, elegant houses, and even an opera house.
The Legation of Poyais chartered a ship called Honduras Packet, and London merchants provisioned it with food and ammunition. Its cargo also included a chest full of Poyaisian currency that MacGregor had printed in Scotland. Many of the settlers changed their pounds to Poyais dollars.
On 21 or 22 November 1822, the Honduras Packet departed from the Port of Leith with about 70 would-be-settlers, including a doctor and even a banker for the non-existent Bank of Poyais, all of whom had been promised positions in the Poyais civil service. Some had also purchased officer commissions in the Poyaisian army.
On 22 January 1823 another ship, the Kennersley Castle, similarly left Scotland for Poyais with 200 would-be-settlers and enough provisions for a year. When it arrived in the Bay of Honduras on March 20, it spent two days looking for a port. Eventually the Scottish newcomers encountered the settlers on the Honduras Packet.
The settlers found only an untouched jungle, and a few American hermits who had made their homes there. The capital of "St. Joseph" consisted only of ruins of a previous attempt at settlement abandoned in the previous century. The Honduras Packet was eventually swept away by a storm.
While some of the labourers began to build rudimentary shelter for themselves, the officers and civil servants decided to try to find a way out. Lieutenant-Colonel Hector Hall, would-be-governor of Poyais, left to look for another ship to take them back to Britain. The would-be-settlers began to argue, and the Kennersley Castle sailed away. Tropical diseases also began to take their toll. One settler, having used his life savings to gain passage, committed suicide.
In April, the Mexican Eagle, an official ship from Belize City, with the magistrate Marshall Bennett aboard, was sent by Superintendent Major General Edward Codd to investigate conditions at the settlement and found the settlers in a deplorable state. Bennett told them that there was no such place as Poyais, and agreed to take them to Belize. By the time they arrived there, the settlers were weakened, and many later died. All told, 180 of the 240 would-be settlers eventually perished during the ordeal.
Edward Codd, Superintendent of British Honduras, sent a warning to London, sending back any ships of would-be-settlers that were headed for Poyais. Those survivors who did not decide to remain in the Americas departed for London on August 1, 1823. More people died during that journey, and fewer than 50 came back alive to Britain. When they returned, city papers published the whole story.
Astonishingly, some survivors refused to label MacGregor as a culprit. One of them, James Hastie, who had lost two of his children to tropical diseases, published a book, Narrative of a Voyage in the Ship Kennersley Castle from Leith Roads to Poyais, in which he blamed Gregor's advisers and publicists for spreading false information. A group of survivors signed a declaration of their belief that had Sir Gregor gone with them, things would have turned out differently. Major Richardson sued the papers for libel and defended MacGregor against the charges of fraud. MacGregor, however, had left for Paris in October 1823.
Poyaisian scheme in France
In France, MacGregor contacted the trading organization Compagnie de la Nouvelle Neustrie and commissioned it to solicit more Poyaisian settlers and investors in France.
In March 1825 MacGregor summoned Gustavus Butler Hippisley, an acquaintance from the army, and appointed him a representative of Poyais in Colombia. Hippisley was asked to write about the Poyais affair in France in "Acts of Oppression Committed under the Administration of m. de Villele, Prime minister of Charles X," from 1825 to 1826. MacGregor told Hippisley that he needed the help of the French government to obtain a formal renunciation of any (in reality nonexistent) claims Spain might have to Poyais and that he had met with French Prime Minister Jean-Baptiste de Villele. MacGregor and la Nouvelle Neustrie already had plans to send French emigrants to Poyais. Hippisley wrote back to London, castigating the journalists who had called MacGregor a "penniless adventurer".
In August, MacGregor published a new constitution of Poyais; he had changed it into a republic with himself as the head of state. On August 18, 1825 he secured a £300,000 loan with 2.5% interest, through the London bank of Thomas Jenkins & Company. The bond was probably never issued. At the same time, la Nouvelle Neustrie recruited settlers to buy shares in the company.
