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The Sisters of Charity of Montreal, formerly called The Sisters of Charity of the Hôpital Général of Montreal and more commonly known as the Grey Nuns of Montreal, is a Canadian religious institute of Roman Catholic religious sisters, founded in 1737 by Saint Marguerite d'Youville, a young widow.
The congregation was founded when Marguerite d'Youville and three of her friends formed a religious association to care for the poor. They rented a small house in Montreal on 30 October 1738, taking in a small number of destitute persons. On 3 June 1753 the society received royal sanction, which also transferred to them the rights and privileges previously granted by letters patent in 1694 to the Frères Hospitaliers de la Croix et de Saint-Joseph, known after their founder as the Frères Charon. At that time they also took over the work of the bankrupt Frères Charon at the Hôpital Général de Montréal located outside the city walls. (In the seventeenth century, a "general hospital" was an institution that took in old people, the ill, and the poor. Medical care was dispensed at the Hôtel Dieu.)
In 1755 the sisters cared for those stricken during a smallpox epidemic. As the sisters were not cloistered, they could go out to visit the sick. Those assisted included the First Nations people in Oka, who were among the benefactors who later helped rebuild the hospital after a fire in 1765.
After 1840, the order rapidly expanded, and over the next 100 years became a major provider of health care and other social services throughout Quebec, Western and Northern Canada, and the northern United States. In 1855, the Grey Nuns were called to Toledo, Ohio, to care for many suffering from cholera. St. Vincent's later became part of Catholic Health Partners.
St. Joseph Hospital was founded in 1906 in Nashua, by the parish of St. Louis de Gonzague primarily to serve Nashua's French Canadian community. The Sisters of Charity of Montreal began to staff it in 1907. The hospital was dedicated on 1 May 1908, the Feast of St. Joseph the Worker. The sister also started a nursing school. In 1938, the parish transferred ownership to the "Grey Nuns".
In 1983 the Sisters of Charity of Montreal established Covenant Health Systems, a non-profit Catholic regional health care system, to direct, support and conduct their health care, elder care and social service systems throughout New England. In 1996, sponsorship of St. Joseph Hospital in Nashua was transferred from the Grey Nuns to Covenant Health Systems.
Participation in the residential school system
The Sisters worked as nurses and teachers in a number of Indian Residential Schools, as the preferred missionary partners of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate,: 28 who were not allowed to teach girls.: 96 At the schools, they participated in the effort to remove children from their parents and traditional Indigenous ways of life, in order to "civilize" them.: 92
The main goal of the Oblates and the Grey Nuns was to provide a Catholic education (in competition with schools operated by Anglicans) and to give limited secular education.: 96 Though often at odds, the Canadian government and the various religious organizations operating residential schools agreed that Indigenous cultural practices had to be suppressed.: 627
Students at the schools were often subjected to horrific conditions including physical, sexual, and verbal abuse;: 101–110 insufficient or rotten food;: 85–90 frequent outbreaks of disease and insufficient medical care;: 95–96 and being forbidden to speak their native languages or engage in their cultural practices.: 4–6 This treatment has been deemed cultural genocide by the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.: 8
The Sisters worked at one of the most notorious schools, St. Anne’s Indian Residential School (located in Fort Albany, Ontario), where a homemade electric chair was reportedly used on the children for the amusement of the staff, among other severe abuses. Survivor testimony later sparked a long-running OPP investigation; two nuns were eventually convicted of assault for their actions at St Anne’s. The Sisters also worked at the school in Fort Chipewyan, where a mass grave was reported. : 14 
Other residential schools where the sisters worked include Île-à-la-Crosse Residential School,: 96 Lac la Biche (Notre Dame des Victoires) Residential School,: 95 St. Albert (Youville) Residential School,: 95 Qu'Appelle Indian Residential School,: ix St. Boniface Residential School,: 690 Assiniboia Indian Residential School, Shubenacadie Indian Residential School,: 241 Fort Providence Residential School,: 707 Blue Quills Residential School,: 90 the residence at Fort Smith,: 50 Fort Resolution Indian Residential School,: 149 and Chesterfield Inlet (Turquetil Hall) Residential School.: 439
The Sisters and the Oblates objected to the characterization of their actions during the IRSSA process, stating that they felt many students had positive experiences and that some of their members had been falsely accused.: 168
As of 2018, the Sisters had not turned over several thousand photos and records which they had promised to return to the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. As of 2021, the Catholic Church as a whole has not issued a formal apology for its role in the residential school system, although some dioceses and orders have issued their own apologies. 
