Grevillea pteridifolia

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Grevillea pteridifolia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
Order: Proteales
Family: Proteaceae
Genus: Grevillea
Species: G. pteridifolia
Binomial name
Grevillea pteridifolia

Grevillea chrysodendron R.Br.

Grevillea pteridifolia is a species of Grevillea native to Australia.[2][3] Common names include silky grevillea, Darwin silky oak, ferny-leaved silky oak, fern-leaved grevillea, golden grevillea, golden tree and golden parrot tree.[1][2][3] It occurs in Western Australia, Northern Territory, and Queensland.[2]


Grevillea pteridifolia was first collected by Europeans from the vicinity of the Endeavour River sometime around 10 June and again from Lookout Point around 4 August 1770 by Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander, naturalists on the Endeavour during Lieutenant (later Captain) James Cook's first voyage to the Pacific Ocean.[4] However, the description of the species was not published until Joseph Knight described it in his 1809 work On the cultivation of the plants belonging to the natural order of Proteeae as Grevillia Pteridifolia (the "Pteris-leaved Grevillia"),[1][5] its species name derived from the Ancient Greek words pteris "fern" and folia "leaf".[2] The following year Robert Brown gave it the name Grevillea chrysodendron in his work Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen.[1][6] In 1870, George Bentham used Brown's name in volume 5 of his landmark publication Flora Australiensis, however it has since been reduced to synonymy with Grevillea pteridifolia as it is not the oldest published name.[1][7]


Grevillea pteridifolia generally grows as a large shrub to small tree with pinnatisect (deeply lobed) leaves that are 25 to 45 cm (10 to 17.5 in) long, and elongated bright orange inflorescences 8–22 cm (3–8.5 in) long which are terminal (at the ends of branches).[8]

Plants from Queensland are non-lignotuberous shrubs to small trees with smooth bark and lighter inflorescences than other forms. A prostrate form which spreads up to 5 m (16 ft) across is found on exposed areas near Cooktown in north Queensland. Plants from Western Australia and the Northern Territory grow as a rough-barked lignotuberous shrub to small tree. A population of this last form from Kakadu National Park has all-silvery leaves.[8]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Grevillea pteridifolia is found from the Kimberleys in northern Western Australia, across the Northern Territory and into Queensland where it is found along the Great Dividing Range to the vicinity of Barcaldine.[3] It is found in regions with wet summers, dry winters and 500 to 1,500 mm (20 to 59 in) annual rainfall.[8]

Uses and cultivation[edit]

Grevillea pteridifolia grows readily in warm climates, generally preferring extra water in summer and well-drained soils. The brittle branches can break in strong winds.[8] Several popular garden grevilleas are hybrids between Grevillea pteridifolia and other species.[3] Grevillea 'Sandra Gordon' is the result of crossing with G. sessilis.[9] Grevillea 'Honey Gem' is a cross with a red form of Grevillea banksii.[10] Similar to 'Honey Gem' is G. 'Winter Sparkles', another hybrid of G. pteridifolia and G. banksii.[11]

The leaves were used as stuffing and as a herb when cooking emu by the Aborigines on Groote Eylandt, and used by early settlers to stuff pillows.[8]

A series of compounds with antibacterial activity, called the kakadumycins, have been isolated from a streptomycete recovered from G. pteridifolia.[12]


  1. ^ a b c d e "Grevillea pteridifolia ". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 2010-01-23.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "APNI" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  2. ^ a b c d "Grevillea pteridifolia ". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Grevillea pteridifolia". Flora of Australia Online. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. 
  4. ^ *Olde, Peter; Marriott, Neil (1995). The Grevillea Book, vol 1. Sydney: Kangaroo Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-86417-325-3. 
  5. ^ Knight, Joseph; [Salisbury, Richard] (1809). On the Cultivation of the Plants Belonging to the Natural Order of Proteeae. London, United Kingdom: W. Savage. p. 121. 
  6. ^ Brown, Robert (1810). Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen. London, UK: Richard Taylor and Company. pp. 379–80. 
  7. ^ Bentham, George (1870). Flora Australiensis. Volume 5: Myoporineae to Proteaceae. London, UK: L. Reeve & Co. p. 434. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Olde, Peter; Marriott, Neil (1995). The Grevillea Book Volume 3. Australia: Kangaroo Press. pp. 114–16. ISBN 0864176112. 
  9. ^ "Grevillea 'Sandra Gordon'". List of Registered Cultivars derived from Australian native flora. Australian Cultivar Registration Authority. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  10. ^ "Grevillea 'Honey Gem'". List of Registered Cultivars derived from Australian native flora. Australian Cultivar Registration Authority. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  11. ^ "Grevillea 'Winter Sparkles'". List of Registered Cultivars derived from Australian native flora. Australian Cultivar Registration Authority. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  12. ^ Castillo, U; et al. (July 2003). "Kakadumycins, novel antibiotics from Streptomyces sp NRRL 30566, an endophyte of Grevillea pteridifolia". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 224 (2): 183–190. doi:10.1016/s0378-1097(03)00426-9. PMID 12892881.