When French officials noticed that a number of people had obtained passports in order to voyage to a country they had never heard of, they seized the la Nouvelle Neustrie vessel in Le Havre. The would-be-emigrants demanded an investigation; Hippisley was arrested, but MacGregor was nowhere to be found.
Hippisley and MacGregor's secretary Thomas Irving were held in custody in La Force prison pending an investigation. Lehuby, one of the directors of la Nouvelle Neustrie, fled to Belgium, which was a part of the Netherlands at the time. MacGregor went into hiding until he was apprehended on December 7, 1825. In January 1826, he made a proclamation to Central American states, written in French. The accused were later moved to Bicetre prison.
The trial began on 6 April 1826. MacGregor, Hippisley, Irving and Lehuby (in absentia) were accused of fraud based on the Poyais emigration program. The prosecutor was willing to drop the charges if the men were deported from France. Initially the court agreed, but changed its mind when the Netherlands agreed to extradite Lehuby.
The new trial began on July 10, 1826, and lasted for four days. MacGregor's lawyer eloquently put the blame on anybody else but MacGregor. MacGregor was acquitted and Hippisley and Irving were released. Lehuby was sentenced to 13 months in prison for making false promises.
Lesser Poyais schemes
In 1826, MacGregor returned to London, where the furor over his affairs had died down. He continued peddling modified, watered-down versions of his old schemes: this time he claimed that the natives of the country had elected him as the head of state and that he was now simply "Cacique of the Republic of Poyais"; subsequently he opened an office at 23 Threadneedle Street, without any diplomatic trappings. In mid-1827 he issued a loan worth £800,000 as 30-year bonds with Thomas Jenkins & Company as brokers. However, an anonymous handbill was circulated that warned against investing in "Poyais humbug". MacGregor had to pass most of the unsold certificates to a consortium of speculators for a small sum.
Other Poyais schemes were equally unsuccessful. In 1828, MacGregor tried to sell Poyaisian land for 5 shillings per acre, but Robert Charles Frederic, the brother of George Frederic, king of the indigenous Miskito people, began to sell those same territories to lumber companies, with certificates that competed with MacGregor's. When original investors demanded their long-overdue interest, he could only pay with more certificates. Soon other charlatans began to use the same trick – opening rival "Poyaisian offices" which offered land debentures for sale.
By 1834, MacGregor was living in Scotland and had to issue a new series of land certificates as payment for unredeemed securities. In 1836 his constitution for the Poyaisian Republic, previously published in a French pamphlet, was republished at Edinburgh in English. The last record of any Poyais scheme is in 1837, when he tried to sell some land certificates.
- The Scots Magazine. Sands, Brymer, Murray and Cochran. 1786. p. 154.
- David Sinclair (28 December 2004). The Land That Never Was: Sir Gregor MacGregor And The Most Audacious Fraud In History. Da Capo Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-306-81411-2. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- The London Gazette: . 29 March 1803. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Moises Enrique Rodriguez (2006). Freedom's Mercenaries: Northern South America. Hamilton Books. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-7618-3437-3.
- Tulio Arends (1 January 1991). Sir Gregor Mac Gregor: Un Escocés Tras la Aventura de América (in Spanish). Monte Avila Editores. p. 31. ISBN 978-980-01-0265-7.
- Historical Geography. Department of Geography, California State University, Northridge. 2005. p. 269.
- Sinclair 2004, p. 117
- M. Rafter (1820). Memoirs of Gregor M'Gregor: Comprising a Sketch of the Revolution in New Grenada and Venezuela, with Biographical Notices of Generals Miranda, Bolivar, Morillo and Horé, and a Narrative of the Expeditions to Amelia Island, Porto Bello, and Rio de la Hache, Interspersed with Revolutionary Anecdotes. J.J. Stockdale. pp. 19–20.
Text says '1816', but context and chronology make clear that this is a typographical error, and that '1810' was meant.
- Sinclair 2004, p. 124
- Sir George Grove; David Masson; John Morley; Mowbray Morris (1905). MacMillan's Magazine. p. 339.