The city residents mocked the nuns by calling them "les grises" – a phrase meaning both "the grey women" and "the drunken women", in reference to the color of their attire and d'Youville's late husband, François-Magdeleine You d’Youville (1700–1730), a notorious bootlegger. Marguerite d'Youville and her colleagues adopted the particular black and beige dress of their religious institute in 1755: despite a lack of grey colour, they kept the nickname. When a Grey Nun worked as a nurse in a hospital, she usually exchanged her taupe habit for a white one. They wore a bonnet instead of a veil, as that was more practical for everyday work.
The rule given to Marguerite d'Youville and her companions by the Sulpician priest, Father Louis Normant de Faradon, P.S.S, in 1745 received episcopal sanction in 1754, when Monseigneur de Pontbriant formed the society into an official religious community. This rule forms the basis of the present constitution, which was approved by Pope Leo XIII on 30 July 1880. Besides the three vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, the sisters pledge themselves to devote their lives to the service of suffering humanity.
The sisters undertook the first mission by a female religious institute to Western Canada in 1844, when a colony of Grey Nuns left their convent in Montreal and travelled to Saint Boniface, on the shore of the Red River. Several sister communities branched off from the Sisters of Charity of Montreal:
Sisters of Charity of Saint-Hyacinthe
The congregation was founded by Marie-Michel-Archange Thuot (Mother Thuot). She joined the Grey nuns in 1803. She served in the infirmary and pharmacy, and later became mistress of novices. In 1840, Thuot and three other sisters left Montreal to establish a community in the rural farming community of Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, and soon founded the Hotel-Dieu for their health care ministry. As a way to raise funds to support themselves and their ministry, they also took in female pensionnaires.
In response to increased industrialization of the area, in 1864 they founded the workhouse of Saint Geneviève to " procure work for the poor women when they are unable to find any on the outside." The workhouse produced woollen fabric and soap, and provided employment for ten women, fifteen girls, one man, and three boys. They became a separate pontifical congregation in 1896.
In 1888 the sisters founded the first hospital in Lewiston, Maine, called variously "the Sisters' Hospital", "the French Hospital", or "the Catholic Hospital". In 1902 the Sisters moved to a larger building that came to be called L'Hopital Generale Ste. Marie - St. Mary's General Hospital. St. Mary's developed into Saint Mary's Regional Medical Center.
Grey Nuns of the Sacred Heart
The only American congregation of Grey Nuns, the Grey Nuns of the Sacred Heart branched off from the Ottawa congregation in 1921, to establish an independent English-speaking congregation to minister in the United States. They founded D'Youville College in Buffalo, New York. In 1966, the mother house moved to Yardley, Pennsylvania. The sisters serve in a variety of ministries in the East Coast states New York, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts as well as in Georgia and Alaska.
- the Sisters of Charity of the Hôtel-Dieu of Nicolet (1886), branched off from Saint-Hyacinthe, united with Montreal (1941)
- the Sisters of Charity of Ottawa (1845) formerly the Grey Nuns of the Cross
- the Grey Sisters of the Immaculate Conception (1926), branched off from Ottawa
- the Sisters of Charity of Quebec (1849)
The 21st century
As of 2008 the various Grey Nun branches operate in Canada, the United States, Colombia, Brazil, Japan, Haiti, Central African Republic, South Africa, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay, Bahamas, and the Dominican Republic.
They once operated a number of major hospitals in Canada; as provincial governments and church, authorities moved to standardize both ownership and operation of hospitals, many of these hospitals passed into the hands of Church corporations (or, in some cases, governmental organizations) and the Grey Nuns changed focus. The Grey Nuns' Hospital building built in 1765 in Montreal was designated a national Historic Site of Canada in 1973 to commemorate the Grey Nuns. In 2011, Grey Nuns Motherhouse, the former motherhouse of the Grey Nuns in Montreal, now part of Concordia University, was also designated a National Historic Site.
They now operate shelters for battered women (with and without children), shelters for women in need, clothing and food dispensaries, centres for the disabled, and some health care facilities. St. Boniface General Hospital in Winnipeg is still owned by the Grey Nuns; hospitals previously owned, operated, or enlarged by the institute include the former Holy Cross Hospital in Calgary, St. Paul's Hospital in Saskatoon, and the Grey Nuns Community Hospital in Edmonton. Many of these health care institutions were founded by missionary nuns sent out from convents in Quebec and Ontario.