- Giorgio Antei (1993). Los héroes errantes: historia de Agustín Codazzi, 1793–1822 (in Spanish). Planeta Colombiana Editorial. p. 216. ISBN 978-958-614-385-1.
- Frank L. Owsley, Jr.; Gene A. Smith (1997). Filibusters and Expansionists: Jeffersonian Manifest Destiny, 1800–1821. University of Alabama Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-8173-0880-3. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- Sinclair 2004, p. 151
- Diversions of History. A. Wingate. 1954. p. 87.
- William Spence Robertson (1909). Francisco de Miranda and the Revolutionizing of Spanish America. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 476.
- Edward Backhouse Eastwick (1868). Venezuela: Or, Sketches of Life in a South American Republic: With the History of the Loan of 1864. Chapman & Hall. p. 320.
- Sinclair 2004, p. 154.
- Paul K. Davis (1 January 2001). Besieged: An Encyclopedia of Great Sieges from Ancient Times to the Present. ABC-CLIO. p. 211. ISBN 978-1-57607-195-3.
- Sinclair 2004, p. 159
- Rafter 1820, p. 64
- Gerhard Masur (1969). Simon Bolivar. p. 194.
- Richard W. Slatta; Jane Lucas De Grummond (2003). Simon Bolivar's Quest for Glory. Texas A&M University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-60344-729-4.
- Rodriguez 2006, pp. 9, 131-133
- Great Britain. Foreign and Commonwealth Office (1837). British and foreign state papers. H.M.S.O. p. 789. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- Owsley Smith 1997, p. 125
- Owsley and Smith 1997, p. 127
- Pan American Institute of Geography and History (1986). La República de las Floridas: texts and documents. Pan American Institute of Geography and History. p. 21. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- John Quincy Adams (1916). Writings of John Quincy Adams. The Macmillan Company. p. 285. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- Florida. Committee Appointed to Frame the Plan of Provisional Government for the Republic of Florida (1942). Republic of the Floridas Constitution and Frame of Government: Drafted by a Committee Appointed by the Assembly of Representatives, and Submitted at Fernandina, December 9, 1817. Privately Printed.
- Owsley and Smith 1997, p. 128
- Miller 1819, p. 91
- "McGregor is unlikely to succeed in reducing St. Augustine". Connecticut Courant, Hartford, CT. 12 August 1817.
- Adams 1875, p. 50
- British and Foreign State Papers, 1837, p. 763
- Niles' Weekly Register. 1818. p. 304.
- State Papers 1819, p. 422
- British and Foreign State Papers, 1837, p. 769
- Adams 1875, p. 75
- Niles 1818, p. 339
- Miller 1819, p. 89
- Landers 2010, p. 132
- Davis, T. Frederick (July 1928). "MacGregor's Invasion of Florida, 1817". Florida Historical Society Quarterly 7 (1): 25.
- Coker, William S. (1991). Florida from the beginning to 1992. Houston, Texas: Pioneer Publications. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-881547-12-9.
- Owsley and Smith 1997, p. 138
- British and Foreign State Papers 1837, p. 773
- Notes and Queries: A Medium of Intercommunication for Literary Men, General Readers Etc. ... Oxford University Press. 1922. p. 190.
- James Jeffrey Roche (1901). By-ways of War: The Story of the Filibusters. Small, Maynard. p. 18. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
- Bulletin of Latin American research. 2005. p. 55. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
- E. Squier (March 2012). Notes on Central America. Applewood Books. p. 365. ISBN 978-1-4585-0032-8.
- The American Review. Wiley and Putnam. 1850. p. 201. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- Thomas Strangeways (1822). Sketch of the Mosquito Shore: Including the Territory of Poyais, Descriptive of the Country; with Some Information as to Its Productions, the Best Mode of Culture, & C. ... W. Blackwood. p. 3.
- "Bulletin of Latin American research" p. 56
- Eugenia Roldán Vera (1 January 2003). The British Book Trade and Spanish American Independence: Education and Knowledge Transmission in Transcontinental Perspective. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 105–106. ISBN 978-0-7546-3278-8.
- Sinclair 2004, p. 29
- Ian Crofton (5 July 2012). History Without the Boring Bits: A Curious Chronology of the World. Quercus Publishing. p. 1822. ISBN 978-1-78087-802-7.
- Billy Kay (2 December 2011). The Scottish World: A Journey Into the Scottish Diaspora. Mainstream Publishing. p. 162. ISBN 978-1-78057-401-1.
- Egon Larsen (1966). The Deceivers: Lives of the Great Imposters. Roy Publishers. p. 75.
- Colin Narbeth; Robin Hendy; Christopher Stocker (1979). Collecting paper money and bonds. Mayflower Books. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-8317-0940-2.
- Blackwood's Magazine. W. Blackwood. 1912. p. 100.
- Rodolfo Terragno (1 June 2011). Diario íntimo de San Martín. Random House Mondadori. p. 173. ISBN 978-950-07-3363-2.
- Literary and Historical Society of Quebec; Sir Humphry Davy (1869). The collected works of Sir Humphry Davy ...: Discourses delivered before the Royal society. Elements of agricultural chemistry, pt. I. Smith, Elder and Company. p. 37.
- Michael Tomz (9 January 2012). Reputation and International Cooperation: Sovereign Debt across Three Centuries. Princeton University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-4008-4292-6.
- Carmen M. Reinhart; Kenneth Rogoff (11 September 2009). This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly. Princeton University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-691-15264-6. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- Victor Bulmer-Thomas; John Coatsworth; Roberto Cortes-Conde (23 January 2006). The Cambridge Economic History of Latin America: Volume 2, The Long Twentieth Century. Cambridge University Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-1-139-44952-6.
- Charles Fenn (1837). A compendium of the English and foreign funds, and the principal joint stock companies. pp. 83–84.
- Hasbrouck, Alfred (November 1927). "Gregor McGregor and the Colonization of Poyais, between 1820 and 1824". The Hispanic American Historical Review (Duke University Press) 7 (4): 444. doi:10.2307/2505996.
The British Army List for 1825 shows a Thomas Strangeways as a captain in the 9th Royal Veteran Battalion, with rank in the army from April 6, 1809, but it is not certain whether or not this officer was the author of the book...
- The Bankers Magazine and Statistical Register. 1850. p. 999.
- B. Mark Smith (1 October 2004). A History of the Global Stock Market: From Ancient Rome to Silicon Valley. University of Chicago Press. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-0-226-76404-7.
- William Chambers; Robert Chambers (1887). Chambers's Journal. W. & R. Chambers. p. 678.
- Frank Griffith Dawson (1990). The First Latin American Debt Crisis: The City of London and the 1822–25 Loan Bubble. Yale University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-300-04727-1.
- The Scots Magazine ... Sands, Brymer, Murray and Cochran. 1823. p. 326.
- Douglas, James (1867). "Account of the attempt to form a settlement in 1823, on the Mosquito Shore". Transactions. New (Literary and Historical Society of Quebec) (5). Archived from the original on October 15, 2013.
- The Canadian Magazine and Literary Repository. N. Mower. 1824. p. 292.
- Historical Geography. Department of Geography, California State University, Northridge. 2005. p. 269.
- Douglas Watt (1 October 2007). Price of Scotland: Darien, Union and the Wealth of Nations. Luath Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-906307-09-7.
- Edmund Burke (1824). Annual Register. p. 138.
- Alistair Moffat (3 December 2001). The Sea Kingdoms: the Story of Celtic Britain and Ireland. HarperCollins. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-00-257216-3.
- Blackwood's Magazine. W. Blackwood. 1912. p. 103.
- Tim Newark (15 October 2009). Highlander: The History of The Legendary Highland Soldier. Constable. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-1-84901-231-7.
- Robert A. Naylor (1989). Penny Ante Imperialism: The Mosquito Shore and the Bay of Honduras, 1600–1914 : a Case Study in British Informal Empire. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press ; London. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-8386-3323-6.