Grey Nuns may work with the incarcerated. Some chapters are also dedicated to peace and justice; at least one chapter, the Grey Nuns of the Sacred Heart, has declared its properties a nuclear-free zone.
Classification as religious sisters
Although the institute's informal name contains the word "nuns", members are actually classified by the Roman Catholic Church as religious sisters, as they are not cloistered and belong to a congregation, not an order. They no longer wear their distinctive habit and now wear street clothes.
In 1993 it was estimated that there were just under 3,000 Grey Nuns in Canada, mainly in Quebec and Ontario. By 2013 they will vacate their Mother House in downtown Montreal, after having sold the property to Concordia University in 2005. As of 2014 there were about 136 nuns in the Montreal congregation, whose average age was around 85. The Quebec congregation has not recruited any new members since before 2000. Sister Bernadette said the nuns' legacy will live on in other ways.
- Marie–Marguerite d'Youville at the Vatican Liturgy of Saints Project Archived 27 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
- "History", The Grey Nuns of Montreal"
- Green, Rupert Everett. "Dwindling Grey Nuns leave downtown Montreal convent after more than a century", The Globe and Mail, 14 January 2014
- "160 years after its founding, Mercy St. Vincent Medical Center is still mission-focused", Healthy Living News, November 2020
- "10 Things to Know About St. Joseph Hospital", Becker's Hospital Review
- "History, Mission and Core Values", St. Joseph Hospital
- "Covenant Health".
- "Canada's Residential Schools: The History, Part 1 Origins to 1939: Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada Volume 1" (PDF). National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
- "Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future: Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada" (PDF). National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- Barrera, Jorge (29 March 2018). "The horrors of St. Anne's". CBC News. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
- "Canada's Residential Schools: The Inuit and Northern Experience: Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada Volume 2" (PDF). National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- McDermott, Vincent (31 May 2021). "Local First Nation, Métis leaders call for investigation of residential school sites". Fort McMurray Today. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- "Assiniboia Residential School Display Opens at Millennium Library". Manitoba Today. The Canadian Press. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- "Canada's Residential Schools: The History, Part 1 1939 to 2000: Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada Volume 1" (PDF). National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- "The Survivors Speak: A Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada" (PDF). National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- "Canada's Residential Schools: Reconciliation: Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada Volume 6" (PDF). National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- Barrera, Jorge (1 June 2018). "Some Catholic orders still withholding promised residential school records". CBC News. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
- Dangerfield, Katie (1 June 2021). "'Disgrace': Indigenous leaders blast Catholic Church for silence on residential schools". Global News. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
- "Our 'Colorful' Name", Grey Nuns of the Sacred Heart
- Hudson, Susan. The Quiet Revolutionaries: How the Grey Nuns Changed the Social Welfare Paradigm of Lewiston, Maine, Routledge, 2013 ISBN 9781135519599
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- Gagnon, Claude-Marie. The Yellow House, Fides Publishers, 1990, p. 67-68
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- "Our History", St. Mary's Health System
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- University of Calgary Library Special Collection article on Holy Cross School of Nursing. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
- Saskatoon Health Region article on St. Paul's Hospital. Retrieved 26 August 2008. Archived 2 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Alberta Heritage article on Grey Nuns. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
- Grey Nuns of the Sacred Heart mission. Retrieved 26 August 2008. Archived 9 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Peretz, Ingrid (24 December 2008). "Montreal nuns moving – with saint's remains". The Globe and Mail. Canada. Retrieved 24 December 2008.
- CBC: Grey Nuns leave motherhouse for Concordia University takeover
- The Grey Nuns and the Red River Settlement by Dennis King. Toronto: Book Society of Canada, 1980. ISBN 978-0-7725-5294-5
- Mother d'Youville, First Canadian Foundress by Albertine-Ferland Angers. Montreal: Sisters of Charity of Montreal, Grey Nuns, 2000. ISBN 2-920965-05-0
- Grey Nuns of Montreal Home Page
- Sisters of Charity of Saint-Hyacinthe Home Page
- Sisters of Charity of Ottawa Home Page
- Sisters of Charity of Quebec Home Page
- Grey Nuns of the Sacred Heart Home Page
- Grey Sisters of the Immaculate Conception Home Page
- Manitoba Historical Society – The Grey Nuns and the Red River Settlement
- Ward, Sister Mary Elizabeth. "Grey Nuns." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910