- Edward Codd (1824). Proceedings of an Inquiry and Investigation, Instituted by Major General Codd, His Majesty's Superintendent and Commander-in-chief at Belize, Honduras, Relative to Poyais. Lawler and Quick. p. 121.
- Moises Enrique Rodriguez (2006). Freedom's Mercenaries: Northern South America. Hamilton Books. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-7618-3437-3.
- Ginger Strand (6 May 2008). Inventing Niagara: Beauty, Power, and Lies. Simon and Schuster. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-4165-4656-6.
- Ben Hughes (19 April 2011). Conquer or Die!: Wellington's Veterans and the Liberation of the New World. Osprey Publishing. p. 315. ISBN 978-1-84908-729-2.
- James Hastie (1823). Narrative of a Voyage in the Ship Kennersley Castle, from Leith Roads to Poyais;: With Some Account of the Proceedings of the Workmen on Their Arrival at Black River ... author.
- Michael Fry (2001). The Scottish Empire. Tuckwell. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-86232-185-4.
- David Lambert; Alan Lester (23 November 2006). Colonial Lives Across the British Empire: Imperial Careering in the Long Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 44, note 46. ISBN 978-0-521-84770-4.
- Serge Mam Lam Fouck (2001). Regards sur l'histoire de la Caraïbe: des Guyanes aux Grandes Antilles. Ibis rouge éd. p. 398. ISBN 978-2-84450-110-3.
- Bello Y Londres: Segundo Congreso Del Bicentenario. Fundación La Casa de Bello. 1980. p. 374.
- Gustavus Butler Hippisley; Gregor MacGregor (1831). Acts of Oppression: Committed Under the Administration of M. de Villéle, Prime Minister of Charles X in the Years 1825-6. In a Series of Letters. Alfred Miller.
- Rodriguez 2006, p. 250
- Narbeth Hendy 1979, p. 114
- Adrien Balbi (1833). Abrégé de géographie, rédigé sur un nouveau plan. pp. 974–.
- Kari Nars (2011). Erschwindelte Milliarden (in German). John Wiley & Sons. p. 101. ISBN 978-3-527-50616-3.
Macgregor selbst war untergetaucht.
- Françoise Albrecht (1978). Une courtisane au debut du XIXe siècle: Biographie (in French). Université de Paris VII. p. 64.
- Nancy L. Green; Francois Weil (12 March 2007). Citizenship and Those Who Leave: The Politics of Emigration and Expatriation. University of Illinois Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-252-09141-4.
- Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law. Columbia University Press. 1928. p. 156.
- Annuaire historique universel, ou, Histoire politique. A. Thoisnier-Desplaces. 1827. pp. 221 (Appendix).
- GroveMasson 1905, p. 349
- The Banker. Financial News Limited. 1982. p. 73.
- POYAIS. (1823). Loan of Two Hundred Thousand Pounds Sterling for the Service of the State and Government of Poyais Divided Into Special Bonds of £100 Each, and Secured by a General Mortgage Bond, of which the Following is a Copy. [Accompanied by a Single Sheet Lithographed, Headed: "Take Care of Your Pockets. Another Poyais Humbug," Dated July, 1827.].
- Sinclair 2004, p. 297
- Christian Brannstrom (2004). Territories, Commodities and Knowledges: Latin American Environmental History in The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Brookings Institutio. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-900039-57-4.
- Robert A. Naylor (1989). Penny Ante Imperialism: The Mosquito Shore and the Bay of Honduras, 1600-1914 : a Case Study in British Informal Empire. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press ; London. pp. 120, 262. ISBN 978-0-8386-3323-6.
- Kenneth E. Ingram (2000). Manuscript Sources for the History of the West Indies: With Special Reference to Jamaica in the National Library of Jamaica and Supplementary Sources in the West Indies, North America, and United Kingdom and Elsewhere. University of the West Indies Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-976-640-025-5.
- Francisco Morazán; William Joyce Griffith (1977). The Personal Archive of Francisco Morazán. Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University of Louisiana. p. 247.
- Sir Gregor Mac Gregor (1836). Plan of a constitution for the inhabitants of the Indian Coast, in Central America, commonly called the Mosquito Shore. Balfour and Jack.
- James Alexander Robertson (1927). The Hispanic American Historical Review. Board of Editors of the Hispanic American Review.
- William Joyce Griffith (1965). Empires in the wilderness: foreign colonization and development in Guatemala, 1834–1844. University of North Carolina Press. p. 161.
- LambertLester 2006, p. 32
- Dawson 1990, p. 221
- Adams, John Quincy. Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, comprising portions of his diary from 1795 to 1848, Volume 4, J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1875
- Arends, Tulio. Sir Gregor MacGregor: Un escosés tras la aventura de América. Caracas, Monte Ávila Editores, 1991. ISBN 980-01-0265-5 (Spanish)
- British and Foreign State Papers, Volume 5. Great Britain, Foreign and Commonwealth Office. HMSO 1837
- Brown, Matthew. Adventuring through Spanish Colonies: Simón Bolívar, Foreign Mercenaries and the Birth of New Nations. Liverpool University Press, 2006. ISBN 1-84631-044-X
- Bulletin of Latin American Research. 2005
- Chichester, Henry Manners (1893). "MacGregor, Gregor". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography 35. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Coker, William S., Florida from the beginning to 1992. Houston Texas, Pioneer Publications 1991
- Connecticut Couran. Hartford, CT. 12 August 1817. "McGregor is unlikely to succeed in reducing St. Augustine".
- Davis, T. Frederick, "MacGregor's Invasion of Florida, 1817; Together with an account of his successors Hubbard and Aury on Amelia Island, East Florida". Florida Historical Society quarterly. Volume 07 Issue 01. July 1928.
- Hasbrouck, Alfred. Foreign Legionnaires in the Liberation of Spanish South America, Columbia University Press, New York,
- Landers, Jane G., Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions. Harvard University Press, 20101928 and New York, Octagon Books, 1969.
- McMurtrie, Douglas Crawford. Republic of the Floridas: Constitution and frame of government drafted by a committee appointed by the Assembly of representatives, and submitted at Fernandina, 9 December 1817. 5 pages Private printing 1942
- Miller, John. Narrative of a Voyage to the Spanish Main, in the Ship "Two Friends", The Occupation of Amelia Island, by M'gregor, &c. London, 1819
- Niles' Weekly Register, Volume 13. Franklin Press Baltimore, Maryland, September 1817–24 January 1818
- Owsley Jr., Frank Lawrence, and Smith, Gene A. Filibusters and Expansionists: Jeffersonian Manifest Destiny, 1800–1821. Tuscaloosa, Alabama 1997
- Reinhart, Carmen M.; Rogoff, Kenneth (11 September 2009). This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly. Princeton University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-691-15264-6.
- Rodríguez, Moises Enrique. Freedom's Mercenaries: British Volunteers in the Wars of Independence of Latin America, 2 vols. Lanham, Hamilton Books, University Press of America, 2006. ISBN 978-0-7618-3438-0
- Sinclair, David. The Land that Never Was: Sir Gregor MacGregor and the Most Audacious Fraud in History. Cambridge, Da Capo Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-306-81411-2. London, Review, 2003. ISBN 978-0-7553-1079-1
- Strangeways, Thomas. Knight of the Green Cross (Pseudonym for Gregor MacGregor?). Sketch of the Mosquito Shore. Edinburgh, W. Reid, 1822.
- "Another View of Gregor MacGregor" in Amelia Now On Line, Winter 2001.
- "Gregor MacGregor" in Biografías de Venezuela, Venezuela Tuya. (Spanish)
- "The king of con-men". The Economist. 2012-12-22. Retrieved 2012-12-22.
- The Scottish Government. "Document of the Month January 2005" (£100 Poyaisian New Three Percent Consolidated Stock Certificate, No. 102).